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fHOPERTY Of 



JtfcTlt «C|KIITIA VBElTAt 




HISTORY OP BEHAR 
INDIGO FACTORIES 

REMINISCENCES OF 
BEHAR 

TIRHOOT AND ITS 
INHABITANTS OF 

— THE PAST — 

HISTORY OF BEHAR 
LIGHT HORSE 

- VOLUNTEERS - 



toy 



MINr)EN WILSON. 



CALCUTTA : 
tHE CALCUTTA GENERAL PRINTING COMPANY, 

1908* 






I 



{:i»7^r- yr/ 



PREFACE, 



In writing this History of Indigo Factories in Tirhoot, 
Champaxun and Sarun I have, I fear, set myself a difficult 
task. Under any circumstance it must be an imperfect one 
as to dates on which some factories were started and by whom. 
During the troublous times of 18&7 many indigo concerns 
sent their title deeds for saife custody to Calcutta and a num- 
ber of these are not now to be found. I am indebted to the 
courtesy of Mr. Levinge, our Collector, for the perusal of 
a lot of old records referring to indigo of the past. With 
these before me I hope I shall now be able to make this paper 
as interesting as such a record can be made. I propose giv- 
ing names of proprietors and managers as far as I can go 
back, also the names of those buried at the different con- 
cerns where slabs still exist and any traditional history of 
those where tablets have been removed or were never put 
up in memoria/m and any other interesting incidents con- 
nected thejrewith. Ancient IndiaiU History (see Old Cal- 
cutta) tells us that Mr. Grand, whose widow afterwards 
married the famous Talleyrand, was the first European to 
introduce indigo in Tirhoot, while Claude Martin encouraged 
its growth in the North-West later on. 

The records, which I have been allowed to take notes from, 
show that Mr. Grand was with Warren Hastings at Benares 
at the time of the tumult there when they escaped to Chunar. 

This must have been a very hurried exit as the Nautch 
girls to this day, sing " Ghora per Howdah, Hatti per Zin, 
Baghey Chunar ko Warren EaHin,*' which might be 
rendered : " fiafe o^ elephants saddle and howdah^ on Jiorseii 



Iv PREFACE. 

and let us skidaddle along with our forces cries Warren 
Hastings." 

In 1782 Mr. Grand was sent to Tirhoot as Collector of 
Revenue, etc., etc., where he built three indigo factories — ^ 

unfortunately he does not give their names. In these fac- ^ 

tories, he writes^, he is conducting the manufacture of indigo i 

after the manner of Europeans and he was evidently doing 
well and making money. 

In 1787 we find Lord Cornwallis (who arrived in Calcutta 
in 1786), sent for Mr. Grand to Calcutta and according to 
that gentleman '' praised him for his work and ability.'' But 
to Mr. Grand's surprise on the 29th August 1787, Mr. 
Bathurst was appointed Collector of Tirhoot and Mr. Grand 
ordered to go as Judge of Patna in 1788. He was shortly 
afterwards ordered to give up or dispose of his indigo fac- 
tories in Tirhoot. He remonstrated against this ** and finally \ 
proving contumacious and charges as to his conduct as a ^ 
Judge at Patna having been laid he was removed from the i 
service." 

I find that in 17 — (unfortunately the two last figures 
are torn away, but it must be about 1793) there is a memo, 
to the following effect-^Names of gentlemen not in the Com- 
pany's swvice noted as being in the district. Thus: — Dooria 
Factory, John Finch. 

Year of arvhral in the country ... ... 1778 

Attur Factory, James Gentil ... ... 1773 

Dlx^i and Dowdpore Factory, William Orby 

Hunter ... ... ... ... 1786 

Kaati Factory, Aleotander Noel ... ... 1783 ^ 

abkgiA Factory, Thomas Park, a trader ... 1783 I 

Sliabpoye Factory, Richardson Purvis ... 1783 

There is a letter addressed to James Oenti), Indigo 
filter, Attur Factwy, from J. N^ave, Judge of Thteot, 



PBEFACE. V 

dated 4th August 1793, telling liim he must prosecute one 
Chain Chowdry in the Dewani Adawlut. But that previous 
to his filing his suit orders him to sign a penalty bond as 
prescribed by the 38th article of Revenue Regulation. He 
also requests him for the future to appear by Vakeel and 
not to address him personally on any subject when he is a 
party concerned " as your opponent may justly complain of 
my receiving extra judicial information when he has no 
opportunity of doing the same." 

One Ounga Chowdry and some ryots of Kunouli peti- 
tioned against Mr. Hunter, proprietor of Doudpore Factory, 
for hoeing up land and oppression Ifor the ciiltivation of 
indigo. There is a remark that Mr. Hunter seems to be a 
very troublesome man. The Judge wrote him referring him 
to a certain section which he could see daily from 9 a.m. to 
4 P.M., Sunday excepted, at the Judge's Court and Mr. 
Hunter after some days, replies, asking, " In what Boom ! ! ? '' 
In 1774, a Frenchman named Double or Double, most likely 
Dombal, who was at Serryiah Factory, is asked if he has the 
sanction of the Govemor-CJeneral to reside in Tirhoot : failing 
this he is ordered to at once go to Calcutta, giving due notice 
of date of departure when an officer of the Court will accom- 
pany him and place him in the hands of the Military Secre- 
tary. This is dated 2nd November 1793 and is from Mr. 
Neave, Judge of Tiiiioot. 

On the 17th February 1793 Mr. Neave writes to James 
Arnold of Dholi Factory, acknowledging his letter enclosing 
license to live in the country. He says: — ^Whenever the 
Brahmin you have beaten shall complain to the Criminal 
Court you will hear from me officially on the subject. In 
the meantime I caution you in the moat serious manner against 
all ill usage of natives. There is also a letter to one Thomas 
Parke, a trader at Sii^a, to quit tKe diatriet within a 
monl/h and repair to Cal<mtti^. 



vi PREFACE 

This punishment was for contempt of court. The Ex- 
tradition Act under which the above orders were made was 
passed in 1784. All Srilish subjects had to reside within 
10 miles of some of the principal settlements unless they held 
a special license from the Grovernor-General, the East India 
Company or President and no one could reside beyond the 
time specified in the license. 

The following is the extract from Allen's Indian Mail^ 
Bengal, the Indigo Planter, Vol. XVI., No. 358, 2nd August 
1858, p. 643. The first English planter in Bengal was one 
Mr. Robert Heaven who, in 1787, was permitted to proceed 
to Bengal to cultivate indigo if or five years. Shortly after 
this the East India Company commenced to invest in the 
article, but finding the trade the reverse of profitable soon 
desisted. Private enterprise, however, continued to flourish. 
In 1802-03 Bengal had no rival in the trade throughout the 
world except Java. The produce then did not exceed 60,000 
maunds. It has since that time refxjhed 172,000 maunds. 
The production and manufacture of the article is a very 
precarious and delicate business like every other branch of 
enterprise in this country, it has to encounter native cunning 
and roguery at the very outset. The country dealers in the 
seed rubbed old seed with oil, to make it look like new, also 
mixed the seed with a peculiar kind of earth, which is im- 
possible to be distinguished from it. The best soil for the 
plant is a mixed loam, the strong black loam being more 
nutritious, but less sure. Then the writer dilates on the 
difficulty of beating, the risks from rain, caterpillars, etc. 
The risk is so great that it is becoming usual to divide it 
with some other business. The largest indigo proprietors in 
Bengal possess extensive silk filatures. There are concerns 
all over the country which, for the last ten years, have 
season aif ter season, been cultivated at a loss ; capitalists 
bf^ve beep rained ; and men wl^o, ten years a|fo, wer? worth 



f REMCE. vii 

three or four lakhs, are not now possessed of a rupee, etc. 
We heard by last mail from a gentleman who having started 
without a farthing in the indigo business has returned to 
England with £50,000, etc., etc. 

For a long time the British settler was not allowed 
to possess in his own right, even the land on which he 
erected his house. 

He was liable to be deported at any moment upon the 
caprice of some Civil Servant of the Company who might 
treat him with insolence and misrepresent his conduct. The 
recent case of Mr. Chapman, C.S., in his relation with Mr. 
Deverill, the indigo planter, is one which shows that the 
animus or, as the Times justly terms it, the traditional policy 
towards the British settler, has not yet died away, etc., etc. 
Wherever the planters settled down, he was certain to be 
surrounded by a number of hostile zemindars, who just as 
much as the Company regarded him as an interloper, and 
an interferer with what they considered to be their feudal 
rights, etc., etc. Hence it was that the forces of the British 
settler and the zemindar were often seen drawn up in the 
face of the day and hence the establishment of latyals or 
bands of men armed with clubs, etc., etc. There is undoubt* 
cdly a good deal of roughness still prevailing, and it is this 
that induces the missionaries, without the least recognition 
of peculiar circumstances, and with the exaggeration char- 
acteristic of unrestrained zeal, to involve in one sweeping 
sentence of condemnation zemindars and planters as oppres- 
sors oif the ryots. We may observe that this fierce antagonism 
of the missionaries to white employers of black labourers is 
liot peculiar to India. Many of us can recollect the furious 
invective and monstrous exaggeration with which this class 
attacked the unfortunate West India proprietors; and lio 
one who has redd the life of the late wise and admirable 
Metcalfe, but will recall the frantic opposition with which 



i,, 
viu 



PREFACE. 



he waa encountered by the Jamaica missionaries, years after 
the alavea had been emancipated; an opposition originating 
in a desire possessing those gentlemen, analogous to what 
prevails among the same fraternity in India, to have the 
ncigroes submitted entirely and uncontroUedly to their in- 
fluence and authority. — From the Madras Athenotum. 

I will now start the history of the different indigo fao- 
boriea in Tirhoot, taking them in alphabetical succession. 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 



This factory is one of recent date. It was built in 1886-87 

AsnM *® * defence against interloping. The village 

H. & S. was actually in the Dholi dehat, and as one 

Teg Ali, a native who had been interloping in 

different parts of the district, was trying to get this village, 

pir. W. S. Mackenzie farmed the village with the intention 

of building a factory. This was carried out by Mr. C. H. 

Macpherson. On the sale of Jeetwarpore Concern Agrail 

was bought by Messrs. Hudson, Lamb, and others. It 

stands to the south-east of the District? Agrail Factory, 

SLs a matter of fact, stands in the village of Bela Sudun and 

not Agrail. 

This factory also is one of recent date; it was built by 

Mr. C. V. Argles in partnership with Mr. 

L. Prestwick (who was then a partner in Messrs. 

^' ^' K. Thomas and Co.'s firm) in about 1861-62. 

It was eventually sold and passed through one or two hands, 

and now belongs to A. W. and C. B. Inglis. It is situated 

to the south-east of Durbhunga. 

The mokarrarie pottah of this factory is dated 1834 
and stands in the name of Mr. Henderson, who 
^^ was then manager of Hatte-Oustee Factory 

^* w^w^^^^' • who manufactured indigo there during one 
season only. Mr. John Gale, of Pundoul, dis- 
puted (under the then Bye-laws) Mr. Henderson's right to 
build. As he claimed Benepore to be within his dehat the 
Pundoul Factory was eventually made over to Pundoul and 



2 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

became an outwork to that concern in 1844, and as far as 
can be made out from much defaced documents Mr. Roberts 
or Robertson became manager. The names of managers . or 
sub-managers, for they were under Pundoul are, later on. 
Lamb, Maclvor, Wingrove, C. Gale, A. Wyatt, M. N. Mac- 
Leod, and others. Pundoul and consequently Benepore be- 
came the property of G. N. Wyatt, who sold Benepore to 
P. Jones and others in 1890. 

The only outwork, Hursingpore, was built when M. H. 
Oale managed Pundoul. One Nubbee Meah disputed the 
right to build and there was every chance of a serious row. 
So the Collector of Durbhunga went out specially to inter- 
vene. He unfortunately had a long beard and so had M. 
Oale, and the unfortunate Nubbee, taking the Collector for 
the planter, proceeded to assaiilt him and badly wounded 
him. So it ended in the Meah eventually getting the worst 
of it, and where once lived the happy Nubbee family now 
stands the Hursingpore bungalow and Nubbee Meah repents 
taking the law into his own hands. 

The only grave at Benepore is that of Charles C. Smith, 
who died in 1897. 

Bhicanpore was built in 1818. The mokarrarie lease 

bears date 1225 Fasli. The lease was given by 

Bhicanpore ° '' 

D. B. one Syud Meer Mahomed and stands in the 

village of Bhicanpore, Syud Salem. 

The sanction to build this factory was given by the East 
India Company as per a letter, dated 19th March 1819, from 
the Board of Commissioners addressed to Mr. Cahil, in which 
they authorize him " to hold fifty bigahs of land required 
for the purpose stated in his letter." The letter is signed 
by L. Dunsmuir, Officiating Collector of Tirhoot. Bhican- 
pore was then an outwork of Contai or Khanti and belonged 
to Noel or No well and Company. It has outwork, Bochaha. 






HISTOBY OF BEHAR. ^ S 

H. E. Hudson and Mrs. J. Begg— built in about 1872 by 
D. Begg — and Sahajpore in 1860 by T. Baiclay. Bbicanpoie 
now belongs to H. Hudson and G. Bichardson. 

This factory was built by an interloper. Dr. Charles 

Mackinnon wrote me some years ago to th9 
G. McK. effect that a Mr. Meade, a shopkeeper in 

Mozufferpore, got a piece of land from one of 
the Patna Mirabdola family and started building. This he 
opposed and eventually he bought Mr. Meade out- I have 
no date as to when the factory was built. When purchased 
by Dr. C. Mackinnon it became an outwork of Shahpore 
Mircha Concern, and after passing through several hands 
eventually became the property of Mr. Budstone Brown. 
He in 1892 built an outwork he called Budstonegunge and 
also purchased Miachuppra. He also acquired Bamdaspore 
which was built in 1882. The machinery at this outwork 
was put up by Sir Salter Pyne, who afterwards became 
Engineer to the Amir of Cabul. In about 1858 Mahomed 
Baker Khan, one of the Mirabdola family, built an opposir 
tion factory in Inaitnuggur village. This factory worked 
for some years and Mahomed Baker having bought Batowlia 
sold the two places to Mr. B. C. Brown, Inaitnuggur as 
a factory has been abandoned. 

The mokarrarie document of this factory is dated 1794 

and was given by Bajah Mustaffa Khan. It 
Factory has outworks, Bagwanpore which was built 

some 60 — 70 years ago, mokarrarie pottah dated 
1846 : Belai, which was built in 1861 by C. Swaine, mokarrarie 
pottah dated 1856 ; Sukereah and Boijnathpore built in 1846 
by David Brown mokarrarie pottahs dated 1846. These two 
iire now abandoned also Luchmepore, and interloping factory 
built by B. Hickey in 1871. The furthest back I can get as to 
name of manager is one Mr. Paul, but there is no date. 
He and all his family, tradition says, were poisoned and 



4 , HISTORY OP BEHAR. 

lune buijed itnder a pueca slab on which there is no name or 

date. He waa followed as manager by Mr. R. Robertsoik. 

Then by G. N. Wyatt and after him David Brown, theM' 

P. Macfarlane, who is buried at Mozufferpore (he was thr 

elder brother of the late Sir Donald H. Macfarlane, M.P.). \ 

After him came C. Swaine, who died at Cawnpore in 1861 

and he was succeeded by T. Lethbridge, then R. Lethbridge, 

The concern was sold to Mr. J. P. Mackenzie in 1873-74 and 

managed by his brother, W. S. Mackenzie, followed by H. 

Manners, A. S. Tweedie, who died of cholera in Mozuffer-^ 

pore and is buried there. Then W. Mackenzie, followed by 

C. C Smith, who died and is buried at Benepore. In about 

1884 Belsund was sold and A. H. Rennie managed. He 

died at sea and is buried at Suez. After him came Carruthers 

in 1887, L. Crowdy in 1888, and H. E. Crowdy and then 

in 1899 G. R. Macdonald. D. J. Reid took over charge in' 

1903 and now manages. 

This factory, though looked upon as in Tirhoot, is like* 
Bhagwanpore Munjoul, actually in Monghyr. It was built 
M. M. Coc in 1818. The mokarrarie lease, which is dated 
in that year, was given to John Christian of Bogchappra, 
a factory below Monghyr station or town where many years' 
ago one Yankee Pratt, a fine big American, managed; he 
left three sons, all powerful and active men, namely, Charles, 
who died at Doomra, George, at Beerpore, and William, in 
Chumparun. John CHiristilan built Bagwanpo^e, and old 
records show that a lease of some villages was given to Beebee 
Warren, or Warram, so probably her husband was before 
Christian. In 1822 John Christian sold the factory to P. 
Crump, and Crump and his wife lived at Bagwanpore for 
many years. He leased it in May, 1836, to W. Sloan, most 
likely Captain Sloane, of Dholi, but as Crump was back in 
November it is more than likely Crump never lerft the man- 
agement. Before Crump acquired Bagwanpore he must have" 



\ 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 5 

l}een an assistant on one of the neighbouring factories. As 
there is a letter from Mr. R. Morgan, of Dulsing Serai, 
•dated October, 1822, addressed to him giving him advice 
:and telling him he would come over and see him and intro- 
duce him to all old friends who formerly cultivated for him, 
so Morgan must have been at Bagwanpore between 18 18 
.and 1822. He mentions John Brown as having been at 
Doulutpore. Messrs. Alexander and Company were Cramp'« 
.agents though later on he did business with Bagshaw and 
Company. In 1845 Crump sold the factory to James 
Alexander Hoskins. Hoskins must have bought with the; 
intention of making a sugar factory of the place. A cash 
book of 1845 shows that in that year sugar machinery was 
purchased and erected Potter and Company were the Calcutta 
agents then, though he got his outlay from H. R. Hoskins,, 
of Liverpool, who was probably his father-. The books show 
.some sugar sold at Rs. 4 per maund, which shows that the 
sugar must have been very poor stuff. In those days they 
hoped to make sugar at As. 8 per maund and sell it at 
Rs. 8. Hoskins remained at Bagwanpore some four or five 
jrears, but as by that time sugar was a failure he left. In 
1851 the factory belonged to Augustus Radecliffe for whom 
James Saunders managed. He sold in 1853 to Tom Martin 
jor Rs. 12,000, Kenneth MacLeod being a partner, hence the 
.mark M. M. and Company. In 1856 E. T. Harrington 
bought the place and it has been his since then. The man- 
:a^ers since 1856 were: 1857 to 1861 Archibald Inglis, 1862 
to 1863 L. Cooke> 1864 Tom Slade, 1865 J. C. Muir, 1865 
Hooley, 1867 to 1871 Lawrence Crowdy, 1872 to 1882 W. S. 
Crowdy, 1882 to 1888 C. H. Crowdy and since then L. T. 
Harrington. Suroojporah, an outwork, was built by Crump 
about 1830 to 1835; it was in existence in 1837 as there 
was a pottah to Beebee Crump in that year. Agapore iwas 
l)uilt in 1856. There are no graves at Bagwanpore Factory. 



ft WLBOXmY OP BBHAR. 

The mokarrarie of tliis concern dates back to 1822. 
Chitwarrah '^^ factory belonged to R. Leverett in 183L 

0. In 1838 W. H. Smotilt sold to D. Hunter and 

H. Grouger and tbeir trustees. In 1837 a deed 
o^ partnership was made between W. Smoult and Charles 
Mackinnon. This factory was eventually purchased by the 
Tirhoot Indigo Association of London and they again sold 
tb^ the Tirhoot Indigo Company and they to G. D. Blake 
and others. One of the outworks, Shahpore, was taken over 
liy Mr. J. V. Webb, a few years ago, Mr. Henry Gouger men- 
tioned above was a brother of Alfred Gouger, who lived over 
Itis office in Tank Square in 1847. He (H. G.) if I mistake 
not was the man whom the Burmese locked up in a cage 
and who, after going through great hardships, managed t(y 
escape. 

There are buried at Chitwarrah Ed. Eph. Fote, born' 
9th February, died 15th August 1312, and Robert Leverett, 
died 2()th May 1832, aged 44. Chitwarrah was managecf 
from Shahpore Mircha in 1847. John Anderson was Sub- 
manager then. After him C. Strachan, then C. V. Argles. 
Then J. C. Muir became independent manager. It is now 
managed by George Blake. 

Mr. J. V. Webb has turned Shahpore Factory into a 
Tiurm where he raises all kinds of produce. His Dairy and 
other farm produce, are well known and appreciated and 
anyone wanting to go in for Bhea or general produce could 
not do better than acquire this compact little place which I 
Hear is for sale. It is close to the Tal Barcila, a grand place- 
for wild duck shooting; 

This concern was built in 1778 by Alexander Ncel or 

Nowell, afterwards Noel and Co. From 1816^ 

Khantr *o 1825 Contai was the head factory under 

^- ®' which the following concerns worked : — Belsund, 

MvUparCy Amoah, Tttitreah, Bhieanpore, Peeprofi 




p 
o 



o 



HISTORY OF BEff AR. 7 

Und^ Seeraha in Chumpamn. All accounts during the above 
years were kept at Cbntai. The proprietors were, in 1825, 
Mirasrs. Neel or Nowell, Wood and Cahill. In 1832 Contai 
was leased to Alexander Fletcher for one year. In 1834 
Messrs. Noel, Wood and Cahill sold to Messrs. Fletcher, 
Jsimes Alexander, and Charles Kerr. In January 1852 the 
above ifhree sold to Messrs. Cullen, Henry Lumsden and 
Thomas Muir, and in May, same year, they sold to Dr. D. 

In 1866, Contai and Motipore were sold to K. MacLeod 

and Charles M. MacDonald. In 1872, C. M. MacDonald sold 

his share to Nieil MacDonald and Thomas Martin, and K. 

MacLeod his share to James Cox. In same year James Cox 

sold 2 annas to George Toomey and in 1881 T. Martin also 

sold 2 annas to George Toomey. In 1883 N. MacDonald's 

executors sold 4 annas to George Toomey and in the same 

year T. Martin and James Cox sold their remaining shares 

to Thomas Gibbon and George Toomey. In 1894 Thomas. 

Gibbon sold his 4 annas to Mrs. Flora Toomey. I find in 

1620 R. Cahil mentioned, and when the factory was built 

by Alexander Nowell. From 1776 to 1826 the names of 

Nowell and Cahill only appear as managers. From 1826* 

to 1832 D. Brown managed Contai, from then George Taylor,. 

fdllOwed by D. E. Crawford in 1842 to 1852, then Charles. 

8t7aine and others. In 1869 to 1874 George Toomey became 

manager, followed by R. C. Brown in 1874-75, when Toomey 

again came in up to 1880. After him W. A. Cox to 1883, 

the A. MacRae, F. A. Shaw, H. E. Cox and again A. MacRae 

in 1893: The present manager, George R. Toomey, Junior, 

has been managing since 1894. The old Contai bungalow dtood 

where the present chota bungalow stands and was ildi tlie 

fine house the present bungalow is, which must have been 

built by Cahill or George Taylor. The Contai outwdrks 

aire Ragai, which was built about the same time as the head 



a. HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

factory. Lowton was built 1884 and Narrlar in 1887. Tha 
managers and proprietors of Contai have always been famed 
for their hospitality, and as the factory is only some 8 miles 
fiom Mozufferpore, it was a great rendezvous for picnics. 
George Taylor kept a four-in-hand coach and an English 
coachman who used to drive his guests out from Mozuffer- 
pore to a fine old banyan tree which stood a few miles beyond 
at Panapore. This tree was supposed to cover seven acres 
of ground, and it was here where picnic parties had their 
fun. George Taylor, report says, had a musical box in every 
bed-room, so that his guests might be soothed to sleep by 
dulcet melody. Gone are those days. " Where are those 
dreamers now." 

There is rather a good story told about Mr. Cahill. He 
was staying at Contai with his manager, Mr. D. R. Craw- 
ford, and there was some trouble that necessitated a little 
douceur, D. R. Crawford suggested this to Mr. Cahill and 
named rather a tall sum as likely to be required. " Oh, no 
no," Mr. Cahill replied, " that is a thing I could never agree 
to." So they parted and went to bed. In the morning 
Cahill came up to D. R. Crawford and said, " About that 
matter . we were talking about last night, don't you think 
the man would take less ? " 

The mokarrarie pottah for this factory is dated 1834. 

The name of the gentleman in whose name it 
W. McG. is given is obliterated, but the first letters looks 

like David, most likely David Brodie. In an 
old Persian document the name of Macrade or Mackay is 
given as being at Doomra in 1811 ; the signature is in English, 
but illegible. The outworks are Punchore and Butnaha. 
There is no trace as to who built Punchore. Butnaha was 
built by John Mitchell on his own account and was after- 
wards acquired by Doomra Concern. It is now again a 
separate factory and belongs to Mr. Moore. In 1844^ or 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. S^; 

before a sugar factory was built at Doomra and a vacuum 
pan put up which made very good sugar, sugar and indigo 
were worked side by side. The Doomra concern formed one 
of many owned by the Tirhoot Indigo Association of London. 
I can find no records of who managed there before W. C. 
Baddeley in 1846-47, but have heard the names of David- 
Brodie and John Mitchell mentioned. In fact there is a 
good story about Jack Mitchell, who must have had an 
interest in the factory and put down Rs. 10,000 of his own 
money towards outlay. The total outlay spent was a lakh 
for which he made enough indigo to fill a 500 cigar box. 
iSome one remarked " What will the Agents say about the 
lakh ? " When Jack retorted " Damn the lakh, it's my ten 
thousand I am thinking of." There used to be two very 
amusing old cash books signed by one ' De Josey. These 
hooks were very interesting from the free and easy entries 
contained, there was no cloaking anything, a spade was, 
-called a spade. These books were dated about 1815. Many 
wished to get these volumes as curiosities and they were kept 
under lock and key, but, alas ! one fine day they disappeared 
and have never, been seen since. To the North- West of 
Doomra stands Dynechuppra, a shut up factory and North 
of this Holoquarry, where many years ago troops were 
•quartered. The old parade ground and sentry boxes, and 
:8cme of the bungalows still exist. Here there is a grave- 
yard and some of the tomb stones that exist bear the follow- 
ing inscriptions: — 

Sacred to the memory of Captain John Francis Blackney, 
of the 2nd Battalion, 22nd Regiment, N. I. Killed in an 
action with the Nepaulese on the 1st of January 1815. 
Aged 31 years. " j 

This monument is erected by his affectionate brother. 

Sacred to the memory of Lieutenant John Feryer Goad, 
Jnterpreter and Quartermaster to the* 2nd Battalion, 25th 



1» HISTORY OF BBHAR. 

Begknenty N. I. An excellent officer. An amiable- and! 
upnglit man who died at this place after a ^ort illnesB on. 
tbe Q^h of November 1816, much beloved and lamented. 
Leaving a disconsolate widow and infant family to mourn 
the premature and dreadful privation one of the best of 
huBbands and fathers. A few sorrowing friends have erected 
tids monument. 

In afiTectionate remembrance. Age 29. 

Here lies the body, of Major C. P. Hay, who died on- 
27th day of July 1820. Aged 38 years. 

He raised and commanded the Chumparun Light 
Infantry, was an excellent officer, a good and upright man 
mid deservedly regretted by all who knew him. He has left 
a disconsolate widow and infant child to mourn his irrepar- 
able loss. This monument is erected as a small tribute of 
tender regard for the revered memory of the best of husbands- 
by his affectionate wife. 

To the memory of Lieutenant-Colonel Edward Kelly, 
of H. M. Service, who died on the 6th of August A. D. 
1828 in the 54th year of his age. 

This gallant officer served His Majesty with distinction' 
in Flanders, Spain, and at Waterloo, where he waa severely 
imunded. He was present at the capture of the Fcurtsess of 
Bhurtpore,^ and subsequently served in Ava, wheiie he con:- 
tcacted the disease which proved fatal to him.. 

As a last mark of regard and esteem the Bigfai) Honouxable 
the Viscount Combermere, G. C. B., Commaoder-inrChief 
(408 whose personal staff Lieutenant-Colonel E. Kelly eame 
ta Imdia^ and hia brother officers on the staff hAve erected 
this monument. 

Sacred to the memory of Charles Stewart Grant, M. L., 
Jkssistant Surgeon, 63rd Regiment, N. I., who departed thiS' 
Kte on the 14th October 1833. Aged 37 years. 



HISTOBY OF BEHAT.. 11 

Tbn monument is erected as a mark of respect l)y his- 
brother officers. 

Thttre wese many other graves, but before Government 
tlimight proper to step in and see to their being kept in : 
repair, the villagers had gone off with many a slab to the* 
memory of gallant men and used them to grind down curry 
powder, eto. 

At Doomra Factory there are buried Robert Woodruff 
Stalkratt, who died March 1847, aged 29, and Charles Robert 
Fralt, who died 10th August 1851, aged 31. There are 
also the remains of two Dutch graves in a bamboo tope,- 
but no inscription. Mr. M.J. Wilson had charge of Doomra 
and Poopree in 1853-54 as well as Kurnoul, but in 1854 
gave up Kurnoul and came to Poopree still managing 
Doomra, and at end of 1654 came to Doomra which he 
managed, till end of 1855 and to 1856, he managed from 
Shahpore Mircha Factory. Doomra Factory is situated to* 
the north of the district, to the south of the Seta Marhi 
subdivision. After passing through many hands it now 
belongs to Mr. J. A. M. Wilson. 

This factory was built in 1798 or before the mokarrarie 
pottah is dated 1st May 1798 and given to Mr. 

D. B. Powell. Arrigepore, the outwork, was built in 

1829. The mokarraries stand in the names of 
Noel' and Company. Mousari, another outwork, was built 
in 1822. Chajun in 1864. The mokarrarie pottah of which 
is in the name of F. Collingridge, who built it. This concern 
was first a part of Contai. I cannot find out who were the 
sab-managers before C. Swaine in 1847, but I have heard 
tJhe name of David Brown, i,e. Fat David Brown, to dis^ 
tingoish him from the other David Brown, a cousin in the 
same employ, nicnamed the Gooroo. To the north of 
I>Oud]pore l^ere is an old battle field, but no one seems to>^ 
know much about it, or who were the opjSosing parties^ 



12. HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

There Are many Mahomedan graves, so I suppose it must 
have been between Moslems and Hindus. 

In 1861 F. Collingridge, Dr. C. Macnamara and J. S. 
Begg bought into Doudpore. F. Collingridge taking the 
management which he held till 1867 when he went home. 
He returned to the country again and resumed management 
till 1876. His son Herbert took charge then. In 1882 H. 
•Collingridge purchased a 4 anna share and managed from 
1876 to 1893 when Mr. G. T. Collingridge became manager. 
The concern is now the property of the Collingridge family. 

The oldest paper to be found is a receipt for rent, dated 
DoulutDore 1^^^> ^^ ^^® John Brown, manager, it is from 
M. & S. Babu Dhuleep Sing. Rumour has it that 
Doulutpore was first a sugar factory. Megoiil, 
an outwork, was built in about 1850. I cannot find out 
^10 managed between John Brown's time and R. Ronald's 
who was managing in 1847. He, poor man, was murdered 
by mutineers at Deogarh in 1857. He had left indigo and 
taken up an appointment of Deputy Commissioner in the 
:Santhal Pergunnahs. W. C. Baddeley was inanager in 1856, 
followed by F. H. Hollway, H. Spencer and C. MacDonald 
in 1865. He was followed by James Crowdy in 1872, then 
K. Maclver, C. Robertson, T. Robertson, and then the pre- 
sent manager, C. MacDonald, junior, who took charge again 
in 1901 after his return from South Africa with Lumsden's 
Horse. 

When I came to the district Doulutpore was not con- 
sidered a very good factory, but Mr. W. C. Baddeley im- 
proved the lands by mixing sand in the stiff day soil and 
trenching freely, and so improved the soil that the factory 
lands are now looked upon by native cultivators with an 
envious eye. They offer as much as Rs. 40 per bigha for 
.any of this land they can get for one year. 



HISTOEY OF BEHAR. 13" 

Dhurmpore was built by J. C. Muir when he was at 
Dhurmpore Chitwarrah. How this came about was as^ 
J. M. B. follows : There was a certain amount of jealousy 
hetween Muir and George Smith, who was manstging Shah- 
pore Mircha. Muir thought George Smith was trying to 
encroach into the Chitwarrah dehat by building Kurhurrie 
Factory, so he started Dhurmpore, a great deal of money 
was spent and a good deal of ill-feeling shown. The strange 
thing was that both G. Smith and J. Muir were employees 
of the Tirhoot Indigo Association whose money they were 
spending to satisfy their own zid. Dhurmpore was built 
ill about 1859. I do not know who was the resident manager ; 
however, the factory was eventually sold by the Tirhoot 
Indigo Association to one Mukbull Hosain who sold to John 
Martin Becher. The place eventually went into the hands 
of Hajee Syed Mahomed Tukee Khan. His heirs sold the 
place to J. M. Wilson. The factory has one outwork, 
Chupta; this place was built by Mr. W. Llewhellin for 
Singia Factory and by exchange it eventually became part 
of Dhurmpore, which Factory was eventually purchased by 
J. M. Wilson and is his now. 

A small Factory, Kootoopore, also belongs to Mr. J. M. 
Wilson ; it is a place of recent date, and borders on Dhurm- 
pore concern. 

The dates on the mokarrarie documents of this factory 

and its outworks are Dooria 1807. Bisoonpore 
Dooria 
A. J. 1808, and Karumbarie 1836. Very few records 

of this concern remain. In olden days salt- 
petre was a paying industry, and like several other placesr 
there are indications of this being one of Dooria's original 
industries. In the Tackhast map of days gone bye it is 
recorded as a saltpetre factory. As far as can be found out 
Booria started indigo in 1780 I find, as will be seen in the 
preface to this, that in 1793 one John Finch, who came to 



14 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

the country in 1778, was put down as of Dooria Factory. 
As far as one can go back by documents and tradition 
Arthur Jones was among the first managing proprietors, thus 
-the mark Arthur Jones, Dooria. 

( A. J. ") -^^ ^^ followed by NicoU, then Finch, most 
( D- ) likely John Finch, who was perhaps an ancestor 
•of the proprietors of Shahpore Oundie (see Tirhoot and its In- 
habitants of the Past). After him, according to factory 
records, came William, but that I take must be WilUam 
Howell. There may have been a man between John Finch 
and Howell, but there is no record of this. In 1845-46, 
after the factory had passed into the hands of the Tirhoot 
Indigo Association of London, sugar was started, but was 
abandoned a few years later. In 1864-65 the Tirhoot Indigo 
Association of London sold to Messrs. E. Studd and Lauchlin 
MacDonald. During the proprietorship of the Tirhoot 
Indigo Association, after William Howell's death in 1848, 
the factory was managed by Charles Gale, followed by F. 
•Collingridge and J. C. Muir. On Studd's purchasing, L. 
MacDonald took charge and was followed by several others, 
until the present year, 1905, when Sir L. Hay represents 
the management. The year Mr. A. MacDonald, MacRae 
managed the factory, made a record season, and as prices 
were high, the place made a very handsome profit. The 
Dooria indigo is noted for its beautiful colour and holds the 
head of the price list of Behar colour. 

There is an old graveyard a short distance from the 
factory supposed to have been graves of Dutch people who 
lived at the factory, but there is no inscription leift on the 
graves. In the Garden are the following three graves: — 

Sacred to the memory of Mr. George Christy, son of 
Mr. James Christy, of Berhampore, who died on the 18th 
August 1812. Aged 20 years and 2 months. Sincerely 
regretted. 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 15 

Sacred to the memory of William Maynard Howell; 
j^oungest son of the late Thomas Howell, of Cardiganshire; 
S. Wales, who departed this life on the 8th October 1847. 
Aged 34 years and 8 months. 

Sacred to the memory of Janet Blackborn Whyte, wh© 
departed this life on 27th December 1867. Beloved in life 
and regretted in death. 

I have just received the following from a friend which 
may be of interest as showing the expenditure oif Dooria 
"Concern in 1795. The total from January 1795 to December, 
including a balance of Rs. 908-2-9 for 1794 totalled 
Rs. 31-924-9-0. This includes expenses of Boggah Sooreah and 
Ghee concerns, but what these concerns are and where situated 
there is no indication nor is the manager's name attached 
to this account or how many bigahs of indigo cultivated. 
My informant remarks humorously : *' Fancy, in your 
imagination, the manager of Dooria with his sleeves turned 
up pulling at his hookah a hundred years ago putting to- 
gether his account of expenditure in peace and comfort far 
away from Europe and the bustle of the French revolution. 
No trains at Motipore, no worrying telegrams from bothering 
agents." Probably he never dreamt of the decay of the 
industry nor the heavy rise in factory outlays. He also 
gives the names of planters in the district dividing their 
advent into decades. These lists are open to corrections and 
additions, and the writer will be obliged if any one who 
can do so will correct any error. The following is the list 
of the first decade — 1820 to 1830: P. Crump, J. Mackenzie, 
H. Sherman, David Brown, James Slade, T. Gibbon, J. Buck, 
J. Watson, J. Finch, F. Finch, J. Thomson Gill, Dr. C. 
Mackinon, Yule, Joseph Hill, Henry Hill, James Hill. In 
1830 to 40, Morgan, George Drumoned, K. MacLeod, John 
Gale, James Cosserat, E. Willson, R. Willson, A. Roach, 
F. Collingridge, David Crawford, Andrew Crawford, James 



16 HISTOKY OF BEHAR. 

Wilson, Johin Becher, Captain H. Beclier, R. Taylor, George- 
Taylor, W. Moran, Harry Brown, E. Harding, J. Mitchell, 
G. N. Wyatt, H. Holloway, Mons. De La Sene, C. W. Gale^ 
Charlea Swaine, A. Brown, L. Cosserat, James Cosserat, W. 
C. Baddeley, James Cox, Thomas Slade, T. Martin, John 
MacRae, E. Studd, W. Daunt, C. Baldwin, L. Cook, James 
Cook, J. R. Mackenzie, J. Anderson, R. Cahill, junior, 
James Cox, Ed. Studd. Between 1840 and 1850, H. Hollo- 
way, R. Beynon, Tom Cox, B. Anderson, G. Williamson, W. 
Williamson, W. Sharpley, G. Mitchell, R. Bradley, Arthur 
Crooke, G. Venables, C. Stachan, Archibald Inglis, Minden 
Wilson, Saunders C. Verpleugh, A. S. Young, James Sher- 
man, E. Sherman, H. Sherman, James Mitchell, Buchanan, 
J, M. Becher, H. Hooper, F. H. Hollway, J. S. Smith, 
DeCruze, DePain, W. Garstin, Ogilvie, Aifred Tripe, James 
S. Begg, P. MacFarlane, Goodenough, Curtis, W. Baldwin, 
John Stalkart, John Stalkart (of Bekenpore), De Mise, W^ 
James, Hosmore, Ferrier, Falconer, David Brown, Charles 
PaEerson. Between 1850 and 1860, Sir D. H. MacFarlane, 
H. Hudson, J. F. Mackenzie, F. W. Wingrove, L. MacDonald, 
J. C. Muir, A. Urquhart, P. Crump, junior, E. Urquhart, 
D. B. Whyte, E. T. Harrington, W. M. Stewart, James 
Wilson (Mhow), Mermaduke, G. Moore, Bluett Coulthurst, 
Jc^in Anderson, C. V. Argles, John Gale, junior, A. Howell,, 
James Smith, Charles Oman, HUdebrand, W. H. BuUen, 
A. MacRae, W. Howell, J. Howell, M. H. Gale, E. Smith, 
M. Smith, R. Riddell, W. Riddell, H. Spenser, Joseph Tripe, 
T. Lethbridge, R. Lethbridge, T. Dyer, C. Pratt, George 
Pratt, W. Pratt, E. Lamb, C. MacDonald, Evans, E. Dal- 
gleish, G. Mann, Joseph Finch, junior, M. Lloyd, R. 
Brooke, George Toomey, J. Neal, A. MacRae, Bolton W. 
MacQueene, J. Crawford, T. M. Gibbon, W. Gibbon, N. 
MacDonald, M. MacDonald, J. Reid, D. N. Reid, A. S. 
Tweedie, G. D. Blake, Alister Mackinnon, Blake (Ram-^ 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 17 

<kollah), W. Campbell, James Stewart, K. MacLean, Eneas 
MacDonald, W. MacDonald, George Deloy, George Llew- 
hellin, J. Hamilton. From 1860 to 1870, George Hennessey, 
W. Oman, David Oman, D. B. Bullen, C. Sanderson, J. 
Forbes, T. Lamb, G. Bloomfield, R. Bloomfield, Hooley, J. 
K. Maclver, G. Mackenzie, F. Forth, W. Cooper (now Sir 
W. Cooper), G. Hamilton, W. Brooke, C. H. Webb, H. 
MacDonald, G. Smith, G. Wilson, C. GaJe, junior, G. Mac- 
Even, N. Campbell, W. Moran, Bull, Jack HoUway, James 
Cosserat, junior, Arthur Cosserat, J. Hill, junior, R. Hill, 
junior, D. Begg, junior, R. Mackinnon, W. Cockburnj 
Simon Nicholson, S. Beacher, Hamilton, R. Irwin, W. S. 
Mackenzie, W. Macgregor, R. Wilson, A. Macalister, W. 
M. Smith, W. Smith (Long), K. M. MacDonald, G. Pughe, 
John Eraser, G. Proudfoot, W. Buskin, G. Buskin, R. 
Robertson, G. MacEwen, Henderson, ChUpman, W. Mack- 
enzie, F. Hamley, Laddy MacDonald, G. F. Shaw, N. Mac- 
<3ueen, W. Gibbon (Shanghai), N. S. MacLean, W. Hickey, 
T. Hickey, B. Hickey, senior, Hugh Llewhellin, W. Llew- 
hellin, Llewhellin (Moolvi), Cyril Irvine, Geo. Exshaw, E. 
Exshaw, Cooper, C. Pope, Wilkinson, K. Maclver, G. Wil- 
liams, L. Coke, junior, G. Swaine, junior, L. Wilson, T. 
Eraser, D. Irwin, G. Irwin, D. Mackinnon, James Hogg, 
Henry Eraser, Hugh MacDonald, J. Inglis, F. Murray, E. 
Studd, junior, Pincher Brown, Tulloch, R. Brown, D. Reid 
^Black), Henry Studd, R. Waller, A. Maclver, S. Maclver, 
Adams, Angus MacEwen, E. Macnaghten, John Freeman, 
Pemberton, Trevor Lloyd, H. E. Abbott, G. Rennie, G. 
Nicolay, W. Nicolay, A. Edward, Arthur Ellis, M. N. Mac- 
Leod, F. May Fearon, Grant, Freeman No. 2, Wynns, R. 
Phillips, C. C. Smith, H. Manners, Borican, W. MacLeod, 
Cresswell, A. MacBean. From 1870 to 1880, E. Roberts, 
Llewhellin, Laurie, A. Macintosh, W. MacGregor, W. Cavie, 
CJarlisle, A. Abbott, Charles Mackenzie, Finch, Chalmers, 



18 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

Holley, Pearce, Lindsay, Jones, Phil. Smith, Macintosh, 
Sisson, N. MacLeod, J. Shortt, Farquhar Mackinnon, H. 
Dalgleish, Rennie, junior, Barclay, Bolton, James Wilson, 
C. Nicolson, Barlow, Coffin, Edwards, R. Hudson, Freeman 
No. 3, Phillips No. "2, Wood No. 1, Wood No. 2, Apperley^ 
E. Manners, W. Thoms, Flavell, Campbell, John Grant, 
Sheffield, J. MacGregor, W. O. MacGregor, A. MacFarlane, 
H. Crowdy, James Mackenzie, D. Crawford, H. T. Kerr,^ 
E. Nicolay, E. Becher, F. Byng, G. Collingridge, M. Mac- 
enzie, B. Shortt, K. ShoHt. In 1870 to 1880, H. Colling- 
ridge, junior, W. S. Irwin, A. Ogilvy, C. F. Ruxton, T. R. 
Filgate, G. P. Hume, R. R. Crookshank, T. Hodding, S. 
Becher. 

Since 1880 I can find no account of new arrivals, but I 
fancy fully 30 to 50 new men must have arrived during 
1880 to 1890 and' as many more from 1890 to 1900 or 1905. 
This list is very defective, but gives an idea otf how many 
men came and left, and of the lot, how few there are alive this 
day. 

There are no documents to show when this factory was 
Dholi first built, but natives say in 1203 Fasli, or 

D. fA. D. 1796 which is probable, as we find Dholi 

mentioned in the Collectorate records as being managed by 
Mr, W. Orby Hunter, who, it appears, managed both Dholi 
and Doudpore in 1786. 

Mr. or Captain Sloane, who the natives also name as 
the builder of Dholi, is most likely the first man there, though 
native tradition says there was an older factory built 50 years 
before Dholi. Mrs. Sloane, who had been a Mrs. Hopkins 
before she married ^Captain Sloane, seemed to be the managing 
spirit in Dholi affairs. She was always called Beebee Hopkins 
and is talked of to this day. She was a most masterful 
woman, good to her tenants and servants. She was sup- 
posed to have witchcraft powers and the natives feared her 



HISTORY OF BTEHAR. 1^ 

curse. She was also supposed to have the gift of prophesying. 
She went over the cultivation on a small elephant and was 
very energetic. By certain papers I gather that Mr. or 
Captain Sloane managed in 1823 up to 1833. Dr. C. Mac- 
kiLuon came in as manager and proprietor in 1837, and most 
likely succeeded Captain Sloane. In 1848 Mr. E. Studd 
became manager and he was followed by James Cox in 1851. 
But Mr. John Stace Smith managed for a short time between 
Mr. E. Studd and James Cox, who managed up to 1861, 
followed by George Toomey, A. S. Tweedie, E. J. C. Studd, 
H. Spry, and then E. J. C. Studd, who made over charge 
to his son, E. Studd who is manager. 

In 1854 Edward Studd bought from Mr. Richards, of 
Calcutta, a share in Dholi Concern, with its outworks, 
Berowli, Tharma and Sukri. This latter place, it appears, 
was an older, factory than even Dholi and reported to have 
been a sugar factory. Berowli was built in 1825 and Sob- 
naha in 1890. 

The Beebee Hopkins I mentioned above had been the wife 
of a Captain Hopkins at Pusa. She quarrelled with her 
husband and left him, and on his death married Captain 
Sloane. The following inscriptions may be found over the 
graves in the old graveyard near Dholi. Many others have 
been cut away into the river Gunduk : — 

(i) Sacred to the memory of Mrs. Anne Sloane relict 
of Major D. Sloane. H. C. N. I. Died 7th Nov- 
ember 1862. Aged 56. 

(ii) Sacred to the memory of Charles Lauchlin Cony, 
beloved son of Charles and Henrietta Mackinnon. 
Born 18th January 1837, died 3rd November 1838. 

(iii) Sacred to the memory of Harriet Augusta, second 
daughter of Thomas Insunda Shwood. Born 24th 
July 1824, died 2nd April 1831. 

(iv) Sacred to the memory of Robert William Morgan,. 



20 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

who departed tliis liie on lOth December 1836. 
Aged G5. 

In 1794 Dulsing Serai was built by Mr. Teare or Phaire, 
who was manager, and the mokarrarie stands 

Qj. in his name given by Dhanessur Chowdry, 

Keonta. Mahunt Alak Ram, Ajab Sing Chowdrv, Khoosi 
Chowdry, and others. 

In 1802 Mr. Johnson managed, 1810 Morgan, then 
William Sherman. In 1837 Thomson K. MacLeod superinten- 
dent and Thomas Martin manager in 1851. In 1856 W. M. 
Stewart, 1862 C. Paterson, 1864 C. MacDonaJd, 1863 K. 
Maclver, 1866 H. Spencer, 1870 E. Dalgleish, 1881 E. F. 
May, 1882 R. Bloomfield, 1885 E. Dalgleish, 1894 B. 
Coventry, then F. Coventry 1903, who has gone home 
on leave. C. W. Spencer, now manager. 

In about 1847-48 the factory was sold by public auction 
In Calcutta and bought for a few hundred rupees by John 
Becher, who failed to pay up as he had to come up to Tirhoot 
to arrange for money and died at Shahpore Oundi, on his 
way. It was again put up in 1851 and bought by the 
brothers W. and Henry Poe, Solicitors, Calcutta, who placed 
the superintendence under K. MacLeod, who appointed 
Thomas Martin as manager, under whose management the 
factory did well and made a record season. Baddeley and 
Strachan and F. H. Hollway bought in some years after. 
Th'B present proprietors are E. T. Harrington, H. Spencer's 
estate. C. Strachan's estate, F. H. Hollway, E. Dalgleish, 
B. Coventry, and E. M. Coventry. 

The outwork, Pemberaudah, was built by Thomson in 
1837. The mokarrarie given by Babu Moorat Narien Singh ; 
Chutra was built by W. M. Stewart in 1858, mokarrarie given 
by Babu Permeswary Persaud Narien Singh ; Tubca was built 
by K. Maclver in 1866, mokarrarie given by Permeswary 
and Jagdeep Singh; Gobindpore built by Dalgleish in 1875, 



HISTORY OF BiiiHAR. 21 

mokarrarie given by Permeswaiy Singh and Raj Koomar 
Mukerjee and others; and ShaJipore in 1879 by Dalgleish, 
mokarrarie given by Goorpersaud Singh and others in 1858 
in anticipation. 

In 1895 B. Coventry built Kamlah. In 1904 F. Coventry 
built a Rhea factory with the Bengal Rhea Syndicate. 
There is but one old grave to the memory of a daughter of 
Mr. Thomson, who died in 1837. There are some new graves, 
mostly of children. In 1900 W. B. Carshore died and is 
buried at Dulsing Serai. 

In 1898 Mr. B. Coventry, owing to depression in the 
indigo market caused by the introduction of the Badische 
Synthetic dye, started the agricultural and manuring experi- 
ments which have been appreciated by the Government and 
has resulted in his appointment to the management of the 
new Pusa Agricultural College the first stone of which was 
laid by our present Viceroy, Lord Curzon, in 1905. Mr. 
Coventry, under the auspices of Messrs. Begg, Dunlop and 
Company, employed Mr. E. A. Hancock as Chemist, and 
Mr. Bailey was sent to Java to study the indigo industry in 
that country. Mr. Bailey, after a short residence in Java, 
returned with the Java process and Java Indigo seed, Java 
process was^ried in the Dulsing Serai Concern at an out- 
work, but was not a success. The merits of the Java plant 
were recognised, but it was difficult to get the seed to ger- 
minate owing to the hard husk shell, but in 1903 Mr. Leake 
obtained good results by scarifying the outer coat and the 
difficulty overcome, and since then a machine, designed by 
Mr. Watson and Messrs. Arthur Butler and Company, has 
been found most efficacious. 

Gangowlie was formerly an outwork of Doulutpore. 

^ ^ ,. The mokarrarie pottah was given by Babu Per- 

M °& S. meswary Persaud Norien Singh, of Nurhan, and 

^' is dated 15th November 1860, to W. C. Bad- 



22 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

deley. It has one outwork, Allumpore, mokarrarie pottah 
dated 1874 given to C. M. MacDonald. These factories were 
bought by E. G. Stonewigg in December 1891, purchasing from 
W. D. Kilburn, Executor for C. M. MacDonald, and also 
from C. T. Robertson, junior. Gangowlie was built by C. M. 
MacDonald when he was an assistant at Meghowl while F. 
H. Hollway was managing Doulutpore in 1860. Allumpore 
was built in 1874, the foundations were put down by James 
Orowdy, and K. Maclver finished the building. There have 
been many assistants at these factories before they were 
purchased by E. G. Stonewigg, first Bishop, then R. Crook- 
shank, then Browning, who died of enteric at Mozufferpore, 
then M. Halliday, Crichton, and several others. Later on 
Gangowlie was separated from Doulutpore and Farquhar 
Mackinnon took charge. It was he who built the present 
bungalow. It was before but a tattie house, R. Crookshank 
went from Gangowlie to Allumpore, followed by Robertson. 
Before Allumpore was built most of the indigo round where 
it stands went to Doulutpore by boat down the Bore Gunduk. 
Mr. E. G. Stonewigg is now manager of his own Factory, 
1905. He retired Home in 1907 making over charge to 
W. M. Vipan. 

All records of this factory were burnt during Marmar 

H tf o (• ^^^® Stalkartt's time. This gentleman, in try- 

J. W. 0. & ing to shoot sparrows out of the verandah roof, 

set the house on fire. He would allow nothing 

to be saved as he said, he was going to start with a clean 

sheet. The factory belonged at that time to the Ganges 

Indigo Company. The factory must have been a very old 

one as tradition tells of indigo being carried in on donkeys 

and the Persian wheel worked by elephants. The only grave 

is that of J. Mitchell, who was manager of Herni (Bachouli), 

but there is no date on this to say when he died. In 1847 

there was a sugar factory at Hatti-Ousti, but there is no 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 23 

record as to when built - perhaps in 1845. In 1847 Mr. 
Thomas Gibbon managed {see " Tirhoot and its Inhabitants 
of the Past "), since then the management has passed through 
many hands till at last it was purchased by the Crowdys, 
J. W. Crowdy being the present manager and proprietor. 
There is a good story about Mr. Stalkartt when manager. 
Having quarrelled with some of his ryatts he got their bullocks 
into the factory and chopped off their tails, and, as the 
Magistrate was to dine with him, he gave him what the 
huzoor pronounced to be excellent oxtail soup, which was 
much appreciated. A few days after a case was brought 
against Stalkartt by the ryatts for injuring their cattle and 
S., stepping into the witness box (with a wink to his friend 
the Magistrate), explained that he had (imitating the action 
of a pair of scissors with his fingers) only trimmed the hair 
at the end of the bullock's tail. The pleasant impression left 
on the Magistrate's memory by the soup softened his heart 
and he fined the culprit Rs. 50 to be divided among the 
offended ryatts, 1 do not vouch for the truth of this yarn, 
but it was one told in my younger days in the district. 

Hattowree Factory was built by John Anderson, but 
Hattowree there seems no record of in what year Native 
^' ^ ^' tradition says once Anderson was going from 
Kumtoul with his indigo chests to send down the Ganges 
to Calcutta by boat. He was accompanied by his peon, 
Sunfoul Ray. Passing near where Hattowree now stands, 
he asked Sunfoul Ray whose land it was and the peon told 
him it was Fakeeranna, so Anderson on his return arranged 
to secure the land through Sunfoul Ray, whose house was at 
Korlahya ghat near the place. This was the beginning of 
Sunfoul Ray's fortune (see *' Tirhoot and its Inhabitants o!f 
the Past"). Sunfoul Ray has been dead many years, but he 
became a big zemindar in those parts, his grandson, Chunet 
Ba^, now reigns in his place. After John Anderson left 



24 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

in 1847, Hattowree was purchased by R. Taylor. There 
were two outworks, but who built them there is no record. 
Bunhar was one and the other stood at the confluence of 
the Bogmatee and Karaye rivers. At R. Taylor's death 
the factory was sold, but I can find no record as to whom. 
Charles Oman purchased in about 1858 and sold in 1864, 
but here again comes a blank in the record. I think, how- 
ever, Tom Poe (Harrington) purchased and the place even- 
tually went into the hands of Messrs. E. Dalgleish and H. 
Spenser who sold Bunhar to H. Dalgleish. Baghonie, 
another outwork, was built when C. V. Argles managed (I 
think for Mr. Thorburn) in about 1862-64. I believe Bag- 
honie, too, has been sold, but I am not sure of this. Baghonie 
is to the East of Hattowree across the Karaye River. 

Originally Bowarrah was the head factory and the mokar- 
Hnrsingrore ^rie document is lated 1793. This given to 
S. & C. t^Q sahebs whose names as far as can be read 

were Rech and Schum. Hursingpore itself was built in 1844, 
the mokarrarie pottah stands in the name of Mr. Johnson 
and was made head factory by C. Strachan when he pur- 
chased the concern in the early fifties. He built the present 
bungalow which was burnt down by a wild youngster who 
amused himself shooting sparrows out of the verandah roof, 
like M. Stalkartt at Hatti-Ousti. Strachan had to rebuild 
the house. He also built the outwork, Rahimabad, when 
C. V. Argles was managing in 1864. Bulampore, another 
outwork, was built by J. S. Smith in 1864. Bowarrah is men- 
tioned in Hunter's Gazetteer as one of the oldest indigo fac- 
tories in Tirhoot. There are ruins of a small indigo factory 
about 3 miles from Bowarrah on the banks of the river Noon 
or Bulan. It is curiously situated on a sort of island be- 
tween two branches of the river. The remains o-f vats, Per- 
sian wheel and the floor of what must have been the press 
house are still to be seen. Tradition says this factory was 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 25 

built by a Frenchman and was abandoned as he considered 
the place unlucky. One man had committed suicide and 
another died of cholera. The following are the names of 
managers of Hursingpore since it Became a head factory : — 
C. Strachan, C. V. Argles, James Bluett, A. Inglis, Max> 
well, Smith, J. S. Smith, E. Dalgleish, George Bloomfield, 
and others. Its present manager is C. Mackay (1905). The: 
proprietors now are J. S. Smith M. Smith's estate, W. 
Crowdy's estate and F. H. Hollway. The Factory stands to 
the south-east of this district. I add an interesting account 
gleaned by Mr. C. Mackay from a very old servant of the 
factory. There may be some errors as to date, etc., but 
that might be expected. 

In the years 1175 Fasli A.D. 1728 a factory called 
Dogarrah (the old Bowarrah) was built by Dr. Mackinnon 
on the north bank of the Noon river. He carried on the 
factory for some 13 years from 1175 to 1187 Fasli, but owing 
to some superstition of ghosts, etc., he was compelled to 
remove the factory from Dogarrah to Bowarrah in 1188 Fasli. 
Mr. John Peller built Bowarrah Factory and worked it for 
some years. After he left Mr. Hamilton took charge and 
worked it for some years when he made over the factory to 
Mr. John Hill, being succeeded by Mr. Mackay and he b^ 
Mr. Ogilvie, who managed for five years and died on 16th 
May 1836 and is buried in the garden at Bowarrah. 

After this gentleman's death the factory was left with- 
out a European manager for three years and the leases of 
the villages expiring only the mokarrarie remained. The 
maliks having resumed all the teekdaries the place was looked 
after by a moonshee, a responsible amlah. In 1839 Mr. 
Mitchell of Haloquary (most likely John Mitchell) bought 
the factory, including Hursingpore from Mr. Ogilvie's heirs 
for Rs. 32,000 and he after a period of 6 months (1 years) > 
sold Bowarrah and Hursingpore to Mr. C. Strachan for Rs. 



26 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

40,000. Mr. C. Strachan, who had been managing Shapore 
Mircha, made Hursingpore the head factory and Bowarrah 
became an outwork. 

Strachan managed for some years, and made ovei charge 
to C. V. Argles, who built Rahimabad, the outwork of 
Hursingpore in 1267 Fasli. After Argles came A. Inglis, 
etc. 

This factory was originally an outwork of Jeetwarpore 

Factory. The mokarrarie pottah is dated 1851, 
Illmasnu^gur 

H. & S. given to John Mackenzie by Kewul Doubay. 

'^^ The factory wa^ built in 1852 by John F. Mac- 

kenzie (son of John Mackenzie). In 1877 the Jeetwarpore 
Concern was divided and Illmasnuggur became a head factory 
and fell to the share of W. Mackenzie, who sold in 1884 to 
Messrs. E. S. Llewhellin, M. N. MacLeod, and H. Manners. 
Illmasnuggur has one outwork, Masina which was built in 
1888 by H. Manners. At Mr. E. S. Llewhellin's death in 
September 1899 his share was purchased by Messrs. M. N. 
MacLeod and H. Manners. 

Mr. H. Manners is the present manager. 

Japaha was built in 1841 by John Becher as an inter- 
J) ^ loping factory. It stands in the Jumalabad 

^- talka and the mokarrarie was given to Becher 

by the present proprietor's father. The building of this 
factory caused great friction between John Becher and David 
Crawford, who then managed at Contai and into whose 
management dehat he (Becher) had interloped, i.e., the 
Bikanpore dehat. Things went from bad to worse till David 
Crawford, in an unguarded moment, spoke of Becher as a 
bad j^otatoe. On this Becher called Crawford out (for the 
results see " Tirhoot and its Inhabitants of the Past ''). In 
apite of all opposition Becher held his own and the factory 
became an established fact. Becher died in 1847-48 and 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 27 

the factory passed into Messrs. MacKillop Stewart ai^d Co.'s 
hands. To the Japaha Concern was attached a saltpetre fac- 
tory at Burhampoora, near Mozufferpore. After Jo]in 
Becher's death John Stalkart managed, followed by others, 
and when Mr. Sharply was manager the concern was sold 
to John F. Mackenzie. He sold Burhanpora Bungalow to 
John Martin Becher, a son of John Becher's as he found 
the Indigo lands that surrounded the Burhampora Bunga- 
low to far off, and it did not pay to work the saltpetre. 
Mr. J. F. Mackenzie sold Japaha in about 1872 to Mrs. 
Begg, and on her death Messrs. H. Hudson, E. Hudson, G. 
Richardson and Mrs. Begg purchased Japaha as part of 
Bikanpore. Mr. G. Richardson now is manager. In 1906 
a sugar factory was started in Japaha village, and is now work- 
ing and making good sugar. The proprietors the same as 
above. 

This was an interloping concern. It was built by H. E. 

, . , Abbott in 1872-73. It was built in dehats 

Jamtpore 

H. B. A. claimed by Dooriah, Seriyah, Motipore, Contie, 
and Dowdpore factories. * The late Mohunt 
Raja Ram Dass, owned a large tract of country where many 
villages stood, and as he was all powerful, the suffering 
factories had to grin and bear, and Jaintpore became an 
established factory in 1873. Its outworks, Teekaha, Nirghee, 
Pukri, and Godai were built in 1875-76^ 1880 and 1884. The 
mokarrarie stands in the name of H. E. Abbott, who managed 
for the mohunt and built all the factories. On Chowdry 
Mohunt Raja Ram's death, his brother, Mohunt Ragoonath 
Dass, became proprietor, and Mr. H. E. Abbott continued 
to manage. The estate having run into debt difficulty was 
found in getting funds to carry on with. The Mohunt Rag- 
hoonath Dass elected to try a change of management and 
after flirting with many Mr. M. J. Wilson was given charge 
of the business Mr. W. Vipan managing under him. A 



28 HISTOKY OF BEHAR. 

debenture loan was floated by Messrs. Begg Dunlop and 
Company and all tbe Mohunt's private debts paid off. Mr. 
H. E. Abbott is now again managing Jaintpore Factory and 
the estate, Mr. Hugh Urquhart managing Teekaha, Pukri 
and Godai for Messrs. Begg Dunlop and Company. 

This factory was built in 1203 Fasli corresponding with 
Jeetwftriore 1795-96 by Noel and Company. Mr. Johnson 
H. & a was manager when the factory was built. There 
is a mokarrarie pottah of Jeetwarpore, Mor- 
deba, dated 5th December 1795, given by Babu Gujraj Sing 
and Gonesh Dutt Singh in favour of Mr. Johnson. After 
Mr. Johnson came John Harrington, who managed from 
1810. He was followed by Mr. W. Sherman, who managed 
for some 40 years. Sherman was followed by John Mackenzie 
in 1848. The mark H. and S. (Hogg and Sherman) would 
note that Sir James Weir Hogg of the Honourable East India 
Company was once a proprietor. There are two graves in 
the garden at Jeetwarpore — one that of Thomas Sherman, 
Nho died on 20th September 1844, aged 24, and the other 
that of William Bampton Sherman, who died on 16th July 
1848, aged 31. The concern was bought by John Mackenzie 
and John Beckwith in 1848. John Mackenzie sold his share, 
8 annas, to his son, John F. Mackenzie and son-in-law, M. 
J. Wilson in 1856-57. When his son took up the manage- 
ment followed by Mr. M. J. Wilson in 1857-58, later on 
M. J. Wilson bought Mr. J. F. Mackenzie's 4 annas and 
Mr. W. M. Stewart, Mr. John Beckwith's 8 annas. On the 
failure of the Agra Bank in 1866, Mr. John F. Mackenzie 
purchased with his brothers the 16 annas of the concern. 
In about 1884 the concern was purchased by Sir W. B. 
Hudson, T. Lamb, and others, and Mr. A. Maclver, who 
also had a share, took up the management. 

There is rather a good story of what occurred in Mr. 
Sherman's time. The factory was in difficulty for money 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 29 

and the ploughmen were much in arrears. Colonel Apperley^ 
then in charge of the stud at Pusa, went over to pay Mr. 
Sherman a visit and the fattened calf was killed to feast the 
Colonel: but just as dinner was ordered, the ploughmen 
turned out apd formed line between the cook room and the 
house and declared that they would not allow any dinner 
to pass into the house till they received some of their long 
promised pay. Threats and promises were of no avail, they 
would accept nothing but cash, and of that there was none 
in Sherman's possession. Fortunately Apperley had a few 
rupees in his pocket and these turned into pice, being dis- 
tributed softened the hearts of the ploughmen who retired 
and allowed the long wished for repast to be carried to the 
dining room. This story was told me by Colonel Apperley 
himself, and we had a good laugh over it. 

Mr. Maclver, late manager, had to retire from the man- 
agement this year 1905, and Mr. Dalrymple Hay, now man- 
ages. Jeetwarpore has two outworks — Husowli built in 1857 
and Doodporah built several years later. Rewari, an inter- 
loping factory, was built by one Mahomed Baker Khan in 
1856. He or his wife, Mussamut Ushruf Ollnisca, sold to 
Usuff Artin Bey and others and they eventually to Messrs. 
E. S. Llewhellin and M. N. MacLeod. The place now be- 
longs to Mrs. E. Llewhellin. Rewari was an interloping 
factory into Jeetwarpore dehat, and is now managed by Mr. 
M. H. Mackenzie. 

This factory was in 1847 a part of the Pandoul Concern^ 

^ though I believe it was some years before that 

Bacboar time a separate concern. The mokarrarie pottah 

is dated 1199 Fusli and given to a Mr. Watt. 

The mokarrarie of Bhakwa, an outwork, is dated 1230 Fusli 

and given to Mr. Brown. One reason I have for saying that 

Kewan was under Pandoul management is that I know Mr. 



30 HISTOKY OF BEHAK. 

John Mackenzie's brother, Francis H. Mackenzie, was an 
assistant under his brother and I see by the tombstone on 
his grave at Kewan that he died in 1830. In 1847-48 when 
I first visited Kewan or Bachour, Mr. Hubbard was sub- 
manager under John Gale. He left some time in 1848-49 
and I think went to China, but I have lost sight of him 
since then. Kewan also worked sugar for a time. It is 
situated close up to the Nepaul boundary, and one has a 
splendid view of the Terai and the lower range of the Hiitt- 
alayas out of the verandah. This factory and the surround-* 
ing dehat was once famous for the breed of cattle which came 
from round about. Report said that one of the old man- 
ager's imported English stock into the country and let all 
the bull calves loose as Brahmini bulls and thus the class 
of cow and bullock improved. The strain of good blood has 
worn itself out and now I do not think the cattle from about 
there are much better than any other. There are four graves 
at Kewan in a bamboo tope near the factory. Two bear 
no inscriptions and on the other two are as- follows : — 

Sacred to the memory of Francis Humberston Mackenzie, 
third son of John Mackenzie, senior of Ga.lson north Britain. 
Died on 16th September 1830, aged 21 years. 

Here reposeth the remains of Kennedy Huggins, who 
departed this life on the 5th February A. D. 1836. Aged 
about 58 years. 

If my memory serves me true. Lewis Cosserat, followed 
Hubbard as sub-manager, but there seems to be no record. 
Kewan or Buchour, not many years ago, came into the pos- 
session of the Maharajah of Durbhunga who bought the 
factory from G. N. Wyatt. The present manager is Mr. 
R. W. Royds Birch. The Maharajah of Durbhunga has 
built a fine palace at Rajnugger close to Kemna or Buchour 
Factory. 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 31 

Also called Mhow was originally a large saltpetre fac- 
Khan Mirza- ^^^ which belonged to James Wilson. In about 
pore B.C. 1851-1852 there was a great fouzdari between 
Messrs. Foster Rogers and Company, an American firm df 
Calcutta who had a claim over the Mhow saltpetre worka. 
T. Martin, assisted by his assistant, F. Wingrove, held the 
godown against Wilson when they were attacked by a big 
ffiice and badly mauled. I do not remember the result of 
the case. It was tried by a Magistrate who was nicknamed 
by the natives Samuel Misal, because his order for every- 
thing was " Samil Missal," or place with the records. In 
1855 Mr. Wilson took a small mokarrarie in a village near 
Mhow and built a couple of small vats in which he used to 
manufacture the few bighas of indigo he cultivated. The 
present Khan Mirzapore is built some distance from the 
Mhow saltpetre works. This factory stands very near the 
banks of the Ganges, which river is constantly on the move. 
A factory, Behri, built by Macnaghten and Olpherts was 
cut away by the Ganges in 1891 and another factory built 
by Flavell was ^hut up in 1899, and also another, Monier, 
built in 1893 by Flavell. Begum Serai used to be one of 
this group of factories; the original Begum Serai was cut 
away by the Ganges; it was built by W. M. Stewart in 
about 1864-5. The present Begum Serai was, I think, built 
by E. Macnaghten. Mr. D. MacLeod manages here for 
Messrs. Gillanders Arbuthnot and Company, and it is 
reported he is selling up the factory piece meal, as the pro- 
prietors do not wish to carry on the place. Khan Mirzapore 
belong to Mr. F. Rawlins and he is working the place. 

This factory was built as an interloping factory by J. C. 
Khopee Muir, in 1865. It stands between the Shah- 
B. R. K. K. pQj.g Oundi and the Chitwarrah dehat. The 
place did not seem to flourish during Muir's time. It even- 
tually became the property of Babu Nundun Lall. 



32 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

This factory was built in 1859 by George Smith, who 
Knrhnrri ^*® managing Shahpore Mircha; his assistant, 
0. Mc K. Mr. E. C. Lamb, attended to the building, 
Lamb was sub-manager up to 1863, then F. 
Wilkinson. The factory was then sold to Messrs. W. Camp- 
bell and others. The factory changed hands among its 
original purchasers till at last it stood in the names of W. 
Campbell, 8 annas and M. N. McLeod and F. Wilkinson 8 
annas. A few years ago Mr. Campbell having died and 
his share being in difficulties his son made over the factory 
to the mortgagees. The factory now belongs to M. N. Mac- 
Leod and F. Wilkinson's estates. 

Kurnowl Factory, also called by the natives Sahebgunge 
and Purbulputti. There stands a very old 
A. J. bazaar. It is often mentioned in the records 

from which I drew my preface. Sahebgunge 
was evidently a great mart for saltpetre and grain and being 
near the big Gunduk these commodities were easily shipped 
to Calcutta. Kurnowl Factory was built in 1803 by Mr. 
Finch, who also built Doorea where he was in 1793, having 
come to the country in 1778. See prefac^to this history. 
Monine, the outwork was built by John Howell in 1836 
Tajpore by C. Gale in 1862, and Gowra in 1884 by G. Robert- 
son. Kurnowl, until purchased by Mr. F. Murray in 1878 
from Mr. L. Macdonald, was a sub-management under Dooria. 
The present bungalow was built by John Howell. The ori- 
ginal bungalow stands to the north of the vats and is now 
used as a residence and kacherrie by the amlah. Shortly 
after F. Murray purchased he took in G. Robertson as a 
partner. Mr. F. Murray is now manager, 1905. It is 
strange that though the factory bears the mark A. J. (Arthur 
Jones) no one seems to remember him or what he had to 
do with the place. I remember Cox, who managed at Kur- 
nowl and was there from the early thirties, telling me that 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 33 

Arthur Howell, a son of John Howell> was called after Arthur 
Jones. After Cox, W. Daunt managed, Cox having fol- 
lowed J. Howell, Daunt succeeded Cox in about 1846. M. 
J. Wilson took over from Daunt in 1852-1853 and was fol- 
lowed by A. Inglis in about 1854. Then several others came 
in till F. Murray took charge. He went home and G- 
Robertson and others managed off and on F. Murray now,. 
1905, manages. 

Mea Chupra was built by Sir W. B. Hudson and the 
Mea Gbupra. Hon'ble Francis Byng in 1883. These g#ntle> 
men had a difference with Baboo Guzraj Sahai and took a 
mokarfarie in the Shahpore Mircha dehat. The factory was 
eventually bought by Mr. Rudstone Brown, and now I under- 
stand, belongs to his brother, H. Brown. It is managed by 
Mr. H. K. Grey, who has lately become a shareholder. 

This factory was orginally an outwork of Jeetwarpore. 

Mokta ore ^°®*' ^^ ^^^ ^^^ papers connected with the build- 
H, & 8. ing of this factory were burnt, but I believe 
the place was built shortly after Jeetwarpore. 
In about 1877, it was bought from Messrs. Mackenzie by C. 
Hay Webb and others. It had one outwork, Chuckmaisie, 
built in about 1862, but this was lately divided off from 
Moktapore and has since been purchased by Mr. Rawlins. It 
belonged to the estate of the late Mr. Campbell . During the 
time Sherman was proprietor of Jeetwarpore I cannot find 
out who was at the outwork, Moktapore, but during John 
Mackenzie's proprietorship, Mr. B. Anderson was assistant. 
He was a very powerful Scotchman and did not hit it off with 
the natives, and when they did not carry out his orders he 
would, what he called, " fetch them a chip " which meant 
a blow as from a sledge hammer and down they would go 
and so he was generally in trouble. However, the natives got 
the better of him at last, for one day as he was riding along 
(this was at Sebnuggur, the outwork of Kumtoul Factory), a 



34 HISTOBY OF BSHAR. 

tailor who he had illused cr^pt up behind him and caught 
him a blow over the eye with a lathie. Prom this Anderson 
lost the sight of one eye, which cooled him down considerably. 
Anderson died in 1857-1858 at Mosufferpore. Another out- 
work built by Arthur Butler and Company still remains to 
Moktapore at Kalianpore. There is a gravestone in the 
Moktapore compound to Mr. W. Fleming, dated 1836, and an 
old malik told Mr. C. H. W. Debb that he remembered that 
saheb being in charge for many years. This tallies with the 
age described as 40 on the tombstone. 

This factory stands in the Motipore dehat, it was built 
Mohwol ^y Hajee Syud M. Takee Khan. The village 
' * • • belonged to him. As far as I remember he 
built this factory with the concurrence of the proprietors of 
Motipore. I cannot give the datet when Mohwol was built, 
but it was, I think, some time in eighteen hundred and sixty. 
There is a small factory called Chowrghatta built by Alii 
Nawab, a son of the late Nawab M. Takee Khan. This 
latter place wa^ sold up shortly after its birth and I do not 
know if it still exists or not. Mr. W, Wilson is assistant 
at Mohwol under T. Barclay, 1907. 

This was built as an interloping factory in the Dulsing 
Mtiniarpore Serai dehat by the Mahtas, bankers of MozUffer- 
pore. This was resisted by the Dulsing Serai 
Concern, but eventually they came to terms and a boundary 
fixed.' Muniarpore was carried on as an indigo concern, 
but is now leased to a Calcutta firm for the growth of cotton. 
I have not been able to get the year in which the factory 
was built by Mr. Corryton, but it is of recent date. Mr. 
Follettt is managing for the Calci^tta fim. . . . . 



HlSTOltY OF BftHAft. 35 

1 cannot get miicli information as to when Munjoul and 

Sessowni wete built or by whom. Natives say 

Munjoul the bungalow was built by Mr. Moorhead, but 

« *^ . I can get no date. Mr. P. Crump was there 
Sessowni ° ^ ^ 

F. H. & Co., as manager and proprietor in 1847 and had 
F. fl. k Co. ^^^ there some years before and his son, P. 
S« Crump, was at Sessowni then also. The out- 

works, Bisumpore, Bundwar, Gumereah, Sowri, 
Beerpore were built by F. H. Holloway. The first in 1881-82, 
second 1866, third 1870 and fourth 1878. There are two 
graves at Munjoul — one that of James Thomson, died 27th 
September 1843, aged 41, and the other Mrs. M. J. Smth, 
died 6th August 1855. She was a daughter of Mr. P. 
Onimp, senior, who married Mr. J. S. Smith. There is also 
a grave at Beerpore to the memory of Mr. Lindsay, who 
died in 1883. Messrs. Baddeley, Cox, and others bought 
the concern in 1862 or thereabouts and eventually sold to 
F. H. Holloway, who had acquired a small share and was 
managing. After he gave up the management Mr. L. 
<I!r<jwdy managed and after him the management passed into 
several hands. Mr. E. Dalgleish was managing early in 1905 
and had been manager for some time before but had to 
go home. Mr. Danby, a grandson of Mr. W. C. Baddeley, 
is now in charge. Old Mr. P. Crump had his own ideas as 
to indigo planting and did not like a thick crop. He is 
reported to have weeded out a part of his crop on one occsr 
55or when he thought it too thick. For more about P. 
Clump see "Tirhoot and its Inhabitants of the Past." 
Motipore was originally built by the Dutch in 1789, 
MotiDore ^ * sugar factory. In 1816 it became One of 
D. B. a group of indigo 'factories owned by Messrs. 

Noel and Co. (see Contai Factory). There are 
no records to show when the outwork, Chucklorn, was built. 
in 1871 Thomas Fraser built Morarpur, James Cosseratt 



36 HISTORY OF BBHAR. 

managed from 1839 to 1844, B. Cabill 1846 to 1852, and then 
David Brown 1853 to 1855, when C. Oman bought Motipore 
and managed till 1858-59, he sold out and A. McD. 
MaoBae took up the management, followed by George 
Toomey in 1866, then M, Smith, James Stewart, and in 
1870 by Frank Hamley who had to go home ill and died 
in England. From 1888 to 1892, Tom Barclay and his 
bjr.ther managed. The factory is now, 1905, managed by 
Tom Barclay. There is one grave in the Motipore Garden 
thus : " Sacred to the memory of Lucy, infant daughter of 
W. E. Cahill, Captain^ 40th Begiment, B, N. I. and Anna 
Jane, his wife, who died 25th March 1850, aged 3 months. "^ 
Captain Cahill was a son of old Mr. B. Cahill. I believa 
he retired from his regiment which was stationed at Dina- 
pore not long before it mutinied there. Tatereah was an 
outwork of Motipore, but was sold to D. B. and A. Crawford 
in about 1852-53. 

Munghulgurh Factory was originally an outwork of 
Munghulffurh Dowlutpore and was built in the fifties by 
L. McD. & W. C. Baddeley. The proprietors now are F. 
Murray, C. Mackay and the estate of the late 
E. M. Murray. This factory was built within the last fifty 
years and is comparatively new. It is now an independent 
end flourishing concern. Mr. E. M. Murray, who had. 
managed for many years, died suddenly and is buried at 
Dcwlutpore 1905. Present manager Mr. Finch. 

The original factory stood on the banks of the river 
Gunduk, and as it was gradually being washed 
W. 8. O. away the proprietors started building a new 
factory on a lake some little distance from the old factory. 
The original factory was built on milkiat which was acquired 
direct from Government many years ago. The new indigo 
factory is also built on milkiat. Husna is the oldest out- 
work and was, when I first remember it in 1847, a sugar 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 37 

factory. Mahomedpore Factory, another outwork, was built 
after 1851-52. Ghoserama built in 1880-81 and Misrawlia, 
near Mahomedpore outwork, a few years later. Messrs. G. 
iSwaine and Letbbridge bought Ottur Concern from Messrs. 
Oillanders Arbutbnot and Co. in the seventies. G^o. 
Swaine managed for several years and was succeeded by R. 
F. Lethbridge, then A. Maclver, these managed for short 
periods. R. Hudson succeeded Maclver and has managed 
ever since off and on. While he was away in the nineties 
V. Hickley managed. Su^r operations were revived in 
1900 and the property was transferred to the India Develop- 
ment Co., Ld., in 1904. Ottur Concern dehaut 
covers an area of some 83,000 bighas. Ottur is a very old 
factory and was in existence certainly in the beginning of 
1800. Pooprie Factory was connected with it in early days. 
Mr. Sterndale was one of the oldest managers of Ottur I 
have heard mentioned. He must have been there before 
1830, for Mr. John Mackenzie, who was an assistant under 
Mr. Sterndale, was manager at Pundoul in the thirties. I 
see by the collectorate records that in about 1793, Mr. James 
Oentil, who came to India in 1773, was manager of Ottur. 
After Sterndale I do not know who came, but in 1847 Mr. 
Holloway managed, succeeded by Ferrier; then for a short 
time James from Chupprah then Ogilvie, who very soon left 
Indigo (about 1851) for the Army. Then came W. Garstin, 
followed by Young; then J. MacRae and others till G. 
"Swaine purchased. A daughter of Mr. Sterndale's married 
^ir Cecil Beadon, Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal. 

A. M. Delasaire, a Frenchman, had something to do 
with Ottur in 1847-48 and was very keen on sugaar manu-* 
facture; he dropped a good deal of money. Tom Martin 
was at Husna in 1847-48 with Monsieur Delasaire. The 
last I heard of Delasaire was that he was living in Switzer- 
land, but that was many years ago. There is a good story 



38 BOBTOBY OF BEHAR. 

(old of Monsieur Delasaire. He was not overfond of soap 
and water ; bis wife persuaded him to indulge in a bath and 
this is what she described as having happened. Delasaire, 
he say, very brave I go to bath. Very good I say and he 
go. I hear plenty water fall on the ground. So I go and 
see. What I see, ah Delasaire pour the water on the ground. 
Ah Delasaire you cunning ! ! 

Ottur Factory in the past used to build a tazia for the 
Moslem ryots living round, but that has been stopped for 
many years now. 

This was an interloping factory and was built in the 
Peerakpore Ottur dehat by Chummun Lall and Nuttoo 
M. W. H. Lg^ii Chowdry, bankers of Mozufferpore. The 
factory was first put down at a village called Rowna, but this 
place was found to flood and only lasted one year, 1866, 
after that it was abandoned and Peerakpore built in 1867. 
Lewis Baptiste built Rowna and Ellis Peerakpore. Ellis 
managed for the Chowdries for some years, then James 
Stewart, after him Exshaw, W. Llewhellin, John Grant and 
H. Holloway. After the failure of the Chowdry bankers the 
factory was bought by Henry Hudson and managed by one 
of his sons for some time. Mr. W. J. Ross is the present 
manager, 1905. 

I can gain very little information as to the early days 
Rajkund ^^ Rajkund or Awrai Factory as the natives 
W. & M. M. call it. A rather dilapidated cash book, dated 
1817-19, shows tliat K. Huggins (I suppose the man who 
died at Kemna Buchour, in 1836) managed and that he 
drew his cash from Kumtoul. So that most likely Rajkund 
was an outwork of Kumtoul Concern in those days. During 
•Mr. Huggins' time they grew indigo for the sake of the seed. 
Boats as well aa carts were used to carry Indigo to the 
factory. In 1841-42 Lewis Cooke managed. His assistant^ 



K 



mSTOBT OF BEHAB. d(^ 

WM Menzles, a very sin«rt youngster, but unfortumittely be 
took to drink and was sent home to his friends in Ou^rniey 
in 1849, William Forest was also assistant and. died of 
cholera in October, 1846, aged 17 years. He is buried in 
the garden. He died when Andrew Crawford was laanagor. 
If I remember rightly Cooke quarrelled with his employers 
and left. He tried to establish a factory at Sydpore in 
1845, but being opposed he sold his claim over Sydpore to 
Rajkund and the place worked as an outwork from Bajkund^ 
but was eventually abandoned. In 1847-48, Williamson 
was assistant to Andrew Crawford ; he was supposed to know 
something about sugar and either he or his cousin composed 
the sarcastic lines about sugar, beginning. " The Lion King 
stretched out his hand " and talked of cheapness of labour 
and richness of land (see " Tirhoot and Ss Inhabitants of the 
Past.") This was meant as a cut at Mr. Robinson, who pre- 
tended to know a lot about sugar. Williamson was followed 
by James Begg in 1851. D. H. MacFarlane followed A. 
Crawford and J. Begg. In 1852 C. Swaine managed from 
Contai and P. MacFarlane was assistant, and in 1853-55,. 
J. S. Begg, P. MacFarlane and D, H. MacFarlane, all had 
a look in. In 1855-56 C. Swaine superintended and W. 
Oman managed for a short time. Then Harry Brown came 
in and managed to his death with the exception of a short 
time when he was sent up to Cawnpore in 1858 to look after 
Begg Christi's indigo seed business. While there he had to 
fly for his life from the Bareilly mutineers and seek refuge 
in . the entrenchments. Wilkinson, another assistant at 
Rajkund, broke his neck riding in a steeple, or hurdle race 
iii Calcutta. He was followed by A. Grant. Then when 
Belsund and Rajkund became the property of J.* F. and W. 
Mackenzie in about 1870 W. Campbell became their manager 
and managed till 1873. In 1874 A. R. H. M#cEwen: mm* 
aged. In 1857, H. Sp^ajter ©lan^ged im^ ff^ Sf^gg;. 



40 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

he l^ft in 1860, when W. Riddell took charge. The factoty 
now belongs to Mr. M« H. McKenzie, is partially closed as 
an indigo factory. It is managed now, 1905, by Mr. M. H. 
Mackenzie, who pays the place occasional visits from Rewari 
Factory. 

Rooni Sydpore was built in 1862-63 by Mr. R. P. 

. « ^ Irvine. This factory interloped on the Belsund 

Rooni.Sydpor, '^ ^ 

J. M. & Co., and Rajkund dehat, and after a good deal of 

8 R 
* ' fighting a boundary was arranged about Sep- 

tember 1865. It stands near the site of Sydpore Factory, 
which Mr. Cooke tried to build when he left Rajkund. Mr. 
Irvine was followed by Mr. A. H. Renniein 1889. He, poor 
fellow, was killed on boardship going home and was buried 
at Suez. See *' Tirhoot and its Inhabitants of the Past." 
JMr. J. H. Smith took over charge from Rennie in 1883-84, 
and on his leaving in 1891 Mr. E. Stevens took charge, fol- 
lowed by Mr. De Vitse, the present manager, in 1903. 

This factory again has no records to show and I can 
Shahpore 0., only refer my readers to " Tirhoot and its In- 

S. habitants of the Past" for any information I 

«an give them. Shahpore O. was built in 1790 by Joseph 
Finch, the head of the Finch family. In 1847-48 Justin 
Finch managed, succeeding his brother Frederick. Justin 
died in 1861, and was buried at Monghyr; his body was 
exhumed some years after and buried by the side of other 
members of the Finch family at Patna. After Justin 
Finch's death Frederick came back from England and took 
charge, Mr. M. J. Wilson having managed during the in^ 
terval. F« Finch brought out C. Strachan, an old friend, 
but he getting into bad health returned to England, giving 
charge to M. Lloyd, who had been an assistant in the concern 
for many years. He managed the place for many years after 
to th# great benefit of the concern. The management was 



HISTORY OF BEHAB. 41 

then made over to W. Finch, a son of Joseph Finch and one 

of the heirs. After him came his brother-in-law Carshore, 

I do not exactly know to whom the place now belongs, but 

Mr. E. Abbott is managing, I believe, for Messrs. Kilburn 

and Co. Poor W. Finch died suddenly on the day of his 

daughter's wedding at Shahpore Oondie Factory and is, I 

believe, buried there. John Be6ehr, who died in 1847-48 

when on his way from Calcutta, is also buried in the garden. 

The lands belonging to the Factory are being sold off piece 

meal. A melancholy end to a fine old concern. 

The mokararie pottah of this factory is dated 1799. It 

is on a one rupee stamp and bears the seal of 

Mircha^^ ^^^ Kazi. Like so many of the other old Fac- 

« ?; ., tories in Tirhoot there are no old records to 
C. McK. • 

show names of managers. The furthest back 

I can go and that is hearsay is that Cooke was manager in 
the early thirthies and James Cox assistant under him. The 
next manager must have been Drummond, and it was he 
who made Kalipersaud (whose wife is the present proprie- 
tress) moonshee. After Drummond came Sam Johnson, and 
he was managing in 1847, but died in 1848 when W. C. 
Baddeley took charge. Then C. Strachan, then W. C. 
Baddeley, again followed by M. J. Wilson, George Smith, 
and others till James Smith took charge on George Smith's 
death and eventually bought in in partnership with Kaliper- 
saud. Byng and others purchased a share after and Byng 
managed. Then there was a quarrel and Musoonat Januk 
Koer, Kalipersaud's widow, became sole proprietreiss. Old 
Kalipersaud never forgot Drummond's having promoted him 
for many years after when Drummond was in distress, he 
asked me to offer Drummond some Rs. 10,000 which he had 
idle in the fikctory to use and repay him when better times 
came. Besides graves of children there are two graves with- 
out inscriptions and no one seems to know about them. 



49 nmTOBY OF BEHAR. 

Then there is one sacred to iEe memory of Samuel Johnson^ 
who died on 7th August 1848, in the 73rd year of hi* age. 
Another to the memory of Greorge Smith, who died on 25th 
July 1862, aged 46. I do not know who owned Shahpore 
Mircha before the Tirboot Association of London bought 
it, when they dissolved partnership in 1856^7 or there- 
abouts, Kalipersaud and James Smith purchased. I remem- 
ber Kalipersaud telling me of a man who managed in his 
younger days. I cannot remember his name, but he was 
supposed to be a first-rate man, but Kali remarked he had 
one fault and that was every now and then he would retire 
to his room with a case of gin and would never be seen again 
till the case was finished. He was as Kali said " Nehait 
Huaiar, O hurra zubberdustJ* E. D. M. Exshaw took up 
the management in 1896 and still manages for the present 
proprietor Babu Judoo Nundun Sahaie. This Factory has 
not been worked as an Indigo Concern for the last two years, 
Babu Jadoo Nundun Sahaie the present proprietor is the 
adopted son of the late Babu Gujraj Sahaie. A fine Hospital 
was founded at Baglie where the family reside. It was 
opeijed by Mr. L. Hare (now Sir L. Hare, Lieutenant- 
Governor of Eastern Bengal), when Collector of Tirhoot. 
Tbd Hospital is called the " Gujraj Hospital. '^ It was opened 
in 1895, the Hospital is endowed with sufficient property to 
support it for this act the Babu was thanked by Government 
and would have been made a Ray Bahadur had he lived a 
few months longer. Babu Judoo Nundun and the local 
committee take a deep interest in the working of the Gujraj 
Hospital where much good work has been done and an 
average of about 10,000 patients treated annually. 

Sirsiah Indigo Factory was built in 1883 by Babus 
Mathoqra and Hunopm^m I>a{^ of Mozaffarpore i4 ^siah 
Buzrug and Mr, Birch was appointed as Man^&r. ■ It was 
an. interloping factory >n t^e Kanti agdjl^audpor^ Dehats. . 



HXOTQRY OF lEHAR. iS 

In th^ liegmxdag of 190;^ Bai Q^unga Praahad Bixifh, of 
DiirbhuQgA^ got a decree over Mat!hoora and Hunoomim Dasr 
and i^old up aad purchased under their decree. 

In 1901 Kanti Factory took over the place from Rai 
Ounga Prashad Singh in settlements of a decree for rents. 

The factory buildings were knocked down and all the 
machinery taken to Kanti. 

In 1905 Sirsiah was leased for 6 years to Behar Planters 
Association Ld., as a Research Station and is carried on 
with the Bengal Grovernment grant by an advising Committee. 

A considerable sum has been sunk in equipping an up- 
to-date Laboratory and Factory. The Staff consists of Messrs. 
C, Bergtheil (in charge) R. V. Briggs, J. G. TurnbuU and 
R. Macgregor and already some practical and sound results 
have been obtained, and the future only can show what good 
and permanent benefit the work carried on there will be 
to the Industry. 

This is another old factory where no records are to be- 
Surryiah found. Native traditions give Zeigler as the 
C. K. M. Z, c. man who built Surryiah. He was a planter in 
about James Gibbon's time and owned Setalpore Factory^, 
near Sonepore, in the Sarun district. In 1847-48 or there- 
abouts the late Edward Studd managed Surryiah. For 
further particulars see " Tirhut and its Inhabitants of the 
Past " and the history of Dholi Concern. 

The Surryiah concern now belongs to the Mahara^jah of 
Durbhunga an,d the estate of the late George Llewhellin. 
It was managed for many years by the late E. S. Llewhellin, 
followed by R. Summers. It is now managed by Mr. Falkner. 
The only grave at Surryiah is to the memory of John Living- 
stone Neale, who died in July 1866. After writing the 
above the managi^> of Surryiah, who had been searcking for 
informatioui very kindly sent me the follp^ii;ig< Sirob iaoka*- 



U HISTORY OF BEHAR* 

rarie pottah was dated 1802, for 25 bigahs of land in Mouza 
Karara Dakli Rohna (Sirkar Hajeepore) from Chowdry 
Bhairo Dutt, of Bassantpore, in favour of Mr. Page, dated 
1802. In 1811 Mr. Boldvaite got another 15 bighas of Brit 
land as mokararie from Divaladhari Misser. It appears 
Messrs. Colvin and Co. held the factory at one time but 
how they acquired it there is no record to show. They, how- 
ever, sold to Mr. Leonard Zeigler, of Setalpore, in 1826. In 
1830 Mr. Zeigler leased the factory to Mr. Henry Hill for 
one year and afterwards sold it to Messrs. Henry Hill and 
Dr. Charles Mackinnon in 1831 for Rs. 1,40,000 and sub- 
sequently Mr. H. Hill sold his 8 annas to Dr. C. Mackinnon, 
who became 16 annas proprietor. In the same year Dr. C. 
Mackinnon sold 4 annas to Mr. Fergusson. In 1835 Mr. 
Fergusson resold to Dr. C. Mackinnon for Rs. 45,000. In 
1836 Dr. C. Mackinnon built Azizpore on 12 bighas of land 
acquired from Bhola Jha. In 1845 Mr. E. Studd purchased 
Coalporah village from Dr. C. Mackinnon for Rs. 50,000. 
Coalporah outwork was built, in 1835 by F. Collingridge, in 
this year Surryiah, Azizpore, and Coalporah with Dholi fao- 
torieb were leased to Captain W. Sloane for one year. The 
following are the managers from 1853, viz.: — ^E. Studd, H. 
Hudson 1856, E. D. Urquhart 1864, H. MacDonald 1869, 
who built Mahomedpore outworks, acquiring the land from 
Babu Pirti Singh and others of Gariba. In 1879 Mr. C. 
W. Thomas managed and in 1880. Henry Studd, son of 
Ed\vard Studd. On the sale of Surryiah to the Maharajah 
of Durbhunga and Mr. G. E. Llewhellin, Mr. G. Llewhellin 
took charge then in 1882 E. S. Llewhellin followed by H. 
Manners, B. S. Llewhellin in 1885, R. B. Summers in 1897. 
£. Marsham in 1899, R. B. Summers again in 1900, and 
-J. M. Falkner in 1905, who is still managing, Karnejee, 
another outwork, was built about 1883-84, but there is no 
record to show this. Mr. C. Bell is now managing 1907. 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. i^ 

This factory is interesting as it dates back to 1791 and 
g. . originally belonged to the Dutch. The moka- 

G. I. Go. rarie pottah being written in the Dutch char- 
acter had to be sent to Hamburg for translation 
before it could be used in court. I now add an abstract of 
information kindly put at my service by Mr. Gordon, the- 
present manager (1905): In 1791 the land on which Singia 
(or as the natives call it Lallgunge after a big bazaar in the 
vicinity) stands, viz,, some 14 bighas was put up for sale 
by the Dutch East India Company on the 29th of July 1791 
and bought by a Bengali merchant by name Juggemath 
Sircar. The land was sold by an auctioneer called Hendrick 
Alleright Dalle for Rs. 100 sicca. In 1705 to 1801 it was 
sold by Juggernath Sircar to Mr. John Colliss on the 11th 
January 1795 at Patna for Rs. 435 as shown in the Bengali 
endorsement on the Dutch deed signed by Juggernath Sircar 
and witnessed by R. Dalatin. In the Statistical Account of 
Bengal by W. W. Hunter, B.A., LL.D., Vol. XIII, Tirhoot 
and Chumparun will be found " Singia " indigo factory 
situated close to the embankment of the big Gunduk river 
was originally a settlement of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany for manufacturing saltpetre and was one of the first 
factories occupied by Europeans in Tirhoot. As early as 
1812 the manager wrote that if had been the property oi 
Europeans from time immemorial. In 1801-1803 it was 
sold by John Colliss to Mr. James Naysmith at Bankipore. 
on the 21st March 1801, for Rs. 750 sicca. This is shown 
by endorsement on Dutch deed signed by John Colliss and 
witnessed by James Fallerly and Mathew Moran and alsa< 
by an English deed of sale on stamped paper signed John 
Collier and witnessed by H. W. Wareham, junior, and 
Mathew Moran. Registered in the office of zilla Tirhoot on 
Saturday, 13th June 1801, at 3 o'clock in the day and entered 
in page 297» etc., etc. It was sold by James Naysmith to;. 



46 HISTOEY OP BEHAH. 

James Gibbon at Patna on 18th January 1803 for Rs. 750 
sicca. Singia consisted of three factories in 1824 to 1835, 
viz,, Singia, Bhyropore, Anarpore, and was sold by Jam^s 
Gibbon described as planter at Calcutta to John Abbott in 
trust for Mesrs. Alexander and Co., of Calcutta, in 18^. 
H. Fi^gerald as of Singia obtained a transfer of all right and 
title in Chayton Pursa on the 15th December 1828 from 
Joseph Simon Finch. A boundary agreement was made be- 
tween Jalalpore Joseph Simon Finch and Chayton Pursa. 
H. Fitzgerald 12th January 1829. 

H. Fitzgerald seems almost immediately after this to 
have conveyed Chayton Pursa to Messrs. Alexander and Co., 
'23rd and 24th February 1829. In 1736 a boundary agree- 
ment was made between Chayton Pursa by H. Fitzgerald and 
Ramkolah. This is shown by an old parchment deed dated 
31st December 1836, which recites that the above conveyance 
had been made and also that on the 23rd and 24th February 
1829 Harold Fitzgerald of Singia and Eliza, his wife, had 
con\eyed to John Abbott in trust for Messrs. Alexander and 
Co., factory of Chayton Pursa in 1835-1836 all right and 
title in Singia. Bhyropore, Anarpore belonging to H. Fitz- 
geiald were made over to assignee for insolvent estate of 
Messrs. Alexander and Co. The assignee to the insolvent 
estate of Messrs. Alexander and Co. sold Singia, Bhyropore, 
Anarpore, and Chayton Pursa to George Folly Hodgkinson, 
merchant, Calcutta, for Rs. 50,000 sicca in 1836-1837. In 
1837 to 1852 George Folly Hodgkinson sold Singia. Bhyro- 
pore Anarpore, and Chayton Pursa, i.e., the Singia Concern 
to Richard Austen Fitzgerald for Rs. 50,000 on 7th July 
1837 

From mortgage deeds to Gisborne and Co., dated 29th 
June 1837, it appears that R. A. Fitzgerald owed them 
Rs. 30,754 and from Singia deeds, dated 1838-3d, it appears 
lie only mortgaged four-sixteenth of Singia. Between this 



HISTORY OF BEHAa. 47 

and 1848 there are transactions between Gisbome and Co. 
and Baring Brothers and between 1848-1852 there are five 
deeds leasing and releasing several factories including Singia 
(described as indigo and sugar between Baring Brothers eaxd 
J. Farm and Co.)? In 1852 the Ganges Indigo Company 
was formed as from 1st October 1852. Besides Gisbome 
and Oo. and Baring Brothers a Mr. George Brown is a party 
to the document and seems to have sold an interest in some 
factories in Bhauglepore, Dehri^ and Allahabad, Hattiousti 
and Singiah, Tirhoot, to the people belonging to the Com- 
pany. The Ganges Indigo Company consisted of 110 shares. 
The following were the shareholders: — 

Baring Brothers, 55 shares, Rs. 27,500 

T. M. Gisborne, 34 „ „ 17,000 

John Dougal 12 „ „ 6,000 

George Dougal 9 „ ,, 4,500 



Total „ 55,000 



The Company went into partnership for five years. 
Gisbome and Co., were appointed managers in India. Singia 
was described in the schedule as consisting of four factories 
and 40 vats. Mr. James Gibbon, mentioned as a purchaser 
of Singia in 1803, is the same as afterwards had charge of 
the Burhamporah Saltpetre works in 1847-1848. He had a 
large family of daughters and I believe only one son who 
was wounded during the Mutiny and died. Old Mr. James 
Gibbon, I believe, died at Burhamporah, near Doudpore 
Factory, Tirhoot. Of his daughters one married John 
Anderson of Hatowrie (see " Tirhoot and its Inhabitants of 
the Past.'') One James Cosseratt, one Pell Cosseratt, and 
one Colonel C. Smith. There were other daughters, but 
I forget who they married. Old Mrs. Gibbon lived to a good 
old age; I remember seeing her when she . was about 90, 



48 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

and it was wonderful what an active old lady she was. Here 
is a translation of the Dutch document^ but it seems very 
imperfect. " The witness whereof appeared before us the 
Acting Secretary of the Honourable Council at this place, 
James Vender Brock, andT made known to us that on the 
29th of the past month of July by order of the Honourable 
Isac Fitsough, member of the Defence Council at Baland 
and Director at this settlement with the aforesaid member 
of the Court, of Judicature, had been publicly put up for 
sale to the highest bidder the undermentioned pieciss of 
ground the property of the Dutch East India Company^ 
viz.: — First, the factory at Singia, consisting of a house 
building of two stories with two halls above as well as below, 
two rooms and verandah, battle-khanas, cook-room, peons' 
house, and two godowns. Second, the appertaining grounds 
near the house in 13 bighas bearing summer house standing 
on it and a number of fruit and other trees as also two 
tanks. Third, another appertaining piece of ground contain- 
ing one bigha and two cottahs planted with divers trees 
over which goes a public road, so that these two pieces of 
ground contain 14 bighas and two cottahs. Fourth, a piece 
of ground half a mile from Singia called Naginabagh and 
contains two and a half bighas. That all these parcels be 
sold by the auctioneer Hendrick AUeright Dalle upon and 
for account of a Bengal merchant Juggernath Sircar for a 
sum of Rs. 100 sicca rupees. He also for the Company 
declaring having been by his aforesaid quality expressly 
authorized for it and therefore in the name of the Honour- 
able Director and Council for and were during the said 
general Dutch East India Company to own over and transfer 
the right of property of which the said Company has been 
in the mentioned possession to and for use of the aforesaid 
^y Juggernath Sircar, who by the said public purchase be- 
<;ame the lawful proprietor of it and for which having duly 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 49 

paid the sum of one hundred sicca rupees do promise there- 
fore in the name aforesaid this transfer at all times to free 
and indemnity at the place where it ought to be done. 
Actum Hooghly in Bengal this 29th day of October 1791 — 
Signed H. Demaffe, C. J. Van Neorap. 

Of the Singia outworks Nawada was built in 1871, 
Chukdowlut 1864, Ponra in 1890. Bhyropore stands down 
to the east of Hajeepore, near the Ganges and was shut up 
many years ago. Chayton Pursa, a factory on the west 
side of the big Gunduk in the Sarun district, has passed 
into other hands. 

The following tomb stones and inscriptions are to be 
found at Singia: — To the memory of Eliza Fitzgerald, died 
27th May 1827. Mr. George Dolly, died July 1828. Mrs. 
Eliza Fitzgerald, died 28th June 1880. Edward Fitzgerald 
died 4th October 1881, Barbara Finch, died 9th February 
1840. Henry James Neale, died 5th November 1864, Mark 
Lines, died 28th April 1900. 

In 1847-1848 or later the Singia Concern was placed by 
the Ganges Indigo Company, under the late Edward Studd's 
.uperintendence. It was afterwards purchased by W. 
Riddell, F. Collingridge, and Dr. Booth and was under several 
successive managers. It is now (1905) managed by Mr. 
Gordon. Since then the Factory has been sold up piece 
meal and is practically shut up 1907. 

Tatareah was originally under Motipore. It stood to 
the north of the Boer Gunduk and not far 
a area . from the Bagmatti. It became a separate con- 
cern in 1853-54, when it was purchased by D. R. Crawford 
and A. Crawford. I can find no record as to when the fac- 
tory was built, but it is among the old ones. It is here 
that in the early 1800 in one of those mad frolicKs planters 
went in for, they set fire to a man I think called " James " 
by pouring a bottle of spirits over him and setting him alight 



50 HISTORY OF BEHAB. 

which killed him. There was an outwork near the Bag- 
matti river now closed. I forget the name. Bala, an out- 
work near the Boer Gunduk, was built by T. O. B. Norman 
in 1880. Andrew Crawford took up the management shortly 
after the purchase of the factory but he died of cholera in 
1867. Shortly after his death his brother, David, came out 
and James Smith was installed as manager. When James 
Smith left, the factory was sold to BuUen and eventually 
to G. Swaine and Lethbridge. Then Mrs. Power, nee Miss 
Alice Swaine, became proprietress with the Macqueens, 
Norman, and A. W. Wyatt. Mrs. Power finally parted with 
all her share. W. Macqueen managed for many years ani 
then retired home. W. King came in lately as manager 
and now B. S. Hickey is manager in 1905. There are only 
two graves with inscriptions — (1) to the memory of George 
Medicott, who died 19th October 1842, aged 43; (2) to the 
memory of Andrew Crawford, who died 30th June 1857, 
aged 42. 

Urneah was originally an outwork of Shahpore Oondi. 
It was built by Justin Finch in the early fifties. 
^^ ^' It was sold not many years ago to Babu Nundun 

Lall, who owns the village the factory stands on, viz., Jhan- 
daha. Urneah stands to the north-west of Shahpore Oondi, 
and to the west of the Tal Bareila, that fine piece of water 
which is crowded with every description of wild duck and 
thousands of snipe. The Tal is so long that a shot fired at 
one end is scarcely audible at the other. The shooting is 
done from dug outs and sportsmen often bring home grand 
bags. The native shikari with his matchlock has, however,, 
made the birds very wild. 

I find I have not recorded Pundoul, Nurharh, Joynuggur, 
or Kumtoul. All these factories belong to the Maharajah 
of Durbhunga. There are no records as far m I remember, 
but what I give from memory which does not date back 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 51 

much further than 1847. Pundoul existed well back into 
the thirties, for we know Kemna or Buchaur was working 
then as an outwork of Pundoul. John Gale put down a good 
part of the concern into sugarcane in 1845 or thereabouts. 
John Gale sold to G. N. Wyatt, he, Gale, having I think 
bought out R. Cahill's estate share. After John Gale left, 
his two sons, John and Marmaduke, followed each other as 
managers. Then Wyatt bought and sold to the Maharajah 
of Durbhunga. I can find no records of who built Narharh. 
Natives say that a Mr. Long took a mokararie in Narharh 
in 1825, when the village belonged to the Rajah of Tirhoot. 
It was working as a sugar factory in 1847-48, when it was 
managed by L. Cosseratt. Joynaggur was also working as a 
sugar factory, managed by James Cosseratt, but both these 
concerns had been indigo tfactoHes before sugar teta^(^^. 
Narharh afterwards fell into the hands of John M. Becher 
and others and then became the property of Durbhunga, 
who had large landed properties round about. Joynaggur 
also became Becher's, but before then Mr. A. Christian built 
a house there ; he was then doing a big timber trade, selling 
sleepers to the E. I. Railway. Kumtoul was purchased 
in about 1848 by Mr. James, Wilson and then was bought 
by Mr. George Anderson from Mr. James Wilson's estate 
in 1856-57. It after that became the Rajah's property, and 
when Mr. George Anderson retired from the country and 
Durbhunga purchased the place from him, the late Maharajah 
gave Mr. George Anderson a handsome pension, which he 
enjoyed till his death a few years ago. This pension was 
given in recognition of Anderson's services as manager to 
the Raj during the minority of the two young Rajahs. Of 
the above factories, Narharh and Joynaggur still do indigo 
in a small way as also Pundoul. But Ibelieve Kumtoul has 
shut up as an indigo factory and is kept purely as a zemin- 
dari. Mr. Summers manages Pundoul and Mr. Birch Kewan, 



52 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

or Buchour. I do not exactly know who are at Narharh or 
Joynaggur, but the indigo from Joynaggur comes to Narharh. 
Kumtoul we know was where Mr. John Anderson used to 
be, but we have no record who built it. Before 1845 a 
Mr. Richardson managed ; he had been at Kumtoul for some 
years and was a proprietor, but had to leave in about 1846. 
He saw a good deal of this country and had a son and several 
daughters. One married Bob Taylor and one Guinness, a 
relation of the Irish brewers. The son got into the English 
army, served through the Sikh war. The Tommies called 
him " Black Daniel," but at one of the battles and when the 
regiment got into a tight place, he is reported to have rushed 
to the front and called out *' Who'll follow Black Daniel? '' 
and with a roar of applause the men flew after him. 

The following factories have been completely shut up 
and some of them hardly exist: Amoih, where old Mr. 
Lethbridge (see " Tirhoot and its Inhabitants of the Past " 
used to command the show and lead a peaceful life after his 
experiences as a middy at Trafalgar. Jamoih, where Arthur 
Crooke hoped to make a fortune but never managed to get 
his sugar machinery across the sands of the Bagmatti. It 
is all buried in the sand there to this day. Poopree, the 
factory that in about 1835 was classed as one of the finest 
in Tirhoot, as by a memo, made in 1830 or so which was 
shown to the writer in 1859. The estimated value being 
much above any other factories in the district. In those days 
men looked upon low lands as the best. They gave it a 
scrape with the plough and sowed a few seers of indigo seed 
per bigha; if the season was dry it meant a fortune, if wet 
the dJiati crop paid for rent and the seed and perhaps gave 
a small profit. Nawada, where poor old John Anderson died 
of a broken heart, as his old servant had failed him in help- 
ing him with money to buy the place, is now a ruined and 
shut up factory. There is no trace as to who built it, but 



*. 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 53 

many tried it and struck on rocks and were wrecked. Beer- 
pore and Balaha' and one or two otlier small places cease to 
exist except in name. I often wonder if the ghost of old 
George Mitchell or Alfred Tripe are to be seen at night 
wandering among the ruins of Amoih, where they passed so 
many years of their youth, or does Joseph Tripe's spirit moon 
about the remains of Dynechappra, where he lived for so 
long before he was called away to loin the great majority. 
Dynechappra was an old factory; it is near Majorgunge, 
the old military station on the Nepal boundary. The old 
sentry boxes are there still and the wells. There is also the 
ruins of several of the officers' bungalows and mess house. 
The graveyard, which had been much neglected, was put 
into repair some years ago by Government, but a number of 
tablets had been removed. For a memo, of the few old 
tombstones existing, see " Doomra Factory." Mr. F. Col- 
lingridge, who managed Dynechappra in the thirties died in 
1905, aged 91. A fine specimen of an old English gentle- 
man. I think I have given the history of nearly all fac- 
tories in Tirhoot, excepting Burgong alias Bouchoulie alias 
Himie. I believe this place with its outwork, Pie, were built 
by Mr. Alexander Drummond Mitchell, who died at Hatti- 
Oustee in 1846. He built a sugar factory near Himie called 
Bisereah which has been closed many years. The Factory 
Hernie was closed when I came to Tirhoot, but in the fifties 
was bought and reopened by Mr. Lauchlin MacDonald, 
who, after a good deal of fighting and worry, managed to 
get a cultivation. He sold towards the end of the fifties, 
the factory passing into several hands and not doing much 
good to any one. It now belongs to the brothers Crowdy, 
who have wisely elected to make it inlo a zemindari, and 
as the factory possesses valuable khastkari zeerats and grows 
fine tobacco and other crops it should pay. To the east of 
the outwork. Pie, there is a plain for miles as far as the eye 



64 iilSTORY OF BEHAR. 

can see which is used for grazing cattle and half the poor 
conditioned cattle of Tirhoot go there during the hot weather 
to get a little grass. 

Ryam used to be an outwork of Pundoul Factory and 
has been bought by Mr. Daubeny, who still grows indigo 
there. Tewarah or Burrarie and MunkowHe its outworks 
were purchased for a small sum of money by Messrs. H. 
poll way and K. Shortt and they are working these as zem- 
indaries. Munkowlie has been sold to a native. Tewarrah is 
an old factory, but who built it I cannot say; one Paddy 
Medlicott was there in the early thirties. He died in 1842. 
In 1847 it was purely sugar, though there were indigo vats 
also. The sugar machinery was put down by Mr. Robinson; 
the engine was an enormously powerful one which planters 
round named Goliath of Gath, while the engine at Kumtoul 
was called Rattletrap and another Blowhard. A place 
called " Monkey " was another outwork of Tewarrah for 
sugar, but it shut up long ago. A new outwork for indigo 
was lately built at Tewarrah, but I do not know what has 
become of it, if it is working or shut up. Thurma is another 
factory I have not named. It was in olden days an indigo 
and afterwards a sugar factory. It was attached to Dholi 
at one time and became a separate factory some years ago 
when it was purchased by C. Hay Webb. It was then bought 
by Nickolls, to whom it still belongs. It stands to the north 
of Suckri Factory, an outwork of Dholi. Paharpore and 
Banday, interloping factories built by Teg Ali and his 
brothers flourished for several years, but are now almost 
extinct. Bokraha or Chucksecunder was built by the late 
Mr. M. Lloyd. I believe it has now closed as an indigo 
factory and lapsed into its old position as zemindari. Aftev 
Mr. M. Lloyd's death his heirs sold the property, which wag 
l>ought by Babu Vishnath Persad Mahta, who kept it as an 
indigo factory for a short time, but treats it as a zemindari; 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 55 

now I believe cotton has been attempted there, but the Cat 
<jutta firm who leased it were met by the good old Tirhoot 
lattee and had to beat a retreat. Pokerairah F-actory built 
by Abdul AH and after bought by Ray Gunga Persad is also 
shut up and worked as a zemindari. Begoo Serai was pur- 
chased by James Hennessey in 1864, from Lala Ram Nareen 
Singh. He, James Hennessey, sold to F. H. Hollway in 1869, 
who continued sole proprietor until the property was sold to C. 
H. Crowdy a few years ago and he sold to Mr. L. O'Reilly 
who at present is proprietor and manager. Niagong was pur^ 
chased by L. J. Crowdy and C.J. Feron from Roy Luchmipal 
Singh, Bahadur. L. Crowdy in 1892 purchased Mr. C. J. 
Feron's share and sold the whole concern to Mr. R. J. Car- 
ruthers. This place is, I understand, now closed. If I have 
left out any factory I hope my readers in the Indian Planters 
Gazette will put me right. If I have omitted anything of 
interest or if any one can give me any data where I have 
failed to get them I need not say how obliged I will be for 
information. Many have given me great help and I thank 
them. I yet hope to succeed in making this as perfect A 
history of factories as one can expect from the meagre records 
to be found, but I must be helped. 

This ends my History of Tirhoot Factories and I will 
begin on Sarun Factories in my next. But before I begin 
on them I would like to make the following corrections and 
additions; Contai and Motipore were bought in 1866 aa 
one concern by K. MacLeod and James Cox, 8 annas each; 
of this Cox gave G. Toomey, senior, 2 annas, George Toomey, 
senior, was then manager of Motipore. Tom Martin went t p 
manage Contai about this time or a little later. Then 
Toomey, senior, went to Contai, being succeeded at Motipore 
lay Maxwell Smith, who was succeeded by James Stewart 
and he was succeeded by Tom Fraser, one of the present 
proprietors of Motipore. The old outwork of Contai, Bagaie, 



56 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

is nearly as old as the head factory; there are three graves 
in the compound of Regale, one to the memory of Charles 
Hclman Swaine, who died in 1845, another to Alexander 
Mitchell, who died in 1843; on a third grave there is no 
inscription, but the natives say a man, called Necknam 
Saheb, who was a planter visitor, was killed by a Brahmini 
bull which charged his dog-cart, upsetting it and killing him 
on the spot. The name of Johnson will be noticed as having 
been at many factories and I find that he was at Dowlatpore 
in 1837 just fitting in between John Brown and R. Ronald. 
A friend of mine writes me as follows : — " A Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnson are buried near Tollygunge, Calcutta; they died 
About 100 years ago ; he is noted as having owned an indigo 
factory in Tirhoot. Can he be the same man?" B^oo 
Serai was built by Hennessey some years ago and became 
part of Munjoul. But was sold by the concern and bought 
lately by the brothers Crowdy who again sold, it is being 
worked, I understand, as a zemindari. Purorie or Monjie, 
another shut up factory, was built by F. Collingridge and 
Dr. Macnamara in the Doulutpore Dehat. There was a good 
deal of unpleasantness and fighting in court over it ; Baddeley 
was very angry, but could do nothing. The place has since 
died a natural death. I would strongly recommend to my 
readers who take an interest in the statistics of the districts 
to read with this the Statistical Account of Bengal by W. 
(W. Hunter, B.A., L.D., compiled by W. A. Mackie, C.S., 
Vol. XIII., Tirhoot and Chumparun. This book can be had 
from Trubner and Co., London. It was lent to me by a 
friend and I have found it very interesting and useful. I 
see mentioned in it that Bowarrah was worked by Messrs. 
Rich and Schum in 1793, and it goes on to say that ten 
years after Mahomedpore, Balsor (Belsund ?) Pipra, Dulsing, 
Serai, Jeetwarpore, Tewarrah, Kumtoul came to life. Be* 
fore these Daudpore, Suryah and Dhoolie — worked by Wil- 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 57 

liam Orby Hunter, Duria by Mr. Finch and Shabpore by 
Mr. Purvis — existed. Cbitwarh, Pupri, Shabpore, Oondie 
were started in 1792. About them the Collector of Tirhoot 
received orders that no European was to hold land until he 
had received permission of the Governor-General in Council. 

The following will also be found in The Statistical 
Account written in 1877 : — " Under the heading Capital will 
be found an estimate of the annual outlay of the factories 
in Tirhoot. " It is difficult to foretell the future of indigo. 
The practical command of the market which Indian indigo 
has at present, depends on no cheaper substitue being dis- 
covered by chemists' Mr. (now Sir S.) Bayley thinks that prices 
must continue to rise, and to rise considerably, before the 
system is on a satisfactory footing. It will then depend on 
the European market whether the rise can be borne or 
whether it will destroy the trade. Such a destruction would 
even under the present system be an unmitigated calamity 
to the people. But for the present at all events I think we 
need apprehend nothing so serious as the margin of profit 
is large enough even after a considerable rise in rates to allow 
of prudent men working on their own capital getting ample 
returns from indigo." Surely there were prophets in those 
days. 

In 1877 a very black cloud hung over the Indigo in- 
dustry in Behar. 

The Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, Sir Ashley Eden 
having noticed that a large number of criminal cases had 
occurred in the three districts of Sarun, Chumparun and 
Tirhoot, wrote to S. C. Bayley, the Commissioner of Patna, 
asking him to collect the opinion of some of the leading 
planters and officials as to the unsatisfactory relations exist- 
ing between planters and ryats in respect to indigo. 

His Honour was anxious to avert any general disturb- 
ance while at the same time " he is not prepared to tolerate^ 



58 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

a state of things in which -cases of illegal disposession and 
illegal retention of land are causing breaches of the peace 
of a more or less serious nature. His Honour was afraid 
that a Commission might excite men's minds and be fol- 
lowed by a general refusal by the ryats to grow indigo, pay 
rents and cause much litigation and distress to both parties. 
His Honour, therefore suggested that the opinion of com- 
petent officials and planters be asked to consider the defects 
of the present system and see if remedies can be applied.'' 
Mr. S. C. Bay ley on this addressed Mr. Thomas Fraser on 
the subject and he consulted with the late Mr. Greorge 
Toomey. They having put their heads together called a 
meeting of planters on the 2nd April 1877, which was very 
largely attended. 

This meeting was to the following effect, its object being 
to form an association to take into consideration any matters 
brought before it and to protect the planting interest. 

The following is the notice of the meeting and the names 
of those present, etc. — 

On Monday, 2nd April 1877, at a meeting held at the 
Planters' Club, Mozufferpore, it was proposed by Mr. F. 
Collingridge and seconded by Mr. R. Wilson that an asso- 
ciation of indigo planters, managers and proprietors be 
formed to protect tlie interest of the planting community. 
The object of the association should be to take into considera- 
tion any matters or subjects affecting planting interest that 
may be brought before them. The following gentlemen were 
present : — 

F. Collingridge representing Doudpore. 

R. Wilson ,, Joynugpur. 

J. M. Becher ,, Dhurmpore. 

E. Dalgleish ,, Dulsing Serai. 

W. Mackenzie ., Belsund. 



HISTORY OF BJiiHAR. 



59 



W, B. Hudson representing 
R. Hudson ,, 



Pursa. 



C. H. Pope 


» 


Poopri. 


Geo. Toomey 


»i 


Contai. 


T. Lloyd 


>» 


Nurharh. 


H. Thorpe 


ji 


Bahas. 


A. Macintosh 


n 


Dooria. 


Fred. Wilkinson 


)) 


Singiah. 


E. W. Llewhellin 


it 


Rajapatty. 


M. Gate 


n 


Pundoul. 


W. R. Llewhellin 


>> 


Japaha. 


John Gale 


}> 


Pundoul. 


John Grant 


>> 


Feerakpore. 


M. N. McLeod 


n 


Peepra. 


J. J. McLeod 


>> 


Lalseriyah. 


A. Edwards 


)) 


Motihari. 


E. S. Freeman 


V 


Loheria. 


W. Riddell 


>> 


Singiah. 


W. Macgregor 


n 


Doomra. 


Geo. Swaine 


9i 


Ottur. 


J. F. Fraser 


a 


Motipore. 


E. G. Williams 


a 


Behrowlie. 


E. J. C. Studd 


i> 


Dholi. 


F. Murray 


>> 


Burhogah. 



On the 7th June 1877 Mr. S. C. Bayley in reply to Mr. 
T. Fraser writes that His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor 
Bees nothing in the resolutions of the minutes of the meeting 
of the Association touching khooski indigo which would 
bring the planters in direct touch with the ryat and do 
away with the ticcadhari system. But this matter was 
dropped. 

On the 21st June 1877 a Greneral Meeting of the Asso- 
ciation was held at Mozufferpur, when it was settled that 
the Association be called " The Indigo Planters' Association " 



60 HISTORY OP BEHAR. 

and that all interested in indigo cultivation be asked to 
join, also appointing a commiClee etc. 

The Association started with Mr. Thomas Fraser and 
the late George Toomey as Honorary Secretaries. 

On the 29th August 1877 the Lieutenant-Governor of 
Bengal wrote to the Secretary Indigo Planters' Association a& 
follows : — " In reply to final para, of your letter, I am to say 
that as long as the Association show their present willingness to 
n.eet the Lieutenant-Governor's views and to get rid of the 
obvous blots on the system, the Lieutenant-Governor ha& 
no intention of interfering in any way or of doing anything 
which can hamper the planters in the conduct of their busi- 
ness, all he desires is that the law should be strictly obeyed 
and that indigo planting should be carried on like other 
commercial enterprises without the frequent complaints and 
the necessity for executive interference which have hitherto 
characterised it." 

On the 17th December 1877 the Secretary to the Gov- 
ernment of Bengal, wrote that His Excellency the Viceroy 
approved of the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal's action which 
he considers very judicious. His Excellency also cordially 
acknowledged the praiseworthy efforts made by leading 
planters in the direction of reform and concurs with the 
expression of the Lieutenant-Governor's satisfaction. 

On the 15th May 1878, Mr. (now Sir W. B.) Hudson 
was appointed Secretary and the Association became a recog- 
nised fact. 

The -Committee of the different districts took up and 
looked into all complaints made by ryat and planters and 
up-to-date matters have progressed smoothly. 

It was a fortunate thing for the Behar planter that 
they had in the Lieutenant-Governor a man who had experi- 
ence in dealing with similar abuses carried on by the planters 
of Lower Bengal and the disastrous results it had on the 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 61 

industry when the Government of Bengal stepped in hetweea 
planter and ryat. 

Having this experience in view and to avoid a recurrence 
of such a calamity His Honor went direct to the leading 
planters and was happy in his choice of picking out such 
an open minded pair of men as Messrs. Fraser and Toomey. 

The district owes these gentlemen a great debt of 
gratitude. 

I have been asked by some planters to give my ideas 
as to why sugar proved a failure in Behar in 184*5-50 and to 
say what I think of the prospects of its proving a paying 
industry under improved methods of cultivation and manu- 
facture. My experience of sugar during the early years of 
sugar manufacture in Tirhoot did not impress me much in 
favour of its turning out a success, and its eventual abandon- 
ment showed that this was the general idea. However, I 
have had reason after reviewing the faults committed in the 
growing of cane in those bygone days to change or modify 
my views considerably. 

My short experience in the Mauritius was not much 
help to me in advising on the cultivation of cane. There 
the soil is volcanic, and cane was grown year after year in 
the same fields, and such a thing as rotation of crops is 
seldom tried — the finest results in that island were got from 
virgin soil where forests had been cut down — and the aver- 
age result from such lands was about 8,0001bs. per acre. 

The soil of Behar is as a rule light, and a cane crop 
easily exhausts it. The soil north of the Bhagmattee river 
in Tirhoot proper is stiffer and better for. cane, but the lands 
there are liable to inundation. In 1845-50 little or no at- 
tempts at manuring were tried. Most factories grew indigo 
side by side with sugarcane, but the valuable " seeth " (refuse) 
manure was not made use of. In those days saltpetre was 
K very paying industry and the " seeth " was used for fuel 



62 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

in the saltpetre refineries — men who had started sugar were 
utterly ignorant of what was required to make the industry 
a success. All they knew was that Tom, Dick or Harry 
had put down some bighas of cane. They never considered 
that these bighas were small plots of the very best and richest 
lands and that they had got an enormous outturn of what they 
called sugar, and they calculated that if this sugar sold in Cal- 
cutta at a certain figure, fortunes were well in view. What 
was the result? From want of manure or change of lands, 
the produce per bigha fell yearly from, say, 60 maunds per 
bigha to 2^. The sugar granulated after a fashion, but 
after it had been bagged became a sticky mass and the con- 
sequence was that it sold in Calcutta for next to nothing — 
whether it was the climate affected the stuff, or that it 
was undorboiled no one seemed to know. The sugar would 
not show a dry clean grain. Factories had invested in 
expensive machinery and plant — principally open pans. Mr. 
Robinson, an engineer, who had been in Mauritius, intro- 
duced his machinery and boiling plant and, though he pro- 
fessed to be an expert, he knew as little about how cane was 
to bo grown successfully in Behar as those who were already 
working at it. In Tirhoot one factory had set up vacuum 
pans, and the sugar made from these was all that could 
bo desired, and as good as any of the sugar now sold as Cossi- 
poro No. 1, but though those vacuum pans made good sugar 
the lands were exhausted, and production falling to zero 
they had to be shut up. That cane will grow in Behar 
there is no doubt, for I find, in documents of 1793 and 
after, nearly all the old indigo factories in Tirhoot are spoken 
of as being sugar and saltpetre, as well as indigo manufac- 
tories. In some parts of Behar cane grows better than in 
others. The reason why the sugar industry was abandoned 
after 1849-50 was that prices of indigo began to run up 
and the dye sold at very profitable prices, so men did not 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 63 

bother their heads about sugar. Before sugar was started 
in 1845 prices of indigo had fallen very low, some of the 
best marks selling at Rs. 110 per maund, and I have seen 
a paper bearing date 1837 where minutes of a meeting were 
recorded to settle whether indigo should not be abandoned, 
as prices had fallen so low. The cause attributed was over- 
production; for Bengal was in full swing in those days. 
The introduction of first, aniline dyes and then the synthetic 
and the consequent fall in the price of indigo has now set 
men thinking of the reason why sugar failed in days gone by. 

Planters who generally grew a few bighas of cane as 
fodder for their bullocks knew from this experience that 
indigo gr-ew well in lands where cane had been sown and 
vice versa, and they therefore did not see why cane should 
not be made a success, and after some study the conclusions 
come to were that cane to be a paying crop must be grown 
in new lands. Those lands must be well manured, every 
kind of manure available and suitable for sugarcane lands to 
be used. Indigo refuse (seeth) must be looked upon as the 
most valuable of all manures and be carefully guarded and 
used as well as all bullock, horse and stable refuse. 

The new machinery worked by the India Development 
Co. has been found to make excellent sugar, none of the old 
defects coming out. The sugar sells readily at good prices, 
and they also find that the molasses sells so well and readily 
at paying prices that it is better to sell it than make rum. 
At Sakri, a sugar factory near Durbhunga, the molasses was 
found to be unsaleable and a nuisance, but the Development 
Co, find no difficulty in selling. There has been a good 
deal written lately about sugar and cane cultivation, and 
figures given to work out for or against. Figures, we know 
can be made to show anything. But I think the practical 
planter will hold with me that given a picked cultivation, 
well manured, and then after two years of rest in other^ 



64 HISTOKY OF BEHAR. 

crops, cane and indigo, then a rest or a crop of Indian corn ; 
and then after two years of rest in other crops cane again will 
give good results. The boiling plant must be of the hesi 
and newest. 

In this way a good and profitable business may be 
secured, if the industry is worked in a rational and economical 
way. 

The soils in Behar, as I say above, are not volcanic 
nor virgin, and have not the strength of soils found in the 
Mauritius. 

The uncertainty of rainfall is a drawback, but now 
canals for irrigation are being made, and when this is added 
to high manuring and careful selection of land, why should 
not cane succeed where tobacco and chillies do so well, for 
tobacco and chillies are a very exhausting crop? We have 
also a ready market at our door, and we are protected 
against dumping by the countervailing duties. I may say 
that those who have tried sugar making in Behar outside 
the Development Co., are well pleased so far. Under the 
rotation and manuring system, indigo side by side with 
cane should show great improvement, for where produce is 
good the colour of indigo is ditto. I am writing this prin- 
cipally in the interest of sugarcane cultivation. But I can- 
not help mentioning that the indigo industry has great hopes 
from the results of trials made with plant got from Natal 
and Java seed. These trials, only so far made in a small 
way, showed great results. This season larger areas have 
been sown in some factories, and some of these have already 
started manufacture, and the planters are anxiously await- 
ing reports of results. 

In writing the history of Chumparun factories I have 
been disappointed in getting information as to some of the 
larger and older concerns; however I still hope to get what 
1 require, which I can add later on. 



HISTORY OF BBHAR. 66 

A friend sent me lately the following which may interest 
my readers. It is a biographical sketch of the first indigo 
planter in India, the late Monsieur Loiiis Bonnaud, by H> 
James Rainey, and is dedicated to William Bonnaud, Esq./ 
the eldest and sole surviving son of the subject of this sketch. 

Some historical facts, not generally known regarding 
indigo and its manufacture in this country, will probably 
interest the reader and may be given by way of introduction 
to this sketch. 

The popular opinion appears to be that the manufacture 
of indigo dates some time subsequent to the advent of British 
rule, and Mr. James Westland thus gives expression to this 
view in his excellent report on the district of Jessore. He 
then states that '' from the absence of indigo in the 1791 
list of exports we may justly conclude that no indigo was then 
manufactured." He further on says that it was introduced 
by Europeans in India. 

Indigo, it may be stated, is the product of an indige- 
nous Indian plant ^Indigofera tinctorial Linn.) and was known 
to the ancient Latin authors. Pliny and others write of it 
as Indicum, which designation per se sufficiently indicates 
that it was produced in India and we are indebted to the 
Roman natuFalists just mentioned for a curious method of 
distinguishing superior from inferior indigo. He says to quote 
his words as translated: — 

** The proof hereof is by fire, for cast the right indigo 
upon live coals it yieldeth a flame of the most excellent 
purple." 

This test, it may be stated par parenthese, is worthy the 
attention of indigo brokers and others interested in the pro- 
duce, but we regret we cannot add prohatum est to it as we 
have not yet given it a trial. 

In Germany, in the seventeenth century, indigo was 
denominated " The Devil's dye," and by an imperial edict itB 



66 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

use was prohibited in A. D. 1654 as it appears to have 
decreased considerably the sale of woad, and Bancroft tells 
us that the Nuremburgers exacted every year a solemn oath 
from the dyers to the effect that they would never have re- 
coiirse to indigo as a dye. So little was the nature of indigo 
known at the time in Europe that the Elector of Saxony 
denounced it as a corrosive substance not fit for man or 
devil. 

Now to turn to India itself. From Abdul Fazil's 
" Ain-i-Akbari " we learn that excellent indigo was produced 
near Ahmedabad in Guzerat, and that it was regularly ex- 
ported thence to Rum or Constantinople and other remote 
marts. From the same source we gather that the highest 
price realized per maund for superior indigo produced at 
Biana, near Agra, was only Rs. 16. 

In a footnote to page 156 of the appendix to Journal 
Assoc. 1836, we find it stated of indigo that in 1631 there 
was a large contract for its supply to the English at Agra 
and much loss was sustained as it found at that juncture no 
ready sale either in Persia or England. 

In 1863 Bernier mentions of the Dutch that the pur- 
chase of a nil or indigo gathered in the neighbourhood of 
Agra, particularly at Biana, no doubt the same place re- 
ferred to, in the Ain, two days' journey from the city 
whither they go once every year having a house in the place. 

Whilst residing at Gondolpara Monsieur Louis Bonnaud 
had an encounter single handed with some dacoits or gang 
robbers who used then to carry on their depredations even 
within the precincts of the Maharatta ditch in Calcutta. His 
courage and presence of mind saved his life and property on 
this trying occasion. One of the dacoits was killed and 
Several were wounded. When all was over as usual in this 
country the police came to investigate into the matter. The 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 6T 

Governor of Chandernagore appears to have had a grudge 
against adventurous indigo planters and thought this was a 
favourable opportunity of injuring him. According to the 
French law then in force no European French subject could 
be tried and punished in this country for any criminal 
offence, and it was the intention of the Grovernor to send 
Monsieur Bonnaud to France for trial on a charge of murder. 
This, however, he was prevented from doing or for taking 
any other steps in the matter owing to the judge, magistrate, 
and other influential friends of the accused gentleman coming 
forward and stating that they would go to France if necessary 
to testify that the act was one of pure self-defence and in no 
wise constituted murder. 

The next act we And the subject of our sketch taking 
an active and prominent part in, was a political event at 
Chandernagore of some importance and the history of which 
is very imperfectly and incorrectly known, according to the 
information supplied to us. It is commonly stated that the 
French populace at Chandernagore followed the example of 
their countrymen in Paris in 1792-93, and when news was. 
received that the mob had proceeded to Versailles and led! 
the King captive to the capital the French mob at Chander- 
nagore determined to do the same with the representative of 
their deposed sovereign. The Governor is said to have been 
seized at Geretti, where he had retired and brought back to 
Chandernagore in triumph and subjected to gross insults. 
This at least is in substance the accouit given by the historian, 
the late Mr. J. C. Marsham, in an article contributed by him 
to the Calcutta Review^ Vol. IV, p. 510. We find it, how- 
ever, stated in the notes given to us by Monsieur Bonnaud and 
referred to before that France having become a republic the 
republic Government was declared at Chandernagore. The 
Governor was directed to give over charge of the place to the 
republic Government, but this Monsieur LeChevalier refused 



68 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

to do in positive terms and then proceeded to the G c\ eminent 
house at Geretti south of Chandiernagore. Here he was a 
prisoner so he managed to effect his escape by the southern 
gate of garden door and sought refuge in Calcutta. 

From Chandernagore Monsieur Bonnaud appears to have 
proceeded to the Maldah district, where he in connection with 
three wealthy Englishmen, one of whom was named Adam, 
built an indigo factory, and as lime was a scarce article in 
that locality he exhumed human skeletons from a neighbouring 
Mohamedan graveyard and converted them into that neces- 
sary material. While residing in his garden house at Hazinn- 
g&r in Chandernagore on the Rue de Paris he established a 
large canvas and twine factory which flourished for some 
time, but unfortunately it was at last burnt down by which 
the owner suffered considerable loss. In 1814 he joined the 
Bankipore Concern and he was for some time proprietor of 
Nayahatti Indigo Concern in the district of Jessore. Lastly 
he was managing proprietor of the large indigo concern of 
Kalna in Burdwan, including the Mirzapore Indigo Factory 
hot far from Krishnaghur. He terminated his connection 
with the Kalna Concern in 1819 when he made no less than 
1,400 maunds of indigo, the largest quantity of produce 
yielded by probably any single concern in Bengal up to that 
period. His being part owner of it, however, caused him 
much loss, trouble, and anxiety owing to the principal pro- 
prietor, Mr. Edward Majoribanks of the Bengal Civil Service, 
who was deeply involved owing to losses on the turf, having 
mortgaged the property to Messrs. Fairlie Fergusson and Co. 

This misfortune is said to have hastened his death which 
occurred in 1821 at the advanced age of 84 years. He left 
two sons by his second marriage. The eldest is William 
Bonnaud, who was long chief accountant of the well-known 
Union Bank and has been secretary of that Bank in liqui- 
dation since its memorable failure. The youngest, Mr. Peter 



HISTOKY OF BEHAR. 69 

Bonnaud, died in 1873, and was for some time Assistant 
Collector of Customs, Calcutta. Their mother, Madame 
Louis Bonnaud, died in 1860 at the great age of 93 years. 

In the " Report of the Proceedings of the East India 
Company, in regard to the culture and manufacture of 
indigo," it is stated that it was a well-known article of im- 
portation during the first century of their trade with thia 
country; and in 1779-80 the Directors thereof used their best 
endeavours to increase the quantity and improve the quality 
of indigo, entering into a contract for the purpose with Mr. 
James Prinsep. That gentleman wrote to Lord North, in 
a letter, dated 25th January 1780, that he wished to intro- 
duce" Indigo sugar, and tobacco, into Great Britain from the 
East Indies " and in a subsequent letter to the same nobleman 
he stated he had " with the utmost trouble and expense ^' 
collected round him Europeans bred to different arts and 
science, as well as the most intelligent mechanics 2tnd planters 
of the East. 

Although it must be admitted, as will be evident from 
the above collection of facts, that indigo was produced in 
India from ancient times. Yet there can be no doubt that 
the manufacture of indigo according to the system practised 
in the West Indies, was introduced by Europeans in this 
country some time after the establit'jii-ent of the British 
Government, and previous to that they do not appear to 
have had any connection with it as planters or manufacturers. 
A work on indigo planting published in 1835, and now out 
of print, written by Mr. John Phipps, states, and we believe 
quite correctly, that the first European indigo planter in 
India was the late Monsieur Louis Bonnaud, and as, doubt- 
less, any particulars regarding the life of one who introduced 
this great industry in its present form in this country will 
be interesting to all, more especially indigo planters. We 
venture to put together in a connected narrative, information 



70 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

derived from certain notes kindly placed at our disposal by 
,the eldest and sole surviving son of the gentleman referred 
to, with free permission to make such use of them as we may 
think proper. This gentleman is now in the 75th year of his 
age, and takes a commendable pride in being a son of the 
first European indigo planter in India, and in this respect 
it may aptly be said o: him primus in Indis. We have de- 
dicated this slight biographical sketch to Mr. William 
Bonnaud as he is best entitled to have his name associated in 
connection with it, specially as he has been good enough to 
supply us with materials for constructing it. 

Louis Bonnaud appears to have been descended from a 
good French stock and he was born, in what year is uncertain, 
but probably in 1737, at Marseilles, where his parents resided 
at the time, and where his mother was also born. His father, 
who was an officer in the French Army, died leaving several 
children to the care of his wife, namely, two sons and two 
or three daughters. The eldest son, Francois, took to a sea- 
faring life and rose in due course to be the chief officer of a 
French corvette ; and Louis, the youngest son, proving intract- 
able, as boys of spirit usually are and beyond the power of 
his mother, Madame Bonnaud, to manage, he was at a rather 
youthful age apprenticed to the sea. He was posted as a mid- 
shipman in the same vessel in which his brother was second 
in command, and they sailed together in several voyages to 
different parts of the world. 

In one of the voyages of the corvettes to the West 
Indies she encountered a terrific gale on that coast and went 
down. Some of the officers and crew of the ill-fated ship 
managed to reach the shore in safety, and among them were 
the captain and the midshipman Louis Bonnaud. The 
brcther of the latter unfortunately perished. The brothers 
were swimming close to one another, when Lous, heard Fran- 
cois call out to him by name twice, but he was utterly unable 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 71 

to render any help, and Francois immediately after sank 
to rise no more. . 

The shipwrecked mariners were treated kindly by the 
residents of the place where they landed, and were well cared 
ivv. After staying there for some time the young midship- 
man returned to his native country, and having made a few 
voyages in some other vessel he appears to have grown tired 
of a sea life, and went back to the West Indies, where he had 
learnt that trade could be profitably carried on. With some 
little money he had managed to save, he had launched out 
in trade and speculation. He appears to have been there 
initiated in the processes of manufacturing indigo, and by 
success in his various dealings he contrived to amass in no 
giea,t time a moderate fortune. 

Then, for some reason unknown to his son, but probably 
simply from that restlessness and love of change, inherent 
in all who have roamed the sea for any length of time, h^ 
shifted his abode, (after visiting Marseilles on the death of 
his mother and finding his sisters married and well settled 
in life), from the Western to the Eastern Hemisphere, and 
settled in the Island of Bourbon as a merchant, where he 
established a considerable mercantile firm, and occupied a 
large and well-known house there called the " Maison 
Bcuge," which was standing some thirty years ago, and it 
is probably still in existence. His commercial ventures pros- 
pered for some time exceedingly, and at one time he was 
possessed of considerable wealth, but eventually misfortune 
overtook him. Three of his ships laden with valuable cargo 
•were lost on their way from Bourbon to France, as they were 
not insured he became a poor man. He then determined to 
remove from the French isle now known as Reunion to 
Bengal to mend his fortunes by turning his knowlec^ge tp 
indigo manufacture acquired in the West Indies to account.. 



72 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

Accordingly we find Louis Bonnaud coming out ta 
Bengal in 1777 or thereabouts and residing at Chandemagore. 

Soon after his arrival he took the house at Taldanga in 
the Hooghly district and built there a small indigo factory.. 

The place is situated to the north of Chandernagore and 
as the road thence to Hooghly turns to the right or east it 
will be found immediately to the north and is merely sepa- 
rated from the boundary of the French settlement in that 
direction by the road itself. Here, however, he found that 
no great quantity of land could be obtained and it being in- 
conveniently far from the river he leased a larger garden at 
Gcndolpara on the banks of the Hooghly near Telinipara to 
the south of Chandernagore, where he built a pair of small 
vatf and a press house. A fine avenue of beautiful bokul 
tress used to line the road leading from the gate to the dwell- 
ing house in this garden, but they nave entirely disappeared. 
T/ie sites of both factories at Taldanga and Gondolpara are, 
however, still in existence and can be identified. Mr. 
Bonnaud undertakes to point them out to anybody desirous 
of seeing them as his late father carefully showed them to 
him several times in the walks they had together about 
Ch andernagore . 

Chump ARAN Factories. 
This concern, according to what can be found out from 

old men (natives) was built by a Mr. Stewart 
Barrah i i. i . 

M. and H. in about 1820. Mr. M. Moran bought from him, 

and Henry Hill, who was proprietor of Rajpore, 
bought a share with Moran selling out of Rajpore. One can 
hardly understand why he sold out of so fine a factory as 
Rajpore to buy into Barrah. The following are the names 
of the managers as far back as I can find out : — Mr. Stewart,. 
Moran Henry Hill, Captain Hickey, Henry Hill, Joseph Hill, 
H. L. Hollway, A. S. Urquhart, December 1857 to Septem- 
ber 1858, W. Gibbon, from October 1859 to 31st January^ 



HISTOKY OF BEHAR. 73 

1865, H. L. Hollway, 1st February 1865 to 28th Februarjr 
1865, C. W. Dyer, March 1865 to June 1865, B. 
S. Hickey, June 1865 to June 1866, J. N. Macqueen, June 
1866 to June 1871, James Begg, 4th June 1871 to 
31st October 1872, F. J. Nicolay, November" 1872 to October 
1874, James Begg, November 18T4, W. Scobie, November 
1874 to February 1875, J. Begg, February 1875 to March 
1876, E. A. Hickey, March 1876 to May 1877, J. H. Dixon, 
May 1877 to March 1878, A. D. Bolton, March 1878 to 
October 1879, E. A. Hickey, November 1879 to December 
1880, John C. Gale, December 1880 to March 1892, D. R. 
Crawford, March 1892 to March 1895, G. H. D. Hay, March 
1893 to December 1895, D. R. Crawford, December 1895 to 
November 1903, G. R. Macdonald, November 1903 and is 
still managing. The following are the outworks: — Jagoulia 
built in 1848; this outwork was rebuilt some years after on 
a higher piece of land. Mohowah built by John C. Gale 
in 1881-82, Gowandrah by Gale in 1882-83. Russelpore 
by D. R. Crawford in 1892-93. Stewart sold to M. Moran 
and Moran to Henry Hill and James Hill, executor for 
Henry Hill to D. R. Crawford and others in 1896-97. The 
following graves are to be found at Barrah : — Sacred to the 
memory of Mrs. Wiffen, 27th November 1843 ; Henry Hill 
Young, 1849 ; Hanna Alladin wife of Henry Leadbeater 
He 11 way, 6th May 1867 ; Julian Maclaine, wife of John 
Cherry Gale, November 1888; and C. W. Dyer, year. illegible,, 
and others of modern date. Here is what a clerk in 
the Rajpore Concern writes ; he is a very old servant of some 
40 years' standing. I give it in his own words: — "I have 
heard and afterwards it fall to my look that one Finch 
obtained mokererie, but worked for a few years and then 
transferred it to one Hill, most probably the father of Joseph 
and James Hill for in the first period of my service, I have 
heard both the Hills born at Rajpore and after some time 



74 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

they transferred the right to Bell. One of Ihe Hills remained 
at Turkoulia and the otter at Seeraha. As far as my recol- 
lection runs I may also have heard from Shib Baboo that in 
j-art days Barrah was dependent to Seeraha and was belonging 
to family of Hills. 

" These are topics general amongst everyone that two 
big wealthy companies started Indigo business in Chumparun 
and Tirboot, Newell and Co. and another rival MacKellop 
Stewart and Co., starting manufacture of saltpetre and 
sugarcane. 

** The former making Kanti head concern upon other 
twenty-three big concerna and the latter their head-quarters 
at Burhamporah with a large golah. 

'* On the side of former, Falkner and against him Becher 
and they * Fighted ' ruined botb, but M. S. and Co. has a 
house in Calcutta, and when N. and Co. failed in connection 
of indigo. Dr. Begg started mart and house of Begg Dunlop 
and Co. In evidence of above-mentioned statements you will 
find the Barrah old chimneys standing and waste materials 
of machinery lying and the indigo manufacture were per- 
formed by human hands till first of the period of our time." 

This history of Barrah is rather crude, but it gives one 
-an idea of what happened. There was a row between Captain 
Becher and Falkner. When Captain Becher came into 
Mozufferpore to swear the peace against Falkner, the magis- 
trate asked Becher to swear he was in bodily fear of Falkner. 
" What ! " cried the indignant old salt, " Captain Becher 
in fear of any man. No Sir! never! !" So the magistrate 
■cculd do nothing and the row died a natural death. 

This factory was built in 1884 by C. F. Carlton. The 

B reah following were managers : — 1884 to 1890, C. F. 

H. W.h/b. Carlton; 1890 to 1891, Hume; 1891 to 1893, 

C. F. Carlton. In 1893 this factory was sold to H. Hudson 

.tvnd H. W. Hudson managed to 1897, when W. Cox took up 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 76 

maQagement to 1899 when _H. E. Hudson managed till 1901. 
Fiom 1901 Mackay, 1905 H. E. Hudson and C. S. Delafosse. 
Dokraha and Munjhowlia Proprietors, J. F. G. T. Barclay 
and J. Barclay, Manager R. Yate Lee. 

Kooriah was built in 1884 by H. W. Freeman. Free- 
Komh loa&n managed till he died and was buried at 

McD and F. Motihari. After his death Kooriah became an 
outwork of Lohereah, but afterwards a separate concern and 
was sold to J. Lowis, who, on getting the management of the 
Bettia Raj, sold to Elliot and A. Elliot took up the 
management. Hardea Factory was built by George Boule 
while manager of Moorla Concern then belonging to T. M. 
Gibbon and W. Macqueen, George Swaine being assistant 
at Hardia. 

This factory was built in 1862. Up to 1885 Hardia was 
an outwork of Moorla. T. M. Gibbon eventually exchanged 
a 4-anna share in Tatereach of McQueen's 4-annas in Moorla 
and became 16 annas proprietor in about 1873. Later the 
Lethbridge brothers bought 4 annas in Moorla and in 1885 
they divided their 4-anna share from T. M. Gibbons 12 annas, 
taking Hardia as an equivalent. Up to this time 6. Swaine 
continued assistant at Hardia. Then Mansfield, Godfrey, 
Freeman, H. Thorpe then F. Blechy nden who managed 
about 10 years. After 1885 H. Thorpe managed but resigned 
after a month and F. A. Hudson took charge and managed 
for four years. Then H. Thorpe resumed chaarge and con- 
tinued so except for 9 months during which time H. Hollway 
acted for him, i.e., 1890-91 to 1896. 

Several years prior to this the concern had been acquired 
by Roland Hudson, who sold half in 1895 to Messrs. J. F. 
Barclay and they resold again in 1900-01 to R. Hudson. Since 
1896 F. D. Fletcher has been manager. Under present man- 
agement the concern has shown satisfactory results. This 



76 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

concern is situated some 3 miles from the Negal Frontier.. 

The lands are chiefly paddy. There are no graves at Hardia. 

This factory is of recent date ; it was started by Broukc 

Lohereah °* Bugaha in about 1859 or 1860. He carried' 
McD and F. on the factory for a few years when he sold to 
A E. McDonald and W. L. Freeman. McDonald managed" 
till 1875, when he left the country, selling his share to Free-^ 
man, who then took over charge till 1877. H. Fraser pur- 
chased Freeman's share and took up the management which 
be kept till 1892, when he went home. J. Barclay purchased 
Freeman's other share and managed till 1902, when he went 
home and H. Fraser again took up the management and still 
manages. There are no graves at Lohereah. 

Moorla was built in 1864-65 by T. M. Gibbon, H. L. 

Mo rla Holloway and W. F. Gibbon. 

T. M. G. The following were managers : — From 1864 to 
1867 G. Boule; 1867 to 1872 Lethbridge; to 1875, R. 
Lethbridge; to 1876, Edwards; to 1885, S. Thorpe; to 1890, 
A. E. Macdonald. In 1891 the factory was managed by the 
native amlah and 1878-79 T. M. Gibbon, and from 1892 to 
1905 A. L. Harman. There are no graves at Moorla. 

Motihari was built by C. Moran in 1817. Of its outr 

Motihari works, Sougong and Meerpore, there is no record 

Moran. as to when built. Poornahee was built by 

Baldwin in 1859, Bhelwa also by him in 1861, Huraj in 
1863, and Cheyhaia in 1890 bjr Edwards. The following 
were managers: Charles Moran in 1817, followed by W. 
Moran and he by Gill. Then in 1858 to 1870 by Baldwin. 
Then C. Moran for a few months in 1871, when he died. 
TLen came in Edwards in 1872 till 1891, after him E. Thorpe 
1892 to 1894. Then Miller 1895 to 1897, when W. S. Irwin 
took up the management and is still managing. Originally 
the Motihari Concern belonged to Messrs. Moran and Hill,, 
but early in the sixties Mr. Miller, of Hoare Miller and Co.,. 




O 

an 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 77 

Ijcught six annas. In the Motihari Factory compound there 
is a grave in the memory of Charles Moran, who died in 1851, 
and in the garden at Sougong one sacred to the memory of 
Miss Mary Martindale, who departed this life on the 4th 
September 1858, aged 53, and another sacred to the memory 
of Henry Finch, who departed this life 18th August 1839, 
aged 30. Mr. John Mackenzie relieved M. Finch of the 
xjbarge of Meerpore Factory (which is a part of the Motihari 
Concern) in about 1840. 

Mathew Moran, an uncle of M. Moran, was one of the 
original proprietors. The C. Moran, who died in 1851, was 
ono of the younger branches of the Moran family. 

Mullayah was built in 1883 by E. W. Dixon and started 

M lla h manufacture in 1884. Sirsealy, an outwork, 

D. H. S. was also built by Dixon in 1886. Dixon 
M 

managed from 1880 to 1886, then Hill for a few 

months when Dixon returned in 1886 to 1888. In 1889-90 

C. Hill again managed and Dixon returned in 1891-92. He 

way, succeeded by H. E. Cox. Then in 1896 Dixon again and 

1897 H. E. Cox, 1898 C. J. Mackay, 1899 H. E. Cox, 1891 

Dixon, 1902 and to present time H. E. Cox manages. 

This concern was built by the Dutch, but there is no 

Peeorah record of in what year. In 1835 to 1838 

G. N. W. Peeprah was one of a group, consisting of the 

following factories which belonged to Messrs. Noel or Newell 

and Co. as per a memo, in factory books: — Contai, Motipore, 

Doudpore, Bhicanpore, Peeprah, Belsun3, Tetereah and 

Seeraha. But the factory was built in 1807 by a Dr. Gibb, 

who sold to John and Edward Brown, who admitted Richards 

as a partner. In 1831 the concern was sold to Messrs. No well 

and Co. They mortgaged the factory to Fletcher Alexander 

and Co., and in 1854 the latter sold the Peeprah Concern to 

George Neville Wyatt. The managers, as far as I can go 

back, were Yule, G. N. Wyatt, Daunt, Macqueen, Gibbon, 



78 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

Hudson, MacLeod, A. W. Wyatt, and at present J. B. 
Norman. The outworks are Dinamut, Jaghira, Decaha, 
Mudhoban, Daboulie. Dinamut was built in 1812 by Mr. 
Yule's assistant, Bailey. Mudhoban by M. N. MacLeod in 
1885; Jaghira in 1854 by W. Daunt, assistant B. Anderson, 
Daboulie in 1888 by A. W. Wyatt *s assistant, Lamb of 
Dinamut. 

Many successful men had their early training at Peeprah, 
apart from the well-known names of the managers, Mr. 
Gordon Canning, now managing proprietor of Pursa and 
Charles Still, who was manager of the Battiah Raj, started 
life at Peeprah as assistants. 

The Peeprah indigo mark G. K. W. is, I believe, used 
as the standard test for comparison in London. Peeprah 
wa= also selected for experimental trials conducted by Mr. 
Rawson and his staflF in 1901-02. 

Pursa was built by Tom Gibbon and Tom Lethbridge 
Pursa some time in the sixties, but I cannot get dates. 
T. G. and S The plan of the factory was drawn out by A. 
Butler. Dokraha was an outwork of Pursa but subsequntly 
became an outwork of Lallseriyah in 1871-72. Pusa was sold 
t) the brothers Sir W. B. Hudson and R. Hudson in 1872- 
73. They built two outworks, Hurpore and Sirkia. R. 
Hudson eventually sold his 4-anna share to Mr. Scott and 
Sir W. B. Hudson his share to F. A. Shaw. Since then I 
believe Mr. Gordon Canning, A. Butler and Dixon have 
become proprietors. Pursa was managed for some years by 
that good sportsman R. Hudson ; he found it a grand place 
fcr sport. He stuck some 33 boars there single handed as 
he had no near neighbours who cared for piksticking. He 
found it also a good place for black partridge and quail. He 
there trained in the seventies the f ollowing^ winners : — Black 
Eagle, Kilmore, Miss Bertram, Talisman, Piccadilly, 
Amethyst and others. I understand that a sugar factory is 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 79 

about to be built there, and as the lands are fitted for caiie 
it should prove a success. 

This factory, as far as I can find out, was built in 1801 

Kaipore ^y ^^' ^^^^7 ^iiich, who held a share with a 
T. 8. and Co. Bengali gentleman. The mokararie pottah for- 
the land on which the factory is built is dated 2nd October 
1807, but from the wording of the document it is evident 
that the factory itself was built some five or six years before, 
i.e., 1801, Hossenie, the head outwork, was built by James 
Slade in 1856, Puckrie by Geo. Richardson in 1887, and 
Jamudpore by M. N. Macleod in 1894. The Hills purchased 
from Jeffrey Finch and Ball purchased from Hills. James 
Slade inherited from Ball, his uncle, Tom Slade getting a 
share also. James Slade managed with a short interregnum 
till 1857. Then Tom Slade to 1860, H. W. Hudson to- 
October 1862, E. Hudson to 1872, F. A. Shaw and E. D. 
Urquhart, L. Wilson, Greo. Richardson, M. N. MacLeod 
followed. Then E. H. Hudson, junior, who is still manager. 
H. W. Hudson bought in 1857 and his brother E. Hudson 
in 1862. For further particulars about Rajpore see "James 
Slade in Tirhool and its Inhabitants of the Past." The late 
H MacDonald was also a partner and he and E. D. Urquhart 
sold out in late years. The place now is owned by the 
brothers H. and E. Hudson. 

Satti was built by Sir W. B. Hudson and was 
Satti looked after by Carlton, who managed for some 

S. H. C. time about 1874. Sir W. B. Hudson sold to 
Coffin and Still. They built an outwork and A. Butler 
became a proprietor. It was about then that Kooriah was 
built. 

The first mokararie lease is dated 1807 given to Mr. 

Seerha Fao- John Taylor for the purpose of building indiga 

11 &^H. works. In 1818 another mokararie lease was 

^« given to one John Sims Saheb. About a mile- 



80 HISTOEY OF BEHAR 

4 ') the east of Puttaihi, one of the outworks, there are some 
scanty remains, of an old sugar factory and near Nawada, 
another outwork, a Dutch factory; this place existed before 
Seeraha was built'. Near Poornahee it is said that there 
was a small outpost where a regiment or part of one was 
posted, but excepting for two mounds in the village there 
is no trace of the cantonments. There is a single grave by 
the road side said to be that of an officer, but it is only 
marked by a mound of earth. Poornahee was built by 
F.awards in 1856-57. Tradition says that two regiments were 
posted at a place called Line tolah Ghoresari, during the 
first Nepal War. Seeraha had the following outworks: 
Parewah, Puddumkair, Puttaihi, Nawadah, Murpah and 
Tillara. Sir W. B. Hudson on purchasing the Seeraha 
Ccncern in 1889 for over 8 lacs sold Nawadah to F. Walker, 
Tillara to Bloomfield and J. H. Smith, Murpah to May and 
Ccventry, Puddumkair to W. and H. Cox, Puttaihi to Free- 
mantle. I have tried very hard to get more information 
about Seeraha. We know at one time it belonged to Noel 
or Nowell and Co., and was one of a group of factories under 
Kanti, where John Taylor had his headquarters. From 
what I have heard from old planters, Mr. Wood was one of 
the first managers. He was ratJier a wild man. He had 
a wooden leg and went by the nickname of Laknee Wood. 
He had a peculiar habit when visiting his assistants when 
he was in his cups, of smashing all the crockery and glass- 
ware on the table and when he had done this he went home 
and sent the sufferer a new set of everything. This was all 
very well, but rather a nuisance. The man who told me this 
was John Watson who lived to be a very old man; he was 
from Yorkshire and had been brought up on a farm there. 
He came out to India and got employment at Dinapore 
with people who cured pork and fattened turkeys, which they 
sold to planters in Tirhoot on festive occasions, arid in this 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 81 

way Jolin Watson got employment at Seeralia Factory, 
After, he had been some time employed in indigo he got 
leave to visit Dinapore and while there got engaged to a 
young lady. On his return he told Wood of what he had 
done when Wood suggested that he better get his bungalow 
in order and arrange for his wedHing, old Watson took 
fright and said. " Oh I never thought of marrying her and 
bringing her over here. I don't want her here." So it 
ended in old John writing to say so and the young lady ran 
him in to the tune of Es. 2,000, which John Watson did 
not like. He said he would never get engaged again as it 
was too expensive. 

I can get no information about this concern, though 
I have been promised what can be found out, 
and when I receive this, I will add after. 
What I remember of Turcoolea is that it was shut up for 
several years; then suddenly Joseph Hill determined to 
open it out and in a very short space of time Turcoolea was 
working with a very big culijivation. 

Since writing my history of Sarun factories I have heard 
from a Sarun planter the history of a few small concerns, 
most of them built in later years. Zummunpore was built 
by Moonshee Jawad Hosain, who was the Judge's Sheristadar 
at Chapra, in about 1864-65. After his death Dost Mahomed 
sold it to Angus MacEwen in 1888 and after he died Donald 
^acEwen took the place over. 

Gopalpore was built by Opendro Narain Singh in about 
1867; he was one of the Chainpore babus. He worked it 
himself for some years and sold it to Malcolm MacLeod and 
Booth, who managed for some years. The place is now 
owned by Mr. J. Karpeles. 

Jatepur was built about 1870 by Arthur Harman fov 
a banker at Patna, Seeree Bam, who still owns it. Harman 



JDMragdd ioft wcm^ y^9t»H ^^ hiM catii^ S. Cbti^don, I 
iMlieT^ tku focftorj^ tp^ab cldsed iiS Mi indigo c(ttK>^rfi. 

KobtHnia Wias built by A. Buskin in 1878. He was 
part proprietor witli his brother Mark and Colonel Roberts. 
Gout was one of its outworks, built a year or two later. 
After A. Luskin went to Australia^ Ferguson took charge, 
lie was a nephew of l^uskin's. This place is now shut up 
for indigo "but makes sugar in small way. 

"It h alftobt iiti|>ossiblfB t;o ^e ^A a^pptoiitiiftiitely ^or- 
^ v. . s vect id^a of who the ma^nagens of the varioiis 
Seeraha, etc. concerns were in olden days. Old Henry Hill 
w«nt to India towM:^s l^eginning of 1800 and it seems pretty 
olear that he was at Rajpur at any rate from 1810 to 1814, 
as ^e had three soss borti there. He probably went to Tur- 
oo^lia wh^n that -coBc^n was bought in 1816^ at any rate 
he was there in 1824 and he probably remained there till 
1. M. Hill hlul <^ai*ge. I think there is no doubt that was 
in any case not later than :his MarriagiB in 1836. Old H^nry 
Hill then probably went to Barrah (it may have been a few 
years earlier), where he remained till his death there in 
1848 (he is buried at Barrah) and Joseph Hill looked aftei 
the work there for him. James Hill remained at Turcowlia 
until a iew ^nonths after he came home very ill in 1851. 
Joseph Hill went to Seeraha when that concern was pur- 
chased in 1848 or 1849 ; he remained there till he came home 
in 1857 when H. L. HoUoway was left in charge of the three 
concerns of Barrali, Turcowlia and Seeraha, with A. S. 
TOTrquhart under him at Barrah. Holloway lived at Seerah, 
"bid toiii 'Gibl)on at 'Turcowlia and X. Hill and T. M. t>ibl)on 
at trhyree anA Mukwah. Joseph Hill went out again to 
Seeraha for a year or two in 1858, Imt 1 don't know what 
'ilhlAiig^ th&T "ttifbS^ in tihe m&^a^meiit. In March 1859 
^v ii; ifi^ibbbn 1^ iSS!ft^ «iB^ Mi^^Ct^; Jblm JmHh "miti^- 



HISTORY OF BBHAE. 83 

way (a nephew of H. L. Holloway) taking his place. Until 

old Tom Gibbon's death in 1860-61. Turoowlia concern 

formed two divisions under Seerah, but on old Tom Gibbon's 

death T. M. Gibbon came back as manager of the whole 

Turcowlia concern under H. L. .Holloway at Seeraha. In 

1863 G. M. Gibbon went to Peeprah and John Stace Smith 

took his place as manager. On Smith's, leaving in 1865 

T. H. Gibbon returned to Turcowlia, remaining there till 

1867 when he went to Bettiah as manager of the Kaj and 

was succeeded at Turcowlia by his cousin W. F. Gibbon, 
known commonly as Barrah Willie. James S. Begg sii©- 

«eeded A. F. 'Gibbon in 1869 and Hill succeeded Begg in 
1871. At Barrah A. S. Urquhart was -succeeded (whether 
immediately or not I cannot say) by W. F. Gibbon (the 
Gibbon above referred to) and when Hill went to India in 
1865, the manager then was Charley Dyer, who died soon 
afterwards at Seeraha and was buried at Barrah. After 
Dyer came Blayney Hickey, John Neville, Macqueen and 
then I think J. S. Bcigg. H. L. Holloway remained at Seeraha 
till 1866, succeeded by W. Macqueen, then by R. H. Hill, 
Ted Hickey, Dixon, anS W. F. Gibbon (Shangai). 

In 1818 Mathew Moran and Henry Hill acquired the 
16-anna of Barrah, Motihari, and Rajpore factories. Mathew 
Moran was the uncle of the lat^ William Moran (the founder 
of the firm of W. Moran and Co., Calcutta). Mr. Moran 
was buried in the Motihari Factory compound. In 1818 
M. Moran and Henry Hill purchased 16-anna of Turcowlia. 
In 1836 H. Hill bought 16-anna of Barrah, Jugalia, Tur- 
cowlie, Lallseriah, Sukwah, and Ghyree, and in 1838 a 
factory called Burhurwah, but I can find no trace of when 
Lallseriah was sold. Report says that Lallseriah was sold 
for 1,000 maunds of oats. Sir W. B. Hudson bought Seeraha 
from the Hills in 188B. I .also now add a few memos fcyr 
the History of Chumparan factories belonging to the Hills. 



84 HISTOEY OF BEHAR. 

1810 2nd June. — A deed records that William Warren 
Wood and Richard Cahill, as attorneys of Alexander Nowel, 
agreed to sell Barrah Factory to Mathew Moran. 

1812, 5th October. — Conveyance of 7/16 Barrah to 
Henry Hill. The deed recites that Mathew Moran and Henry 
Hill had been several years past interested in the Factories 
Barrah, Motihari, and Rajpur, they having borne the ex- 
pense of carrying on the factories 9/16 and 7/16 proprietors. 

1816, 12th July, — A deed of this date records the pur- 
chase of Turcowlia by Mathew Moran (9/16) and Henry 
Hill (7/16) from William Wood, Indigo-planter of Mirzapore. 

1829, 31st July.— Records that Mathew and Henry Hill 
were proprietors, of Barrah, Jugalia, Turcowlia, Lallseriah, 
and Sukowah. Rajpur must have been sold some time be- 
tween 1812 and 1829. It must have been after 1814, as 
Henry Hill's seventh child was born at Rajpur on the 12th 
August 1814. 

In 1849 J. M. Hill and Joseph Hill were the only 
partners in Hill and Co. in equal shares. Seeraha concern 
was bought by either the Executors of Alexander Powell and 
Co. or from John Taylor I am not sure which in 1848-49. 

1880, 1st November. — From this date Joseph Hill be- 
came the sixteen-anna proprietor of Barrah. 

1889, 1st October. — Henry Hill and Co., sold Seeraha 
concern to Sir W. B. Hudson. 

Note. — Motihari concerns must have passed to Mathew 
Moran some time between 1812 and 1829. As far as I can 
make out Henry Hill was at Rajpur from 1810 to the beginning 
of 1815, at any rate probably for some years before 1810, 
and he may have remained at Rajpur later than 1815, perhaps 
till the place was sold. He may have gone to Turcowlia in 
1816 when it was purchased, for his youngest child was bom 
there in 1824. 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 85 

I may mention before I end, that the following are the 
Turcowlia concern outworks : Chileram, OUaha, Burhurwah, 
Jallaha, Mukwah, Doodhi, Fairwa, Ghyree, Serine and Tej- 
poorwa. I can find no trace of when the older outworks 
were built. 

Turcowlia has agreed to grow 1,000 acres of rhea, and 
rhea factories are being built at Chileram and Mukwah. 
The f blowing are the Assistants at Turcowlia: R. L. Mars- 
den, zemindari manager; F. H. Murdock, personal assist- 
ant; J. B. S. Hill, Burhurwah, Ollaha and Jallaha, and 
T. A. Hodge, Mukwah; E. E. Fraser, Serine and Tej- 
poorwah; J. A. Collier, Ghyree; F. H. Manistry, Kharr- 
wat; J. H. Hill manages the concern. 

The following are the Managers of the Turcowlia concern 
since 1860: — 

Nambr of Managbrb. Sbasonb. 

T. M. Gibbon, Esq. ... ... 1860-61 

J. Holloway, Esq. ••• ... ... „ 

J. Smith, Esq. ... ... ... 1861-62 

J. Holloway, Esq. ... ... .•• „ 

J. Smith, Esq. ... ... ... 1862-63 

T. M. Gibbon, Esq. ... ... ... 1863-64 

Ditto ... ... ... 1864-65 

Ditto ... ... ... 1865-66 

Ditto ... ... ... 1866-67 

Ditto ... ... ... 1867-68 

Ditto ... ... ... 1868-69 

J .S. Begg, Esq. ... ... ... 1869-70 

Ditto ... ... ... 1870-71 

Dr. J. H. G. Hill ... ... ... 1871-72 

Ditto ... ... ... 1872-73 

J. Lewes, Esq. ... ... ... „ 

Ditto ... ... ^ ... 1878-74 



HISTDKY 0!P BBHAE. 



]!Iambs of Maitaoisr?. 
W. p. Gibbon, Esq., Senior 

I>itto 
Dr. J. H. G. ffill 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
W. F. Gibbon, Esq , Senior 

Ditto 
Dr. J. m. a. Hill 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ditto 
H. W. J. Hill, Esq. 

Ditto 
Dr. J. H. G. Hill 

Ditto 

Ditto 
J. H. Dixon, Esq, 
fi. W.J. Hill, Esq. ... 

Dr. J. H. G. Hill 

Ditto 
G. D. Campbell, Esq. 
H. W. J. Hill, Esq. 

Ditto 

Ditto 
tf. H. Dixon, Esq. 
H, W. J. Hill, Esq. 
J, H. Dixon, Esq. 
H. W. J. Hill, Esq. 

Ditto 
W. F. Gibbon, Esq., Junior 
H. W. J. Hill, Esq. 
W. F. Gibbon, Esq., Jonior 



. 1876 77 
- 1877 7g 

w 

. 1878 7» 
. 1879-80- 
. 1^80-81 
. 1881-82 
. 1882 83 

n 

1883-84 

. 3 884-85 
. 1885-86 

. 1886-87 
. 1887-88^ 

. 1888 89 

1889-90 

. 1890-91 

)i 

. 1891 92 

► »> 
. 1892-93 
. 1898-94 

i» 

. 1^94-95 



maTORy qf bkkar. 



8» 



HAMIIfl. 09 MANA99R9. 

H. W. J. Bn\ Btq. 

W. F. QWbon, Bsq., Ji»fiMr 

B, W. J. BitK B»q., 

W. F» GibiMm, Esq., Jcmioc 

Ditto 
H. W. J. Hill, Esq. 
F. M. Coreiitfy, Ksq. 

I>itta 

Dttto 

Ditto 
J« L. Hill, Esq. 

Ditto 
P. M, Ooveutpy, Esq. 
J. L, HilJ. Efq. 
R, L« Mftrfiden, Esq. 
J.L. Mill, Epq. 

Dflto 



>♦ 

»» 

1897-98 
1898-9d 

»» 
1899^0 
190001 
1901-Of 

>i 
190»-08 

•• 
1908-04 

i» 
1904-05 
1905-06 



M. k H. 



This factory a1} onQ time wns ao QutwQrfc of ge^ro^bii^ 
Telha concern, and was bought by Robert Bloom- 

fleld and J. H. Smith in 1892. There are no 
graves. Present manager Robert Bloomfield. 
Poor Bloomfield was cruelly murdered by some natives on 
the 13th February 1907, and Mr. Severs now manages. 

This factory was built by one of the Hijls (James). It 

, ,, . ^ was built as an outwork of Turcowlia in 

Lallseryiah, 

J. F. andG. about 1822; about 1846 the Hills abandoned 
the factory, native report say3 they sold the plaoe to Geo. 
Falkner for a thousand maunds of oats. Falkner eaiab- 
Ushed a hide depot, but that not thriving, and anotheir man, 
whose name is not readable (seems like Oman), started indigo 
in a small way. Wh'^ le gave up the place Kenneth Mao- 
Leod and James Cox bought in 18564^7 and Lewis Cosserai 



88 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

managed for a few years. Cesser at was at Lallseriah when 
the 12th Irregular Cavalry mutinied %nd filled Colonel 
Holmes, his wife, and the Doctor and his Wife, the only one 
escaping being the Doctor's little child, saved by an ayah. 
Cosserat saw the regiment passing from Segowlie after thiey 
had committed this murder, but knew nothing of what had 
happened. It was strange they did not attack him, but they 
seemed in a great hurry; they were oflF to Delhi. Some 
natives took the bodies of Colonel Holmes and his wife (they 
had decapitated Colonel Holmes) to Motihari, and W. Daut, 
who was managing at Peepra Factory, hearing this pluckily 
drove in to Motihari and read the burial service over.th^m. 
The Doctor and his wife were burnt in their bungalow. 
Strange to say, several years after the murder, one, of the 
men who fired on Colonel Holmes and his wife appeared 
at Segowlie. He was recognised by Colonel Holmea' syce, 
who informed the police, the man was taken, he confessed 
and was hanged. L. Cosserat, after the mutiny, was made 
an Honorary Magistrate and held Kachery at a place still 
called Fauzdari Ghakta, His lockup still exists. 

The concern was lastly purchased by Messrs. Freeman 
and Gibbon, then James MacLeod purchased Gibbon's share 
in 1867. J. MacLeod worked up the concern and made it 
a valuable property. He built the outworks Rajghaut. 
Furrwah and Madhupur. Jimmy was the essence of hos- 
pitality and all knew him as a hard rider and his stableb 
were ever full of horses. 

There are two soldiers' graves at Madhupur, regiments 
used to march past and bivouacked roundabout those parts 
during the Nepaul war. Segowlie, where a regiment of 
Native Cavalry used to be stationed, is only 24 miles from 
Lallseriah and the officers attached to these regiments always 
found a welcome at the factory, joining in any sport or 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 89 

pastime going on. The senior officers preferred a quiet life 
and remained at home. 

Good old Colonel Bobarts, who kept a pack of hounds 
and some ra^cehorses, was a man after Jimmy MacLeod's 
own heart. 

D. C. Beid is now manager of Lallseriah and, if I 
mistake not, Apperley (commonly called Apples) his assist- 
ant. He, Apples, is the son of Colonel Apperley, who many 
years ago had charge of Pusa, a right good fellow he was, 
and like father, like son. 

This ends my History of Indigo Factories in Tirhoot, 
Saran and Chumparan. I would have wished it to have 
been more elaborate, but such as it is, it will be an intro- 
duction of the past to the present generation. Since writing 
the above I have received the following from a friend: — 

SABUN. 

I now start on indigo concerns in Saran. Most of the 
factories in this district were built after 1847. Those as far 
as I remember working before then were Bamcollah, Bajab- 
puttee, Chaitanpursa Jullalpore and some others. We 
find these two latter mentioned in the history of Singiah as 
having entered into boundary bonds with that concern in 
1829 between Joseph Simon Finch and H. Fitzgerald. I 
cannot give the factories alphabetically as there has been 
some delay in getting cytain information, but I will give 
each factory as I have received the information required. 

There are no records of wben Arrowah was built; some 

Arrowah of the factories forming part of the concern date 

A. K. R. from before 1830. In the fifties, Kazee Bamzan 

Ali was owner. He had many European managers, among 

them W. James and Tom Martin, who managed from Tilpah 

house, where old K, Macleod lived and which later on be- 



90. HISTORY OF BBHABu 

cftme tHe Sarua Planters' Club. Old Kazee Biaixima« AH was 
a very plausible, popular, and knowiikg man aiabd ther^ 9ir9: 
many stories, told about him for tlie truth of which I will 
not vouch, but sinon e vero, etc. There is no doubt he had 
great say and power with his brother Mahomedans,. in fact 
with nearly all the respectable landholders and bankers in 
Chupra. He was always hardup and greatly put to to 
raise the wind. One story goes that, being very hard pushed 
and not knowing how to raise cash, he got up from Calcutta 
several iron money chests and put them up in the four 
corners of a room where he lived. He then invited a number 
of wealthy friends to have a talk; while the conversation 
was going on, men came in, opened one chest, put in a bag^ 
of money, then another would come and take out this bag 
of money and this went on till the curiosity of the guests 
was raised and they asked him what the business was he had 
got hold of and he said. I am agent for a big company who 
receive and keep money for constitutents and pay a large 
interest for deposits. Money can be deposited to-day and 
taken out when wanted", etc., etc. This took the minds of 
the friends who immediately sent in large cash deposits. 
With these deposits, Kazee Ramzan^Ali worked his factories 
and, I hope, paid back what he borrowed. The story went 
that the bags of money which were put in and taken out 
of the chests was but one solitary bag and a man brought 
it in and locked it up, then another man came in, unlocked 
the chest and took out the bag; ^immediately after from 
another door another man brought in the same bag and 
locked it up in another chest and so on. Another yam 
was that when W. Taylor, Commissioner of Patna^ started 
a model farm the old Xazee was asked by Taylor to help 
to get the native zemindars ta help with subscriptions. The 
Kazee went rounci with the hat but let zemindars know 
that a little private tip to ik«' Kazee would very mnch reduce* 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 91 

the amount required by the Oommissioiier saheb from eacht 
zemindar. The old' Eazee was a most genial old boy^ he- 
was always ready to help anyone. If a planter had a rotten 
factory for sale the Kaaee was on to buy and, what's more^ 
pay up, and the next thing you would hear was that he had 
sold it at a profit to some native friend. The Kazee was 
trusted by the Government and during the Mutiny, when 
the Commissioner ordered all Europeans out of Chupra, the 
Ka^ee was put in charge and, as far as I know, acted to the^ 
perfect satisfaction of the Government. See Buckland 
" Bengal under the Lieutenani^Govemors " — Halliday. The 
Katee getting into money difficulties over Arrowah his 
creditors put the concern under the Civil Court in 1864-66^ 
nominating E. D. Urquhart as receiver. On his leaving 
Arrowah, John MacRae succeeded in 1869. In 1874 Ash- 
burner and Co., bought the concern at public auction and 
greatly improved it. At this time Chaitanpursa and Jullal- 
pore were sold and Uma, Owrah and Pygumberpore pur- 
chased. Tajpore was also sold, but after a few years bought 
back. For the most part of the time Arrowah, Tehati, Taj- 
pore, Dungerah, Uma, Jullalpore, Owrah, Chaitanpursa and 
Pygumberpore composed the Arrowah Concern. J. Mac- 
Rae continued to manage ¥rith a share from 1874. J. D. 
Macgregor joined in 1871 and W. O. Macgregor in 1877. 
On J. MacRae's death in 1881, the concern was jointly man- 
aged by the brothers Macgregor, one at Arrowah and the 
other at Urria, the concern being made into two divisions. 
W. Macgregor, one of the brothers, sold out in 1887; his 
brother, J. D. Madgregor, becoming sole manager and tak- 
ing up his residence at Arrowah and from 1896 became- 
proprietor of the whole concern. 

Mr. J. D. Macgregor is anxious to visit his native home- 
and is ready to sell the concern or any part of it for cash. 
Anyone wishing to acquire this fine property or part of it 



92 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

at a very reasonable figure should apply to J. D. Macgregor, 
Esq., Arrowah Factory, Naga P.O., Sarun. 

This factory is now closed. I believe it was built by 
Bans-ghaut W. Wilson in 1869; he died m 1872. The 
^' ^ superintendence of the factory was then given 
to Malcolm MacDonald (Calliim) and he (M. MacDonald) 
in partnership with G. Williams bought, he holding 6 annas, 
G. Williams 6 annas and R. Phillips 4 annas and the man- 
agement. The place proved a bad speculation, though old W. 
Wilson had done well here and had made some splendid 
indigo. Gwatkin Williams sold his share to James Murdoch 
of W. Moran and Co., and M. MacDonald made over his 
«hare to Messrs. Schoene Kilburn and Co. Phillips left 
as his management was not successful and was followed by 
F. Forth and then by G. Nicolay in 1880. The place was 
then bought by R. Berril, C. Boileau and MacElroy from 
Messrs. Kilburn and Co., and J. Murdoch, but they came 
to grief and the factory now belongs to Messrs. Begg Dunlop 
and Co., who had financed them. I believe there is an out- 
work belonging to the place built by W. Wilson called 
Dekowlie. As far as I can find out the whole concern is 
. shut up. 

These factories were built in the early fifties, Balla by 

W. James in 1854. Tom Slade bought 8 
Balla Barhoga ' _, « -r»--»«-xj' 

K. McL and annas of Balla Barhoga from K. MacLeod in 

*^ ^ 1858 and went to manage Balla. In June 1858 

Tom Slade and L. MacDonald started from Chupra for 
Pertabpore via Balla. They were accompanied by a young- 
ster called Bidden, who on account of rebels being all about 
the Gorakhpur district where his factory was, could not 
get ba^jk to his place. Starting on the 18th June 1858, 
the following day they reached Balla. The receipt of no 
post made them anxious, and on the following day they 
heard the mutineers had burnt Ramghur Factory, and that 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 93 

they had a skirmish with the Sewan Dazzlers (a corps raised 
in Chupra) at Ekma. The Magistrate had left Sewan and 
the rebels were between them and Sewan, so they could not> 
go to Pertabpore, they had to wait at Balla, which they did 
till the 27th June, when a man came, there in great haste 
to say the mutineers, foot and horse, had started from ar 
place called Bisanpore, three miles off, on their way to burn- 
Balla factory, Slade and MacDonald were having their mid- 
day siesta at the time. Slade wished to stand to his post, 
as he said he did not wish the natives to think he was afraid. 
But hearing there were ladies at Sudowah, he thought it his: 
duty to go to their assistance, and so off they set for that 
factory, and arriving there found E. Wilson had boats, 
ready to drop down in the big Gunduk. They at once drove 
the party consisting of, among others, Mrs. E. Wilson and 
family, and got all safely on board, where they were very 
comfortable. They got on board about 6 p.m. ' The night 
soon set and they could see the blaze of burning factories 
ana thanas which the rebels were setting on fire. They 
remained on the river for a couple of days. On the 30th 
June Alex Urquhart and J. C. Crawford came from Raj- 
pore Factory to their boat, and Slade, Biddell and Mac- 
Donald went with them to Ranjpore; E. Wilson, his wife 
and daughter remaining in the boats and returning to Sudo- 
wah the next day as the rebels had cleared out of the dis- 
trict as suddenly as they came in. On their return to Balla 
they heard from the factory servants that just after they 
had left the mutineers appeared, firing several volleys into 
the house at a good long distance, as they were not sure- 
if the saheha had gone and had heard that they were armed 
and had been practising with their rifles. The rebels burnt 
the Balla Bungalow, also a dog-cart of L. MacDonald's, heap- 
ing up straw over it and setting this on fire. Fortunately 
some six horses of his escaped their notice. They smashed 



94 HlSTOltY OF IBEHAR. 

•every bottle, empty or full, and they scattered all the clothes 
they found about the compound. This shows that the rebels 
^entered the house, which they first looted and then set on 
fire. I mention the above to show the narrow escape that 
many planters had in the exciting days of the Mutiny. L. 
dosserat and Colonel Robarts bought Burhoga in the 
■early sixties, dosserat managed till 1672, when F. Murray 
liook charge with a share and managed till 1877, when A. 
Macintosh managed for a short time. Then J. Hodding 
came in as part proprietor. The place is now leased, I 
believe, to the Sugar Development Company. 

Bhamo was, I think, built by R. Berril in partnership 
with C. Boileau and MacElroy. It became an outwork of 
"Bansghat Factory afterwards. 

I have but one or two factories left and about these 
I hope to get information in a few days when I will come 
to an end of my history. I am rather disappointed in not 
getting more particulars. But only a few factories possess 
any record of the past. However, I hope the little I have 
got together will prove interesting to men of the present 
day. 

Bubnowlie is situated in the Gorakhpur district. It 

Bubnowlie ^^ an old factory and must have been built by 

E.8. andCo, Q^e of the Finch family, most likely Joseph, 

^s I find him recorded as manager in 1829 to 1859. After 

him came Mr. Meyer in 1860, R. P. Brooke from 1861 to 

1873. The factory about this time changed hands, being 

purchased by the brothers MacDonald, E. Studd and A. 

MacRae. A. MacRae took charge in 1874. J. MacDonald 

l>ecame manager from 1S76 to 1878, when MacRae returned 

-and remained to 1879. In 1879 C. E. Mackenzie became 

manager and J. MacDonald returned. In 1880 to 1883 

X]!. -Maokenade maifaged again and in 1883 John MacDonal^ 



HIOTORY <!>r BEHAR. 96 

tosk©v«r doarge again. In 1885 P. Mackinnon became man- 
«gier and ccmtiniied so to 1888, when A. Macfarlane took 
xjihatfge till 1889 iviien F. Mtuckinnon returned and continued 
ix> 1897. John Maddnnon then took up the management 
to 1699. In ttet yeair F. MacKinnon managed to 1905 and 
still 'oontinuee %3 manager. The outworks are Bykun%>oxfe 
Botoath «nd Sepaira. There are the following tombs:-— To 
the nremory tjf Isabelle wife of B. P. Brooke, born 16th 
Stamary 1838, died 20t^ January 1873; George William 
Mackenzie died 8th October 1882 ; Gustavus Vernon Hume 
was drown^ed ait a pigsticking party. Bom 2nd July 1861. 
Bied 19th March 1885; Thomus P. Lynch, aged 52 years, 
died S-lst October 1891. There are also tombs to several 
•children, etc. In 1887 F. Mackinnon built two outworks 
HmUed Bulichi and Bagwanpore. Kinderpirti also situa4)ed 
in Gorukhpur District was built by E. T. Sealy, R. Fenton 
and R. Sealy in 1886; manager W. Brouche 1886 to 1888; 
R. Fenton 1888 to 1891, R. Sealy 1892 and is now manager. 
Th&te are no graves. 

This factory stands on the Changaree river, about -26 
Behrowlie miles from dhupra. The mokararie pottah 
I. F. G. ^j^g given to H. Curtis of Ramcollah by Mahunt 
Ram Churn Dass of Pusa and was for 51 biggahs 10 cottahs, 
dated 2nd February 1861. The first vate were built by 
<3^eoi^ Uewhellin, who was then an assistant at Ramcollah. 
The factory and dehat were purchased by E. Gwatkin Wil- 
liams and Syud Abdool Ghyas. Williams later on bought 
liis share and owned the 16 annas of the place until Nov- 
ember 1886, when he sold to the Bengal Indigo Oompany, 
who in turn sold to T. R. Filgate in 1896. Owing to bad 
"seasons and fall in prices the factory was closed in 1901. 
The managers of BekrowKe wsere E. <3-. Williams to 1885, 
R.»G, Phillips to 1893, T. R. J*il^e to 1901. aSaere werfe 



96 HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

several managerfi who held billets for short periods during 
the absence of other managers. Williams was the first 
planter to introduce into Behar the purchase by weight of 
plant in 1884. Williams was also very fond of horses and 
for a time kept up a racing stable at Behrowlie; he raced 
under the name of Mr. Cresswell and for a time trained 
the Nawab of Dacca's horses. There are no graves at Beh- 
rowlie factory. The rents of land round Behrowlie are higH. 
The factory as a going indigo concern is, I believe, at present 
closed. 

This belonged to Kazee Ramzan Ali, who was porprietor 

„ ., of Arrowah. He sold it to MacLean in the 

Hannarpore 

and Nawadah early sixties. MacLean seems to have aban- 
F C I 

doned the place and the Maliks of the moka^ 

rarie on which the factory stood sold it for rent due and took 
possession. They sold to Stephen Cooper, but as soon as 
Cooper went there, MacLean returned and succeeded in oust- 
ing Cooper. Cooper then started Nawadah factory close by 
Hariharpore, and the two places were at feud for some time. 
Eventually MacLean cleared out and Hariharpore shut up 
for a time. When Cooper died, his brother, Sam Cooper, 
who was in the Opium Department, took over Nawadah and 
ran it for a year or two. R. Phillips managed in 1872, 
then Tulloch for one year. Laurie bought in 1874-75 and 
managed till 1885. The owners of the land on which Hari- 
harpore was built again got possession and sold the place to 
Jones, who got a few biggahs of cultivation. Laurie took 
it over from Jones in 1876-77 and amalgamated it with 
Nawadah. Laurie left in 1885, to go to Bunsghant and 
Elliot went to Nawadah, where he managed for three years. 
After him came Exshaw, then Bonner Hodding to 1892, Ellis 
to 1894. In 1894 Laurie became 16-anna proprietor and 
took charge of Nawadah. Finding the factory did not pay, 
Laurie put in H. Walker to manage and took up another 



HISTORY OF BBHAR. 97 

appointment. In 1901 Laurie sold to Granville, who worked 
*he place till 1902-03, when he finally closed the Concern. 
This factory was built by Mr. James in 1863, his man- 
ager, a native, called Mahomed Yakoob Khan. 
Jogapore ® ' ' 

K. MacL. In 186i tEey built two outworks, Bansopally 
and KahaJla, Cyril Irvine being put in as 
manager by James, and his brother W. Irvine assistant at 
Xahalla. In 1866 K. MacLeod found James in financial 
trouble, and took these factories over. On K. MacLeod's going 
home Tom Martin became manager and put Donald Reid in 
charge with' Walter Mackenzie as his assistant at Bansopally 
and John Eeid at Kahalla. In about 1867 K. MacLeod 
sold Bansopally to Jawad Hossain, Donald Eeid getting the 
management of Suddowah Factory. Tom Fraser came as 
manager to Jogapore in about 1867, and Frank Haml«y as 
liis assistant at Kahalla. Fraser built the outwork, Choukey, 
in 1868. In 1869 Fraser left and took over the manage- 
ment of Motipore. W. Smith became manager with Harry 
Fraser as his assistant at Kahalla, and Hugh MacDonald at 
Choukey. W. Smith continued to manage till 1878 when 
Angus MacEwen, who was then assistant at Kahalla, be- 
came manager. Martin taking MacEwen's place at Kahalla, 
.and M. Hutchins going to Chowkey. Martin left to join 
the Purtabpore in 1881, when M. Hutchins went to Kahalla, 
and Hugh Macdonald went back to Chowkey where he re- 
mained till 1883, when he went home ill, and never came 
^ut to this country again. In 1882 Malcolm Macdonald 
managed for a short time while MacEwen was at home^ and 
when MacEwen went home again in 1884 M. Hutchins man- 
aged for a year, D. MacEwen (brother of Angus MacEwen) 
going to Kahalla, Angus MacEwen took over ihe manage^ 
ment again in March 1885, and remained on till DeceDdber 
1887, when he went to manage his own Factory- Zamapore^ 
he madie over charge to M. Hutchinis. M. Hutchins otf 



9fi HISTORY OF BEHAR. 

going Home. in February 1888 made over charge to M. M,- 
Macdonald, he left for Home in July of the same year mak- 
ing over charge to D. MacEwen. M. Hutchins came out 
from Home in April 1889, and took over charge of the Con- 
cern which he still holds. The Assistants in 1889 were D. 
MacEwen at Kahalla, A. MacGillwray at Chowkey, D. Mac- 
Leod at Madhopore. D. MacEwen left to take up the man- 
agement of Zamapore in 1890, MacGillwray left in 1891 to 
join the Purtabpore Concern, and MacLeod left for Cham- 
parun in 1895. Since then the following Assistants have 
been in the Concern: Herman, J» MacGillwray (Bourneo), 
O. H. Hodding, D. P. Macdonald, L. Bean, J. D. Campbell 
and R. Macdonald. Madhopore Factory was bought from 
a native in 1885 and opened out as an outwork of Jogapore 
the same year. The first assistant there was J. Christian. 
W. James has the credit of building a few pairs of vats 
p , and starting this fine Concern, but as he had 

K. MacL. got into money difficulties K. MacLeod took 
it over from him and put in John Anderson, 
late of Chitwarah, Tirhoot. Bunkut was an old shut up fac- 
tory and was opened as an outwork in about 1857-58. This 
outwork has now, 1904-05 been turned into a sugar factory 
with the latest and best machinery. In 1858 Lauchlin Mac^ 
Donald got an 8-anna share and took over the management. 
John Anderson leaving, L. MacDonald continued to manage 
till 1863, when his brother Neill was put in charge and man- 
aged till 1866, then M. MacDonald managed. During Neill's 
management he built Chuckea in 1864, Arthur Cosserat 
being assistant. In 1865 Jugdispore was built A. MacAlister 
being the assistant. When M. MacDonald took over charge 
of Purtabpore, Jugdispur was made a sub-management, Mac- 
Alister, sub-manager of Jugdispur, and the assistant at 
Chuckea. G. Proudfoot, who was there till he was relieved 
hy Waller. In 1869 Oumour was btdlt and J. Tulloch waa 



\ 




C3 

o 

i 

n 



HISTOKY OF BEHAR. 99 

assisiant there. This outwork was sold in 1871 to Jawad 
Hassain and his brother Golam Hossain. In 1871 Eattaseah 
was built arid J. Tulloch went there. On the death of Mac- 
Alister in August 1871, Tulloch became sub-manager of Jug- 
dispore until November when Buskin took charge making 
Chuckea his headquarters, Waller going to Jugdispur and 
Tulloch back to Rattaseah, M. MacDonald continuing ta 
manage the concern till January 1882, when he left and 
made over charge to John Robertson who maimged till 1893, 
when J. A. M. Wilson became manager, followed by Jack 
Campbell; since then there have been several managers. 
Chuckea was made a separate concern. After Buskin died 
Minden Mackenzie managed till he went to Dooria, Sealy 
getting Chuckea. MacAlister was buried at Jugdispur. 
Martin died at Rattaseah and was buried there in about 
1885. Miss Annie Robertson died of typhoid at Chuckea in 
April 1887; she was buried in Chupra, John Fraser also 
died that year and was also buried in Chupra. M. Mac- 
Donald managed Purtabpur for 16 years off and on; M. 
MacDonald was also an assistant in Arrowah Concern in 1863 
under James. Purtabpur Concern is at present broken up 
into several managements. G. Hay at Purtabpore and W. 
Mackenzie at Chuckea. Neil MacDonald also had a share- 
in Purtabpore. 

This factory, now managed by J. B. Rutherford, wa» 
Rajah puttee ^^^^ built by Wilson in the same year as Ram- 
a;W.L. &Co. kola. After passing through many hands, it 
became the property of the Llewhellins and was managed 
lately by M. Mackenzie, and I have not heard if it is being 
carried on now or what has happened to it. In 1852-53 one 
Monsieur La Roche was there; he was relieved by Wingrove. 
I don't know if he was a proprietor or not. He was a very 
amusing old gentleman, could sing a good French song after 
dinner. 



100 HISTORY OP BEHAR. 

This factory was built by one of the Wilson, eithei 

fUmkola ^' C- E. or E. Wilson, brothers of W. Wilson. 

J. F. C. xt will be seen (see Singiah) that in 1836, H. 

F. Fitzgerald made a boundary agreement with Ramkola, 

so that the factory must have existed then. They were Irish 

and had been in Sarun ever since they came to India, and, 

as far as I understood, from what they told me, neither of 

them had seen an ocean-going steamer or a railway till W. 

•Wilson w|)tit to Calcutta to sell his indigo in about 1870-71. 

The elder brother, A. C. Wilson, died at Ramkola and is 

buried in the garden; he died on 22nd September 1827 aged 

27. Josephine Adelaide Curtis, wife of J. F. Curtis, was also 

buried here in 1868, aged 32, and J. F. Curtis in 1879, 

aged 52. Hugh Llewhellin took over charge in 1865-66. 

H. Macnamara built an outwork called Gorgaha in 1878, 

which has since been demolished. 

Sadowah Concern which includes the following factories, 

viz., Sadowah built by E. Wilson in 1819. 
Sadowah 
CJoncern Sepaiah by his brother W. Wilson in 1824- 

^•J^^J;v^^'^ 1825, Muniarah by Cook in 1867 and Tir- 
C. McK. . ^ . , -^ 

beenie which was built m 1887-88. All these 

factories formed one plaice called Sadowah Conqern. In 

1888 the Concern was divided and managed by D. N. Reid. 

The following are the managers of Muniarah: — 1867 J. W. 

Pughe, 1868 L. J. Cooke, 1874 D. C. Reid, 1875 A. Buskin, 

1877 J. A. Reid, 1880 Hugh Johnstone, 1881, J. A. Reid, 

L. D. Reid, 1883 C. D. H. Wilson and C. A. Mackenzie, 

1883-87, Hugh Johnstone, 1888 D. N. Reid, 1892 C. A. 

-Mackenzie, 1893 G. R. MacDonald, 1898 J. S. Dodd, 1899 

O. N. MacDonald, 1899 to date 1905 John Mackinnon. I 

have not so far succeeded in getting the managers of Sadowah 

Factory, but I remember in 1852-53 and for some years before 

that Edward Wilson managed there and his brother William 

Sepaiah. Old Bill was a jolly old chap. He did love a 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. 101 

rollicking party and could stow away a power of liquor. I 
remember once suddenly quoting the evidence taken by a 
Parliamentary Commissioner on the subject of drinking the 
question was — " Ever had D. T." and the reply " once or twice 
rather liked them." On this being quoted suddenly poor 
Bill thought he was being addressed and replied, "T have 
only had them once and that was from bad liquor." Ned 
Wilson was a very steady ol3 chap. After his death Sado- 
wah was sold and he left his widow over a lac of rupees. Mrs. 
E. Wilson adopted C. V. Argle's daughters and took them 
home and on her death left them all her money. 

The proprietor of this Concern was Indra Pertah Sahai, 
Maharajah of Hutwa. It was built by Mal- 
colm MacDonald, who was sub-manager under 
Neil MacDonald. He was called on one fine day from 
Chuckea while fighting the caterpillars which swarmed in 
1865 to go off and build Seereepore for the Rajah at a place 
called Dularpore, nine miles from Chuckea. So leaving the 
caterpillars to have their feed in peace off he started, taking 
up his abode in a tent and before long uprose a factory with 
a fair cultivation. The first year a small place with a small 
cultivation, viz., two pairs of vats and 250 bighas of indigo 
from which as the crop was sown late he made 75 maunds of 
indigo. The next, however, he had 18 pairs of vats with 
press and cake house and bungalow and 2,900 bighas of 
indigo and made 700 nlaunds of indigo and should have made 
more but was short of carts. 

In 1866, November, Neil MacDonald took over charge 
and M. MacDonald went to Purtabpur. In 1867 an out- 
work was built to Seereepur called Amakapur, Yankee Mac- 
Donald going there Jas assistant. He was followed by Mark 
Buskin. Neil MacDonald managed till February 1869, when 
he went home and Mark Buskin was put in charge during^ 
Neil's absence. Neil again took charge on his return from 



102 HISTORY OF BEHAK. 

ibome, but left the country for good in 1871, when M. Buskin 
^ot the management and Pincher Brown became assistant at 
Amakapore. *In 1875 M. Buskin got the management of 
jlQutwa estates and Pincher Brown got the management of 
Seereepore and Adlam of Amakapore. In the early eighties 
this fine Concern, although paying handsomely, was closed 
by the Hajah as an indigo concern, as the Brahmans told 
the Eajah no son would be born to the Baj as long as he cul- 
tivated indigo there. Seereepur is now kept up as a farm only. 
The factories in the margin are all of recent date ; some 
are closed and others going on in a small way. 

Zumunpore, I can get no information as to who built them. 

<3opalpore Kehumia was for some time used as a sugar 

Geurs, factory, but I don't know if it still continues 

Jatepore . 

Kehumia. this industry. Setulpore, a very old Sarun 

Factory is said by the oldest native inhabitant 
in the place to have been built by one Wall Saheb, in 
1801. This information is corroborated by old records in 
the Collector's Office at Chupra. Where Mr. Wall prays that 
the brothers Chamfrain may be restrained from building in 
his dehat close to Sonnepur. Wall sold to Finch as the title 
deeds disclose him as first proprietor in 1818. Zeegler pur- 
chased from Finch many years afterwards and gave the Fac- 
tory to his nephew Be Meiss, who sold to J. Stalkart and he 
to K. MacLfCod in about 1865. Geo. Toomey going to man- 
Age for a short time. K. MacLeod sold to Abdul Ali and 
Kazee Ramjan Ali, they in 1870 sold to Gonesh Lall and 
«Gopal Das Bankers in Chupra. Rooney Dougal Coffin and 
Ijockhart purchased from them. Rooney Dougal a few years 
after sold his share to Coffin and Lockhart. The Concern 
was closed as an Indigo Factory in 1900 and Coffin and 
Lockhart disposed of their interests to Mahomed Khan and 
Syud Dtaf Hasain Bankers of Patna. 

This ends my history of Sarun Factories. If I have made 
any mistakes I hope my tfriends over the water will correct me. 



HISTORY OF BEHAR. im 

Since writing the above I have received the following 
about Pertabpore Factory : — L. Mac Donald sold 
4 annas in Pertabpore Concern to Neil Mac- 
^Donald in 1863, and afterwards another 4 annas more to him. 
L. MacDonald had become the 16 annas proprietor in 1861. 
He purchased his jfirst 8 annas for Rs. 5,000 and eventually 
the second 8 annas at Rs. 1,50,000; this shows how greatly 
the place had improved in value. The representatives of 
the late Neil MacDonald still hold this 8 annas share and 
Lauchlin MacDonald the other 8 annas. Bunkut, one of the 
outworks was an old Sugar Factory and was opened out in 
1851 by Mr. W. James as manager on account of K. MacLeod 
che proprietor. In 1854 Pertabpore was opened out by 
Mr. James as an outwork to Bunkut, K. MacLeod selling 
8 annas of Bunkut and Pertabpore to John Anderson, Mr, 
James then went and opened out Burhoga, where he got into 
difficulties and Kenneth MacLeod had again to take over this 
place and sold 8 annas to Tom Slade. Mr. James was then 
out of work and went to 'manage Arrowah and from there 
he started Jogapore Factory. Efere, too, he failed and K. 
MacLeod again came to the rescue. In these days the three 
leading indigo men in Sarun were K. MacLeod, Kazee Ram- 
zan Ali and Mr, James. K. MacLeod financed them and 
between them they made the Sarun district the flourishing 
•district it was in those days. 



^^S^S'^ 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 



PREFACE. 



Some old friends have suggested to me the idea 
of publishing my experiences in Tirhoot from 1847. 
The following pages give a brief sketch as far as 
my memory serves me. Dates may not be always 
accurate : but thev are not far out, Events have 
been jotted down as they came to mind ; and if the 
occurrences of 1857 come tumbling in when my 
reminiscences are of 1847-48, I must ask my 
readers to remember that these pages have been 
put together hurriedly during leisure moments. 



September 1887* 



CONTENTS. 



Paqe. 
CHAPTER I. 

Arrival in Calcutta— Journey Up-country— Sugar Planting ^i 105 

CHAPTER II. 
Tiger-shooting— Midnight Alarm— Death by drowning of H-— ... 114 

CHAPTER III. 

House- keeping in Olden Days— Killing a Cobra— Daily routine at an 

Outwork— Ryots and Rent Laws ... .... ... 121 

CHAPTER IV. 

My Visit to Tiwarrah—I go to Sukree— A Hanntetl House and Ghost 

Stories— Poosah : a Government Stud Nursery— A Fauxdhary ... 133 

CHAPTER V. 

Riile over to Doi^ruih for Christmas— *' Dulcinea del Tolboso"— 

Return to Work ... ... ... ... ... 144 

CHAPTER VI. 

Go to Kurnoul — Fattened Ghainies— •* Many a Slip 'twixt Cup and 
Lip "—How Cattle are treated — Brahmini Bulls— Narrow escape 
of J. S.— False Case ... ... ... ... 149 

CHAPTER VII. 

Journey down the River in clmr«:e of the Indigo— Sonepore Fair and 

Sonepore Race Meet ... ... ... ... 154 

CHAPTER VIIL 

Lord Mayo and Jung Bahadoor at Sonepore— Bargaining **k ]& 

Oriental "—German Missionaries ,,. ... ... 161 



vi C01fT£NTS. 

PlOE. 

CHAPTER IX. 

Hy Christmas Party at Kurnpul-srWiM Buffaloes •-Shooting an 
Alligator— Visit of my Brother— Qc* the Management of 
Doomrah— My Assistant keeps Snakes as pets— Revival of the 
Mozuilerpore Race Meet ... ... ... ... 176 

CHAPTER X. 

Another Shooting Expedition to Nepaul— >[ud«imbedded Elephant— 

A Nepaulese Collector ... ... ... ... 186 

CHAPTER XL 

1 trtko charge of Shahpore Mircha— Journey an<l visit to Talcutta— 

Outbreak of the Mutiny ... ... ... ... 192 

CHAPTER XII. 

We fortify the Doctor's House— The '• Vieille Guarde "—Taking a 
Prisoner— False Ahirm— Murder of Major and Mrs. Holmes- 
Mutiny of the Native Infantry at Dinapore— Defence of Arrah 
—The Mutiny over— Homeward-bound ... ... ... 199 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMfiS. 



Baddeley, Wm., 203. 

Becher, Oapt., 112, 208. 

Cox, James, 113, 115, 118, 133, 1S«, 141, 186, 207. 

Crump, PhiL, 107. 

, Mrs., 107. 
Daunt, Paddy, 149, 160. 
Drummond, P., 188. 
Ferricr, 188. 
Gale, John, 118. 

, Charles, 144, 186, 188. 

Garstin, 138. 

Gordon, 117, 118. 119. 

, "Fatty" (nickname), 134. 

Grant, Gregor, 108. 

Holgate, 114, 117, 118, 119, 120. 

HoUway,^ Fred., 123. 

Howell, Arthur, 179. 

, John, 161, 

•♦Jimmy," James McLeod, 168. 

John, Mr., sporting name of above, 166. 

McLeod, Kenn^jth, 148. 

McDonnell, Fraser, 138« 

Mangles, 16$ * 

OgUvy, 138. 

Pauling, Wm., 123. 

Paxton, 111. 

Ronald, 108, 109. 

■ , Mrs., 108. 

Bussell, Alex., 183. 
•♦Simmy" Simpson, H. B.. 184. 
Slade, J., 161. 

, Tom, 11$. 
StAlkart, John, 117, lU. 

, J.. ♦•ina4 Jack," 128, 147. 

Studd, |}«, 186. 
Tindal, J^k, 188, 184, 186. 
Viocei^t, Frank, 184. 
to^ngy 198, 148. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR 

BY 

AN OLD PLANTER. 
CHAPTER I. 

ARRIVAL IN CALCUTTA JOURNEY UP-COUNTRY — SUGAR-PLANTING. 

In the year 1847, towards the end of September, I h&dfr 
farewell to my people in Mauritius, and sailed in the good 
ship Albatross, an American vessel of over a thousand tons, 
Captain Coffin, commanding, for Calcutta, which we reached, 
after a prosperous voyage of five "weeks, early in November. 
I was met on arrival by a very talkative Bengali Babu, who 
despatched me in a palkee to the house of Mr. Alfred Gouger, 
to whose care I had been consigned by my father. He lived 
at that time in Tank Square, and was of the firm of Gouger, 
Jenkins and Co. I was most hospitably received by him; 
but soon found that I had made my first acquaintance with 
Calcutta at a very inauspicious moment; the great firm of 
Cockerell and Co., having just failed for an enormous sum- 
of money, and the Union Bank as well, spreading ruin and 
dismay amongst thousands of people. Every business man's 
face bore an anxious look, for no one knew when some big 
bill might be returned protested. Money could not be raised 
on the best security, and business was at a standstill. Things 
were in this condition when I steamed out of Calcutta, down 
the Hooghly round by the Sunderbunds bound for Monghyr . 
Ab we passed in the steamship Benares, my good friends in* 
the; Albatross hoisted her colours, and dropped them in a^ 
parting salute to me, a stranger in a strange land, and I felt 
not a little downhearted, as I waved them back my last adieu.- 



lOG REMINISCENCES OF :BEHAR. 

The voyage from the Sunderhunds to Monghyr took over 
a week, and to a young griff, as I was then, became most 
exciting, the herds of deer on the low-lying lands bounding 
away into £he thick woods, and the large alligators lying like 
logs of old timber on the muddy banks, and gliding into the 
water, when disturbed by the noise of our paddles, were a 
source of constant interest to me, and I only longed for my 
gun to have a shot at them. When we got out of the jungly 
part of the Sunderhunds, we came again on signs of civiliza- 
tion and soon passed the large concern, Maharajgunge, an 
indigo4factory, which, when Bengal was in its palmy days, 
used to sell for one lakh of rupees an anna share ! Now, alas, 
it is a case of Ichabod I 

The vessel had hardly touched the shore at Monghyr 
before we were boarded by hundreds of natives selling every 
conceivable kind of wood and iron- work, desks, boxes, pistols, 
knives, etc., and ornaments of all descriptions in buffaloe horn 
and ebony, all exceedingly cheap ; a double-gun by a Monghyr 
Manton, could then be bought for Rs. 5. Now-ardays you 
may go to Monghyr and hardly find any of the people who 
used to work so well, and at such moderate prices; the iron 
horse and the march of civilization have pretty well cleared 
them all out. 

Dr. Hastings, Civil Surgeon at the station, was kind 
^enough to meet me and take me to his house — ^that in which 
Mr. Fitzpatrick afterwards lived — just outside the Monghyr 
Fort Gate, and close to the Railway station. I remember 
the present neat little public gardens were being laid out^— 
ithose which have been brought to such perfection under 
-General M — 's care, and are now the attractive rendezvous 
of society. Of course, I did not fail to visit the Sita Koond 
(hot springs), just below Peerpahar (Mountain of the Saint) 
where Mr. Alonzo Money then resided; he was Magistrate 
:f Monghyr, and lived to distinguish himself during tlie 



EEMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 107 

mutiny when he marched to Gya. He was afterwards Com- 
missioner of Bhaugulpore. After a short stay I proceeded 
-on my journey to Tirhoot, my ultimate destination, crossing 
the Ganges in a very ricketty boat to where stood my palkee, 
awaiting my arrival with the usual quantum of bearers, 
musalchee, etc. Having spread my razai (quilt), and settled 
my pillows to my satisfaction with a cheroot to beguile the 
time, I started on what proved one of the most unpleasant 
journeys I ever made. I shall never forget the monotonous 
'' h'm-h'm " noise of the bearers, or the almost unbearable 
smell of the masal (torch), which was lighted when night 
fell, or the agony of stiffness in my back, when I awoke from 
my first doze ! The cold was intense on the lands between 
the banks of the river and the higher ground, and as no 
mattress had been put in the palanquin, there was nothing 
between me and it but the quilt, which was not as large as 
could have been desired, and consequently, I was nearly 
frozen. It was a most merciful dispensation when, at last, 
the bearers put down the palkee, and lit a huge fire round 
which we squatted together till the time came to get under 
way again. That was a night of misery ! 

We reached Munjowl Factory, where P — C — was man- 
ager and proprietor, about 6 a.m. ; and never shall I forget poor 
old C — and his " get-up " of black velvet cap, knee breeches, 
and top boots, and over all a bright^ coloured dressing gown. 
I was most kindly received by him, and Mrs. C — , and their 
little daughter, and observing his costume, I fully expected 
that he was just setting out to ride; but for the two days 
I stayed at Munjowl, his dress never varied, and never a 
horse did he bestride. Again betaking myself to my palkee, 
I reached Dowlutpore in the early morning, and giving my 
bearers one rupee as huksish, I dismissed them, but they had 
rspotted me as a griff, and one of them shortly after returned 
with a long yam in which the words ** rupee *' and *' crab " 



108 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

were often repeated, and of which I did not understand any- 
thing, till the English-speaking factory Babu coming to my^ 
assistance, it was explained to me that the rupee I had given 
was a bad one, and that they were asking for another, which- 
I gave at once. R — , who was managing Dowlutpore, was 
away at the time, and was highly amused at my simplicity 
in believing them, for, of course, they had swindled me. I 
spent two very pleasant days with R — and his wife, who were 
most kind to me. Both have been dead many years, — he, 
poor fellow, was one of the many victims of the mutiny. He 
had left indigo and gone into the Sonthal Commission. He 
and Gr — G — were paying a visit to some officers in charge 
of a detachment of sepoys stationed near the Grand Trunk 
Road. They had dined, and passed the night with their 
friends, when, in the early morning, they heard shots fired 
G — G- — immediately understood what was up, and bolted 
straight way, getting into the jungle, where he was hidden 
by a Pasi woman. R — was following G — when a sepoy 
called after him : " What are you running away for, Sahib V 
There is no fear." Poor R — was foolish enough to turn 
back, when the sepoy bayonetted him. Thus died poor R — . 
As it may interest my readers to kndw about the two officers, 
I will go on with their story : They, finding their men in 
a state of mutiny, ran for the house, and locked themselves 
in. One of these officers was reported to be a very kind and 
considerate master, the other a man of a most violent temper 
who never had a civil word to say to a native. They had 
not been long in the house when a sepoy came to the door 
and called to the bad tempered man to come out. Though 
bad tempered, he was brave, and he told his brother officer 
that he would go out, and the sepoys would, no doubt, shoot 
him, and in the meantime he could escape. What was his 
astonishment, when, on his stepping out of the house, four 
men formed round him, and marched him of£ to Bhaugul- 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. lOD 

pore. A purse was got up by the residents of Bhaugulpore 
.as a reward for these men who had saved their officer* One 
of the old Eurasians, however, questioned the sepoys as to 
why they had not saved both officers. " Oh," they said, 
''this man is a mad man; and if we had killed him, the 
.devil in him would have gone into one of us ! " In the morn- 
ing when the station residents went €o present the purse, 
they found the sepoys gone. The other unfortunate officer 
was shot. I may as well relate another instance of a mar- 
vellous escape during the mutiny which happened about the 
same time. Some irregular cavalry mutinied and ran off 
from Bhaugulpore. They had to pass by a factory where a 
young planter was living • and expecting some loot, they fired 
a volley, and made for the house. The planter was Just 
going to bed. He told his bearer to run to the stables and 
bring his horse round to the back of the garden and hide it 
in the ditch. The sowars were close to the house, so he had 
to make up his mind sharp as to where he would in the mean- 
while hide. He suddenly remembered that he had had a big 
earthen vessel called a mutka, made to hold water, lately dug 
x)ut of the floor of one of the rooms, so he felt his way in the 
dark and got into the hole where the mutka had been. He 
had barely settled down when one of the sowars entered the 
room. He dropped a gun cap, and bent down to try to find 
it by groping about on the floor with his hand. As the sowar 
^ot nearer and nearer to him, the young man felt his blood 
run cold. The sowar shortly after went out of the room, 
when the planter jumped out of his hiding place, ran along 
the garden hedge, got into the ditch, and finding his horse 
waiting there, jumped on it, and rode off. 

I must now go back to Dowlutpore, and continue the 
thread of my story. From R — 's hospitable roof, I again 
continued my journey to my next stage, Hattowrie Factory, 
and arrive^, as on previous occasions, in the early momii^. 



110 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

As a matter, of course, my palkee was put down at the door 
of the bungalow, and looking out, I saw a lady and some 
children, but having no letter of introduction and being un- 
accustomed to the ways of the country, I felt rather as if I 
were intruding, and not very happy. However, she came 
forward in the kindest way, and asked me in, making me 
so welcome that I soon forgot my shyness. I was very desirous 
of testifying my gratitude by an offer of my palkee and 
bearers, as she wanted to leave Hattowrie, her husband hav- 
ing sold out ; but nothing would induce the men to take 
her — they would only carry me to my journey's end, and 
with many regrets at my inability to assist her, after a few 
hours' rest, I again set out on my weary way. How thankful 
I was to find myself some twelve hours after grasping my 
brother's hand, and my wanderings ended. It was late at 
night when I arrived, and he had got out of bed to receive 
me, so, saying, he should reserve all he had to say till next 
morning, I very gladly '* turned in," and was soon in the 
delightful arms of Morpheus. I don't know how long I had 
slept when I was awakened by some one singing in the room 
next to mine, really most beautifully, and then the same 
voice addressing an audience — which I found afterwards was 
an imaginary one — ^in these words : ** What do you think 
of that for a song? " Oh, you encore me? Well, I will sing 
you something this time that will bring down the house; " 
and off he went again, song after song, till, worn out with 
his exertion, as I was with mine, sleep overtook us. Next 
morning I made the acquaintance of my eccentric next door 
neighboxir. He was standing, looking into a drain, as I 
approached him and said : *' Good morning." " Do you hear 
her, poor thing? " he asked, for a reply. " She says she has 
not been washed for a week." I was rather taken aback by 
this remark, and still more so when pointing to some water ^ 
out of which something stood upright, he asked. " Do you 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. ill 

see that boa-<;onstrictor ? " I thought him stark staring mad,, 
as indeed he was not far from being, and was very glad when^ 
at thia moment my brother made his appearance. The gen- 
tleman in question was a Mr. P — , who had charge of 
machinery at Purhehar Factory, who having imbibed too freely 
en route had been put down at Kumtoul to recover himself 
before continuing his way to Mozufferpore. He had been a 
professional singer before he took to engineering, which ac- 
counted for the midnight entertainment he had favoured 
me with. He only remained a few hours my brother's guest, 
and that was the last we ever heard of him. 

After breakfast the factory amlahs (office servants) came 
in a body to pay their respects to me, the " Burra Sahib* s " 
brother, each offering his gift of one or two rupees, according 
to the donor's position, laid on the corner of his clean chudder 
(sheet worn over the shoulder) with a low salaam. I was 
rather puzzled as to the wherefore of this ceremony, and in- 
quiring what I was to do under the circumstances, learnt, 
to my surprise, that I was to take the coin, raise it to my 
forehead in token of acceptance, and pocket it, a not un- 
pleasant and easy occupation as I found by the evening that 
I had added to my slender fortune not less than fifty rupees. 
The custom prevailing at that period was, if you were a 
Burra Sahib (great man) to touch the rupees with your fingers, 
and then your forehead, and the sirdar bearer (head bearer) j 
who took care to be present on such occasions, pocketted the 
money. Since the time I speak of this and other respectful 
practices have nearly died out in India, times have changed 
— not altogether for the better. 

Before leaving Mauritius, I had been employed as a 
sugar-planter with the view of learning the work it was 
proposed that I should follow in Bengal, but within two years 
sugar-planting in Tirhoot, was pretty well given up, and 
many a good man ruined. The soil was found to be unsnited'' 



11 L> REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

for it, and the cane degenerated, — then it was that I took 
to indigo ; but before that time arrived, many jolly days were 
spent with my brother at Kumtoul and other places. One 
holiday at Kanti, in 1848, is very fresh in my memory, at 
my cousin, Russell Crawford's house — a very pretty place, 
situated on the border of a large semi-circular lake, well 
raised ofF the ground. The drive up to it, meandered through 
hedges of lovely roses, and the grounds were enclosed by 
clumps olf enormous bamboos, whose graceful feathery heads 
seemed to wave one a welcome. Flowering shrubs were dotted 
all about, and banyan trees with wide spreading branches 
roomy enough to take in a regiment of soldiers, were to be 
seen every here and there. We spent New Year's Day in 
shooting. Breakfast was sent out to us ; and we had a charm- 
ing picnic after making a capital bag of black partridge, hare, 
and quail. In the evening we danced; to my extreme con- 
fusion it was discovered that I alone of the men could waltz, 
and I was, therefore, led up to the " Spin." of the party who 
danced " round dances," and we did " the light fantastic " 
together, to the admiration of the spectators. Quadrilles and 
country dances followed, and fun became fast and furious 
till the small hours chimed. Happy bygone days ! Captain 
B — was one of those I met for the first time during my 
visit to Kanti. He was quite a gentleman of the old school, 
and most courteous in manner. At one period he had been 
in the Hon'ble East India Co.'s Navy, which he had left 
tolerably well off. Unfortunately, he invested all his fortune 
in indigo, and lost it, and was at that time managing a salt- 
petre manufactory, near my cousin's place for Mackillop, 
Stewart and Co., of Calcutta. I was back at work at Kum- 
toul early in January, and found that it was becoming pretty 
hard. The west wind had begun to blow, and so violently 
in th^ day time, that the sparks from the furnaces were 
carried for miles around, endangering the villages, and we 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR 113 

had, consequently, to do the cane-crushing at night, which 
was a very cold and tiring business, and I was thankful when 
at last it was finished. The engines had been very trying 
to the nerves of everybody — " BlowEard " and " Rattletrap " 
by name — the boilers of both being in such a crazy condition ^ 
that they were always on the point of bursting, especially 
" Blowhard," which actually did come to pieces, and killed 
a young blacksmith. Happily, I was absent when the 
accident took place, but it did not contribute to my peace of 
mind when I returned. I had been with my brother to 
Pundoul, Mr. J. — G' — 's factory, where sugar was exten- 
sively manufactured, — a very pretty place wit)i grand mango 
groves all about it. Mr. G' — was devoted to gardening, 
and showed great taste in the way he had laid out the grounds. 
It was said that his pineapples were so plentiful that he 
fed his pigs on them, and that every fruit and flower that 
India could produce might be found in his gardens. 

Shortly after this, I was asked to make one of a tiger- 
shooting party, and having obtained leave to go my delight 
was unbounded. For a week beforehand every spare mo- 
ment was spent in seeing to the state off my guns, casting 
bullets, and getting the howdah gear in order, and it was a 
red letter day when about the end of March, Mr. J — C — 
picked me up at Kiimtoul and carried me off to Doomrah. 



CHAPTER IT. 

TIGER-SHOOTING MIDMGBT ALARM DEATH BY 

DROWNING OF H — . 

Our escapes were narrow and many during the drive to 
Doomrali Factory, for neither the roads nor the horses were 
•of the best; of the latter, one was given to backing, another 
to gibbing. However, we arrived safe and sound at last, 
And the perils of the way had been so exciting that they 
added just the zest needed to make our journey most amusing. 
Our host, a jovial merry-fellow, had assembled a large party 
of friends ; and although I was a stranger to most ©f them, 
I soon felt myself at home, and burning with ardour for the 
early start, we were to make on the morrow. 

Long ba.ore the peep of day, we were up and away to 
S^ , where H — lived, not far from Purhilca Factory: H — 
carried on some farming busliiers in connection with villages 
belonging to the Soorsund Babus. Resting there till the 
afternoon, we again set out, and, crossing the Nepaul bound- 
ary at a place called Sirreepore Kablassa, we shortly came 
upon our tents, ready pitched, and every preparation made 
for us. 

I was astonished and much impressed to hear from the 
villagers that big game was so numerous, and that tigers 
were running all over the place like cats, but I was soon to 
find out that a Nepaul Shikari (hunter) is not to be quite 
depended on, and tells a " good one " when he wishes to keep 
the thing going. We were to be ready to start at four o'clock 
next morning, and long before then were astir, getting our 
properties in order, rubbing our guns, and preparing our 
powder and shot. The elephants, with howdahs strapped 
on, appeared on the scene at the appointed time, and, I must 
confess it was with some trepidation 1 approached the huge. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 115 

restless monster on whose back I was to take my first lesson 
in elephant-riding, as well as tiger-hunting. J — G — was 
made Captain of the expedition, and having reached the 
jungle, we were placed in a line, he in the centre. Between 
•each howdah animal there were several pad elephants to do 
the work of beating, and in this order on we marched, the 
elephants stamping and crushing down the trees in their path 
by putting their foreheads against them, and bringing the 
whole weight of their bodies to bear. We, on the tiptoe 
of expectation, ready to fire at " Stripes " the moment he 
showed himself:. However, our first day out was doomed to 
be a blank, as far as big game was concerned. In spite of 
the ctory of the shikaris, that tigers were as plentiful as cats, 
we beat the thick jungle till midday in vain. Then the order 
to fire only at tiger was withdrawn by our Captain, and we 
turned our attention to deer, hare, and pea and jungle fowls, 
of which we made a large bag before night fell. As the 
elephants with the tiffin (luncheon) basket hove in sight, we 
called a halt, and, getting into a piece of magnificent sal 
forest, we were not long in setting to. Near us ran a lovely 
river, the rippling water of which was as clear as crystal, 
and on its banks we pitched our tents. How delicious it was 
after many hours jolting to dip in the stream, and refresh 
our tired limbs! Elephant-riding had reduced me to one 
great ache in every part of my body; and, I think, the 
slumbers of all our party were pretty sound that night, when, 
soon after our evening meal, we turned in. Early morning 
we were again afoot and away, the day opening with brighter 
prospects, for having reached some marshy ground in which 
tall reeds were growing, the elephants began to show signs 
of uneasiness, and all at once there was a rush and a regular 
volley of shots. I saw nothing but the tip of a tail over 
the reeds. Following in line, I suddenly came on a tiger 
dead, or dying in about a foot of water. My animal pulled 



116 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

up with a jerk that nearly threw me out of the howdah, and 
the muhaut shouted to me to fire, or the elephant would go 
down on his knees to crush the tiger. There was a tremendous 
iiubhuh, natives shouting, elephants screaming and trumpet- 
ting, sportsmen scolding, so I blazed away, expending all my 
barrels on the brute, which I believed was already dead; 
however, there could have been no doubt about it when I 
had ceased to fire, and we gathered round our trophy. It 
proved to be a tigress over nine feet long from tip of nose 
to end of tail. She was handed over to the chamar (tanner) 
to skin and partly tan; and we afterwards found that the 
natives had boned all the whiskers and several of the claws 
as charms, which was very amusing. I have shot several 
tigers since those days, but have never succeeded in recover- 
ing the skin with its full number of whiskers, the natives will 
have one at any cost. As may be supposed, we were exces^ 
sively proud of our first tiger, for we were nearly all griffs 
and new to the work. Late next day, when some of the 
party had dismounted and gone after florican a long way from 
the rest of us, a mahout called out: "There goes a tiger,'' 
and, sure enough, about half a mile away in the middle of a 
big plain, we saw his royal highness quietly walking off 
towards a wood on the opposite side. We halted to collect 
our scattered forces, and they too seeing the beast, got on 
their elephants sharp, and gave chase. As we advanced,^ 
we watched with intense interest a native who was crossing 
the maidan (plain) within a few feet of the tiger, the animal 
passed almost close to him, but he never increased his pace, 
it was kismet! Our elephants, unfortunately, were not of 
the best — they were not howdah elephants — and were very 
Blow, so, we did not get up with the tiger as rapidly as we 
ought; but S — got a long shot at him, as he was entering 
the wood, and thought he limped as he went away, but it 
was too late to follow him that night, and we returned to 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 117 

<;amp. At dawn we were off again in search of the hagh 
(tiger) which S — thought he had wounded ; but, though we 
beat every possible bit of jungle, we did not see any signs of 
him, and we had almost given him up, when, returning to 
the ground we had shot over the previous day, H — and Gr — 
flaw a little patch of grass ahead, which they thought they 
would try. Hardly had they entered it when out jiunped 
» big tiger. Gr — in his excitement fired two barrels loaded 
with shot, but H — sent a bullet after him, as he disappeared 
into the jungle, and declared he had hit him. Next day we 
moved our camp, and beating down a stream that ran through 
the wood near where H — had fired at the tiger, I came upon 
bim dead. He must have been the same animal that S — 
had hit as there was a wound on his hindleg. Our '' find " 
was another tigress about the size of the first. 

During the night that followed, when we were all sleep- 
ing the sleep of the just after the fatigues of the day, we were 
;aroused by the most frightful yells I ever heard. To jump 
out of bed and seize our guns was the work of a moment ; but 
in the dark all was confusion and hubbub at first. I had 
never heard horses screaming from terror till then; and a 
very horrible sound it was, mingled with the shrieks of the 
sirdar jee (underservant) who, asleep outside the tents, had 
4ypened his eyes to find a tiger standing at his feet, it was 
<mly a wonder that he had not been carried off by the brute. 
The poor horses were perfectly paralysed with fear. We were 
■toon afterwards in pursuit, and very anxious to come up 
with the gentleman who had so nearly polished off our bearer. 
Following the footprints in the sand, we got into a piece of 
jungle thick with an undergrowth of grass and briar plum, 
which we beat carefully through without result. Then we 
sent the shtkaria to see if there were any footprints in the 
dry bed of the river which might indicate an exit that way, 
but none were visible. We felt certain that the animal could 



118 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

not be far ofF, and wheeled round to beat back again. About 
half way, I observed a tuft otf grass, too small, one would 
have thought to conceal any large animal, but " every stone 
must be turned " in tiger-hunting, so, I called to the driver 
of one of the pad elephants to go through it, when, with 
a growl, out jumped our midnight visitor. The whole line 
fired, and she rolled over just outside the jungle in the sand. 
A pad elephant had been told off to carry her, when she 
was observed to blink one eye as much as to say : " Til give 
it to you now,'' and in a second up she sprang with a roar, 
and made a kind of semi-circular charge on us. 

Away sped the elephants, S — 's howdali was smashed 
against a tree, and knocked to pieces, and his guns thrown 
on the ground. Fortunately, he managed to spring at C — 's 
elephant as it passed, and hold on to the howdah. S — and 
H — disappeared on theirs down the dry bed of the river, 
and did not return for over an hour. G — was on a blind 
animal, which did not run far, and mine stood still after a 
short scamper. C — 's, with S — hanging on behind, rushed 
into a thick forest, where the gigantic creepers half-skinned 
the wretched mahout, and C — himself, who had ventured to 
peep out from a secure position in the bottom of the howdah, 
got such a crack with one that he looked for some days after, 
as if he had been having a round with Heenan. S — escaped 
easiest in the end, squatting behind the howdah, though 
his clothes were nearly torn off his back, and he got a scratch 
or two. It had been the last dying effort of the tigress; and 
when our scared elephants had recovered their lost equanimity, 
we bore her triumphantly home to the camp. It was on that 
eventful day I despatched my first cobra. A very demon 
he looked, with his wicked little eyes gleaming and his hood 
extended, disputing the right of way. We had hoped to 
have had a few days more hunting, but that night brought 
us our marching orders in the advent of a heavy " nor'-wester." 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 119 

The wind roared through the neighbouring trees till the 
tents seemed as if they would be blown to shreds, and the 
rain came down in torrents. As it is considered dangerous 
to remain in the jungle after wet weather on account of 
malarious fever, the order was given to pack up and be going 
— some of our party started at once, and the rest followed 
later, of which latter number I was one. The heat and mug- 
giness of that night were fearful, added to which our senses 
were invaded by a most horrible stench, supposed at first to 
be the dreaded malaria, but which proved to be pieces of 
tiger-flesh, which the- servants had kindly attached to the 
outer fly of our tents, intending to take the savoury morsels 
home with them as charms. We struck camp early the fol- 
lowing morning. On lifting the floor-cloth in our dining tent^ 
the ground was found to be literally alive with little snakes, 
about four inches long. I never saw such a sight ! 

How sorry I was when our expedition was over ! Though 
it is six and thirty years since those happy days, every in- 
cident of them is vividly before me still, and I look back to 
that time with the liveliest pleasure. Of the jolly few, 
gathered together then, only two remain; H — , G^ — , T — , 
S — and J — , S — are dead. Poor H — was drowned ' shortly 
after our return. He was staying with my brother at Kum- 
toul ; and one day having nothing more amusing to do, we 
borrowed a beat from one of the big crafts that were shipping 
saltpetre on the riverside for the purpose of having a row, 
but, finding the stream heavy to pull against, and the breeze 
favourable, I suggested getting a sheet and improvising a sail. 
My bungalow was not far off, and I ran home to get one. 
As the tailor was working in the verandah, I waited a few 
minutes to get him to sew it on a cross bar of wood for a 
yard, and then returned to the river, but could not see any- 
thing of H — . Thinking he had got tired of waiting and 
strolled on, I hoisted my sheet and sailed up the river, expect- 



120 REMINISCENCES OP BEHAR. 

ing to come on my missing friend. Not doing so, I returned 
the boat to its owner, and started in searcli of him on foot. 
I looked for him everywhere, but could see or hear nothing 
of him. All night I sat up waiting and watching for his 
return, very anxious and much distressed, for we were great 
friends. Three days passed, and then the village-watch- 
man came and gave us the information that the body of a 
European was floating in the river a little way down, and this 
was poor H — . We got him out and buried him under a 
tree to the North-West of the big bungalow on the border 
of the factory zerat. Greatly to my annoyance, no sooner 
had the police got wind of what had happened, than I found 
myself an object of suspicion, the Darogah (Police Inspector), 
through others, kindly giving me to understand that he sus- 
pected foul play, but that a tip would put all right. For- 
tunately, my brother was at the factory, and my evidence 
was taken in his presence, or I might have found myself very 
awkwardly placed. The following year when some of the 
river boats returned, we learned how it was that poor H — 
was drowned. Having probably got tired of waiting for my 
return, he took up a long bamboo, and tried to pole the 
boat up stream. Either the water was deeper than he anti- 
cipated, or the bamboo stuck in the mud at the bottom, for, 
he was pulled off, and went down before the men who saw 
the accident, could rescue him. Seeing that the Sahib did 
not rise again to the surface, one of them, they said, swam 
to the boat as it was floating down the stream, and moored 
it where I had originally left it under H — 's care. Why the 
boatmen did not speak then and tell what had occurred, it 
is impossible to say. Either they were afraid of suspicion 
attaching to themselves in the first instance, or they were 
paid by the police to keep silence, when the hope suggested 
itself of making out a case against me, and being well " tipped " 
to hush it up. 



CHAPTER III. 

HOUSE-KEEPING IN OLDEN DAYS KILLING A COBBA 

DAILY BOUTINE AT AN OUTWOBK BYOTS AND 

RENT LAWS. 

Shortly after this, I was sent to an outwork and set 
up house-keeping on my own account. A few tahles and 
chairs and a couple of heds formed the not very elaborate 
furniture of my bungalow. My crockery was of the most mis- 
<;elIaneous kind, and would have realized a small fortune in 
these days of China mania, so battered and mained was it; 
but in the days when I speak df, it had its value for me, 
for my means were limited, and I had picked it up cheap. 
How well I remember the first smash ! Not long after get- 
ting into order, a cobra had presumingly established itself in 
my kitchen, and the cook arrived in hot-haste to desire me 
to come and kill it, or it would devour the only fowl there 
was to be had for my dinner. The appeal touched me so 
nearly that I forthwith set out with my gun, but finding I 
had no caps, I seized a thick stick, and made for the enemy. 
He was full of fight, and came at me the moment I put my 
foot over the side of the door with such viciousness that I 
had to beat a precipitate retreat. While I was taking counsel 
with myself how best to rout the intruder, the factory jemadar 
(head cultivation servant) came on the scene, poising aloft 
in his hand, a manyheaded spear used for killing fish. With 
this Ee entered the kitchen; the cobra, which had coiled 
itself up in a corner, charged again, and he let drive. Jump- 
ing as he did so on to a wooden chest that stood conveniently 
by. It was that in which my dinner service and cups and 
saucers were kept; the original lid had been broken, and 
replaced by some ill-fitting pieces of wood, which gave way 
under the jemadar's weight. There was a fearful crash, and 



122 EEMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

I knew that my china was no more. The greater part of it 
was demolished ; but the cobra was writhing on the spear 
heads, and victory was with ns, so I had to put up with my 
loss as well as I could. Just afterwards a snake-charmer, 
who had heard of what was going on, appeared, and was 
much disgusted to find he had arrived too late to take the 
reptile alive. I suspect this one would have given him some 
trouble, for though I have seen many since, I do not remem- 
ber any other as vicious as this cobra. 

My household consisted of a khitmatgar (waiter), a cook, 
a sweeper, a dhohie (washerman), a bearer, (valet), a water- 
man, and a tailor. For these one pays now just about twice 
as much as I paid then. I was never a clever house-keeper, 
and do not quite remember the prices of things, but I think 
I am right in saying that then, you would get eight very fine 
fowls* fit for roasting fcr a rupee, or sixteen chickens for the 
same money ; a small lamb for four annas ; rice twenty seers, 
and milk twenty quarts fcr a rupee. Country- bottled leer, the 
imly kind sold a::d u:ed then, could be procured from Calcutta, 
if bottles were sent down by the boats, and the a'e bought 
in casks, at Es. 4 to Es. 4-4 or Es. 5 a dozen. English bottled 
beer is the only kind that is drunk now, brought by steamers 
from England in a month's voyage, whereas three to six was 
formerly the passas:e round the Cape, a length of time that 
was quite des'ructlve to English beer. The price it sells at 
is not much higher — from Es. 6 to Es. 6-8 a dozen in Cal- 
cutta, and Es. 7 to Es. 7-8 in the district. Formerly, beer 
was universally drunk ; and some men had a wonderful capa- 
city for taking it in. Now-a-days, this has been exchanged 
for claret or whisky and water, and certainly the Tirhootean» 
of the present day are much more abstemious than those of 
the past generation, who, in the good old days, if a man got 
up a case or two of beer immediately assembled from the 
surrounding neighbourhood, and remained his guests till every 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 123 

drop was gone. This was called " giving him a party," 
though it might be defined the other way. 

At Sibnuggur Factory, I was allowed two riding horses. 
My house was a thatched bungalow containing three rooms 
bordered by two verandahs, and I was about ten miles dis- 
tant from any European. The first night I spent in my 
lonely mansion was dull enough. One of a large, cheery 
family, I began to wish that my lot had been cast nearer 
home. How well I could picture them all in Mauritius, an J 
here I was far from every creature — as distant as could be. 
The lamp I had to brighten my solitude was manufactured 
by the bearer out of a brandy bottle cut in two, in which 
stood, stuck in half a potato, a wick of cotton wound round 
a thin piece of bamboo, it was not lively. I afterwards pur- 
chased a pair of plated candlesticks with glass shades, and 
when these figured on the table vice the brandy bottle, I felt 
myself to be rather rising in the world, and a man of property ! 
As I was very fond of riding, I soon found the means of 
routing the "blue devils." I kept what is called a "bob* 
bery pack," and hunted jackals and foxes. My pack was 
composed of terriers, greyhounds, tazies (native greyhounds), 
and even pariah dogs, and gave me capital sport. Part of 
my duty was to ride over the indigo cultivation in the early 
morning, and, as I always had my dogs with me, if I started 
a fox or jackal off we went, and frequently ended in having 
a good scamper and a kill. My nearest neighbour out of the 
concern was W — P — at Poopree, for J — S — had left and 
gone to Bengal. Next to Poopree came Doomrah, where 
F — H — had taken the management. They came to see me 
now and then ; and, when I could get leave, I returned their 
visits, and at Doomrah used to have great wolf-hunts. It 
was considered a great feat of horsemanship to ride these 
animals down, and I recollect one occasion on which we nearly 
succeeded. 



124 REMINISCENCES OP BEHAR. 

We had gone out early in the morning, as it was in the 
;hot season, and from the first grass we beat, out sprang a 
wolf which made straight away over the dry paddy-fields with 
us after him. We took it in turns to give him a spurt, keep- 
ing him at his top speed, while some of us made for coignes 
of vantage by short cuts which enabled us to rest our horses 
before starting again in direct pursuit. In this way we ran 
him fw ten miles across the rice chur. The ground, baked 
by the sun, was a« hard as iron, and told sadly on our horse's 
legs. I believe the wolf would have escaped in the end, if 
the inhabitants of a village we passed through had not caught 
-sight of him, and despatched him with sticks before we got 
up to them. When we dismounted, we were so completely 
done, men and horses, that we leant up against one another 
to support us from falling on the ground. A short rest and 
>a good breakfast put us men all to rights, but the poor animals 
did not get over the run as easily. Little " Opera Dancer," 
H — 's favourite riding nag, had her legs swollen as big as 
an elephant's and all the others walked very tender for days 
afterwards. 

The great Sitamurhi Fair takes place annually near 
Doomrah, and during the time it lasts was always full of 
planters, who quartered themselves in the neighbourhood at 
the houses of friends, for the purpose of making purchases 
-of bullocks, timber, and other necessaries for factory use. 
The fair is held in an extensive mango grove, and thousands 
of oxen are brought to it for sale. As well as being a fair, 
it is also the occasion of a Hindu festival, where offerings 
are made to the goddess ** Sita," by women and children, who 
xome in large numbers from long distances to worship, and 
fthow off their fine clothes and jewellery. If the weather is 
bad, the hardships these poor people endure is almost in- 
tcredible; and the perils they run, in any case, at the fair 
« ought to be enough to deter them, one would think, from 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 125 

returning. But, in spite of the cruel attacks of the profes- 
sional thieves, who take advantage of the crowding or a row, 
to fall on their victims, and tear off their golden nose and' 
earrings, leaving them in frightful pain, and terribly dis- 
figured, they return undismayed the following year, arrayed 
with all the valuables that remain to them, again to be at- 
tacked and despoiled. The fakirs^ or religious mendicants, 
are a great nuisance at this gathering, especially to the shop- 
keepers, from whom they extort blackmail, or rather, what 
they will, by playing on their fears of the professional thieves. 
If these beggars are refused what they ask for, they howl, and 
fight, and create a disturbance, which at once collects the 
thieves, who, in the confusion, often manage to make a clean 
sweep of everything in the shop. As a class, the fakirs are 
the biggest rascals in India, especially those who travel about. 
When thieves wish to escape from a district that has become 
too hot for them, they generally disguise themselves as pil- 
grims or mendicants. I am sure that if Government made 
a law treating these men as vagrants, it would do a great 
deal of good, and no Hindu would say a word against it. 
They are afraid of, and have no respect for, them, and would 
be thankful to escape from their extortions. 

The price of bullocks has gone up very much since the 
year I first visited Sitamurhi Fair. In 1848 and 1849 you 
could have got a splendid pair for Rs. 80; you now pay for 
the same class of animal over Rs. 150. Timber, also, has 
much increased in price; a log that would have cost Rs. 8, 
is now Rs. 100 — and this has not been the result of any scar- 
city of wood, but caused by the closing of the sale of it in 
the Nepal Terai forests by the Nepal Government. 

My work at Sibnuggur as an Assistant Indigo Planter 
had not much to vary it, and might be described as mono- 
tonous; though, on the whole, I liked it. To rise before 
the sun, eat his chota-hazriy make sure that the factory plougli- 



126 EEMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

men are ready to go to work, inspect horses and bullocks, 
and see that they are fed, mount his horse and go over all 
the indigo cultivation, is the daily employment of an Assist- 
ant. This may take him five hours or more; he returns via 
his factory zerats (home-cultivation), and gets under shelter 
from the sun by 11 a.m. After breakfast, he allows himself, 
in the hot season, a siesta till 3 p.m., takes a bath and a 
cup of tea to freshen him up, and goes to the office to look 
over the accounts, and settle any matter that may be in hand. 
It is nearly sunset before all this is accomplished, and time 
to remount his horse and ride round and inspect the work 
done since the morning. If there be blacksmiths and car- 
penters employed at the factory, he looks them up. This 
routine is closely followed out till November or December, 
by which time the ground for planting indigo has been proper- 
ly tilled and made ready, when comes the measurement of 
the land to ascertain if there is the right quantity in cultiva^ 
tion. With a book and pen in his hand, accompanied by 
a boy holding a bottle of ink, the Assistant rides from field 
to field, while men with nine foot poles measure the length 
and breadth of them, calling out the number of poles in a 
sing-song voice: " Now lug gee ^ now! (nine poles, nine !) when 
another takes it up: ** Bass, han, dassf" (ten, yes, ten!) 
— or whatever the poles may be. I confess to having felt 
always much relieved when this part of my duty was com- 
pleted. To get over it quickly, most men keep at it all day, 
and, as it is cold-weather occupation, the sun does not harm 
one. 

Sowing the indigo comes next in order. First, all the 
drills have to be tested to see how much seed they average 
per acre. This done, and orders having been sent from the 
head-factory to begin to sow on a certain day, the drills are 
sent out in batches to different parts of the cultivation to 
be ready for use. Early on the appointed day the drill- 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 127 

shares are set to the proper depth and set going; and this 
is repeated daily till the whole cultivation is sown. At the 
beginning of May arrangements are entered into for the 
manufacture of the indigo, for advancing money for carts« 
pressmen, etc. Formerly it was more difficult to get beaters 
— the most essential of the men employed — than others, as 
only a certain caste of the natives would do the work, and 
they were hard to get, and troublesome to keep. Machinery, 
patented by A. Butler, now takes the place of these labour- 
ers, and makes matters easy. If rain has fallen at the pro- 
pitious time — by the end of June — the plant is nearly ready 
to cut, and early in July the factory preTcnts a very busy 
appearance. Carts arrive in hundreds, laden with indigo, 
which are backed, and the contents emptied into the vats, 
on each of which coolies are employed to carefully stack it. 
As soon as they have filled the vats and thatched them over 
with indigo, bamboos cut of appropriate lengths are forced 
in across them, under beams that hold them, for the purpose 
of keeping the plant immersed, and preventing it bursting 
up when fermentation sets in. Water is then let on till it 
shows above the plant when the flow is cut off, and the indigo 
is left to steep for about twelve hours. The liquid thus 
obtained is then run into the lower or beating vat, and the 
refuse that remains removed for manure or fuel. Operations 
arc immediately begun in the lower vats, either by beaters 
or machinery till the fecula has been separated from the 
water and settled down. The water is then run off and the 
fecula pumped into boilers, which are gently fired. The 
fecula is again allowed to settle, and the water run off a 
second time ; what is precipitated is once more slowly boiled, 
and, finally, poured on a large strainer called a table, where 
the indigo settles thickly, and the water runs off clear. On 
the following day it is put into press boxes — about three feet 
square — and thoroughly squeezed dry. The boxes are then 



128 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

taken into the cake-house, where the indigo is stamped ancT 
laid on shelves made of strips of bamboos till the process of 
drying is completed. It is then packed in chests and sent 
to Calcutta, where it is sold by either Messrs. W. Moran 
and Co., or Thomas and Co., or shipped to England. 

Indigo is cultivated in two ways, by ztrat and ryoUi (or 
ansamiwar). The first is homestead-cultivation by factory 
ploughs and labour the second, ryotti or assamiwar, is secured 
thus: A factory farms a village, and takes from each ryot' 
an agreement to cultivate a portion of his holding for indigo.. 
The ryot prepares the land and reaps the crop; the factory 
pays for the seed, sowing, and carting off to the vats. In: 
1847 the rates paid for ryotti indigo were very low — ^Rs. 6-S 
per acre for good plant — and, as ryots often had to pay high 
rents, very little remained to the cultivator after paying 
this. The ryots, however, got this advantage, that the day 
the indigo agreement was written, the total of their indigo-^ 
account in full was placed to credit in their rent, which was 
finally adjusted at the end of the season. 

Now indigo is well paid for, owing to a reform brought 
about by the Planters' Association, an institution set on foot 
under the auspices of Sir Ashley Eden, late Lieutenant- 
Governor of Bengal. The Association acts as an arbitrator 
in all questions relating to indigo, and as a buffer between 
overzealous officials and the planter. 

There are two kinds of ryotti cultivation — that already^ 
named, and what is called khoski. This is cultivation given 
by ryots from lands in which the factory has no interest as a 
lessee. In olden times it was largely advanced for ; but as rents 
went up, the ryots found it did not pay. As late as 1853-64, 
the Kurnoid and Dooriah concerns had very litter other 
than khoski indigo, and the difficulty was to keep the area 
of cultivation down; in fact it was looked on as a punish- 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 12D 

ment by the ryots if you refused to enter into a contract with 
tli^m to grow indigo. It was the custom at these places for 
the ryots to give a salaami of a cart-load of hhoosah (chaff) 
for every acre of indigo he got advances for. Oats also were 
to be bought cheap under advances — 2 maunds (about 1601bs.), 
and two nets (about a cart-load) of hhoosah being given for 
every rupee advanced. If you get 401bs. of oats now-a^day& 
for a rupee, you may consider yourself lucky, and as to chaff 
(or hhoosah) y you have to pay Rs. 2 or Rs. 3 for each cart- 
load. Though khoski indigo has somewhat declined in the 
district, there are still some villages that stick to the old 
system ; the rates paid are, however, higher, and the hhoosah 
peiquisite has been done away with. 

The rea?on for the anxiety on the part of the ryots round 
Dooriah and Kumoul to grow khoski indigo is found in the 
fact of the land there being low-rented; the ryot would take 
from the zemindar say, 20 acres of land, for which he would 
have to pay Rs. 2 per acre; he would at once proceed to 
the factory and enter into an agreement to cultivate ten acres 
khoski ioT indigo; he received an advance of Rs. 2 per acre; 
oul of this Rs. 20, he paid Rs. 10 at once on account of 
rent to the zemindar, and kept the rest for his own expenses. 
As the season went on, other advances were paid. I^ this 
way he could always pay his rent, and have the p'-oduce of 
his remaining ten acres in crops for his own use. 

Of late years, another kind of contract has come into 
vogue called kurtuli. By this the ryot makes over to the 
planter a certain number of acres out of his holdings; the 
factory pays the rent, and a sum as remuneration to the ryot, 
who himself cultivates the land, so that, though the planter 
is actually in possession of it as lessee, the rt/o^occupant holds 
and cultivates under him. The zemindars have a great objec- 
tion to this class of cultivation, as it places the ryot in too 



180 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

independent a position, and for this reason they do all they 
can to stop and oppose khoski also. 

While on this subject, I will note my experiences and 
opinion as to the Rent Laws, past, present, and future — 
the essence of which, when I first put foot in Tirhoot, was 
this. A ryot might be called to appear at the village katchary 
(ofiice) when wanted, when his account would be read 
to him and he would be required to pay up what- 
ever balance might be found in it against him. 
This right was in some instances abused, but, as a 
rule, it worked well. It was withdrawn by a Hew Rent Act, 
and the consequences I consider have been disastrous to many 
ryots, for this simple reason, that it is against the nature of 
these people to pay until they are obliged. Should his rent 
not be demanded from him when it is due, he puts off the 
evil day, and uses the money for some otter purpose, perhaps 
on the expenses of a wedding, or a feast. At last the zemirir 
dar pushes him for it, and finding that the wherewithal to 
pay up is gone, in a moment of exasperation, enters a suit 
against him, and " Jankee Gope " is served with a summons 
to answer for so many rupees. Every oriental loves a law- 
suit, so, instead o(f going to his landlord and settling the 
claim, he sets out to the town where the munsiff (a subordinate 
judge) holds his court, and is introduced to a muktear (at- 
torney) by some hungry " tout " for a small consideration. 
The muktear, generally a musty old gentleman in soiled 
raiment, wearing a huge pair of spectacles framed in brass, 
takes up the summons, and reads it aloud, he then asks what 
reply is to be made. The miserable ryot clasps his hands 
and begins to recite his side of the story. The muktear looks 
the picture of wisdom, but does not utter a word. At a hint 
from the clerk in attendance, " Jankee " wakens up to the 
fact that it is time to open his purse-strings, which from that 
moment do not close. The muMear, the clerk, and the 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 131 

pleader having each received his several fee, the attorney 
sets to work and writes out a reply to the zemindar's plaint. 
It is so brilliantly untruthful in its amazing statements that 
the ryot is beyond himself with delight, and finds it necessary 
to present '' innktearjee " with an extra rupee. When the 
day for the hearing of the case comes on, " Jankee " appears 
in the witness-box and swears to all that has been stated for 
him in the written reply; but fails to give any proof, while 
th) plaintiff proves his case fully. A decree is given in 
accordance for the zemindar, and the hapless " Jankee " has 
to pay, not only his rent claim in full, but interest as well, 
Ijesides the costs of the suit. He turns on the muktear, and 
upbraids him, but meets with no sympathy, and returns to 
his native village a ruined man, to sell everything to pay up 
the decree, even to house and home. 

Now, I am perfectly certain, had " Jankee " continued to 
live under the rent laws of 1847-48, he would not have fallen 
into this dire trouble. I have heard of zemindars who foster 
this propensity of their brethren for delaying the evil day 
of payment, and allow accounts to run on till just within 
limitation, and then enter a suit for, say, three years' rent. 
In this way they sometimes get rid of a troublesome ryot. 
Previous to the alteration in the legislation relative to the 
ryots, they and the zemindars lived happily together; now 
the rent courts are crowded, and where one munsiff did all 
the work, it takes at the present time half a dozen. The 
fpatwari, a man appointed by Government to keep the village 
rent-books and papers, is a constant thorn on the side of the 
ryot, and it is a pity he is not abolished, or the system im- 
proved in some way, for it works very badly. Should the 
ryots have the patwari on their side, they can defy the 
zemindar, and it is in the end a bad day for them if they 
come to loggerheads with hiyn. If the zemindar falls out 
with tlie patwari, he may be led a dance he does not care 



1:12 REMINI8CENCE8 OF BEHAR. 

to try a second time. This ofl&cials evidence is required, 
in all rent-cases, and as papers are very easily manufactured 
to suit by the wily kiasth, he can, by a turn of his pen, 
alter the whole face of the question, and prove black to be 
white. To cheat these betes noij-es, I would suggest a law to en- 
force the giving and taking of leases in writing. The law 
at present obliges the zeinindaj- to give a lease, if called on 
to do so, but does not oblige the ryot to take one from the 
zemindar. If every ryot held a written lease, he would be 
clear with his zemindar, and no longer in the hands of the 
pat war i : his lease would state wfiat he had to pay, and 
the area cultivated by him, and all payments of rent might 
be endorsed on it or given in forms to be supplied by the 
collector to the zemindar. A ryot with such a lease in his 
possession would be much stronger than he has ever been 
under the old, or will be under any new. Rent Act, while 
none of the rights or privileges claimed by the zemindars 
would be infringed. The old laws of the country were simple, 
and the people understood them. The Behar ryot is not a 
man of a very acut^ intellect — certainly far below his 
brethren of Bengal in that respect — and any change in the 
law is looked on by him with suspicion, even if it be for his 
benefit. A common remark of the peasantry when any im- 
provement of an old system is attempted is, with a shake of 
the head: '' Mera bap dada kabbee aisa nehi dekha!*^ (my 
father or my grandfather never saw things like this !) and their 
view is, like that of the late Lord Melbourne : *' Can't you 
leave it alone." 

Taking him all in all, the ryot is not a bad fellow if 
you treat him fairly, and do not bother him with improve- 
ments he neither wants nor asks for. See that he holds his 
land at a fair rent, getting a receipt for every pice he pays, 
and he will be a happy and contented man, and bless the 
" Sircar Bahadur.'' 



CHAPTER IV. 

MY VISIT TO TIWARRAH — I GO TO SUCKREE — A HAUNTED 

HOUSE AND GHOST STORIES -POOSAH : A GOVERNMENT 

STUD NURSERY A FAUZDHARY. 

Towards the end of 1848, I paid a visit to Mr. C — , 
who had asked me to come and see him when we parted after 
our tiger-shooting party. Tiwarrah, his factory, is about 
twelve miles from Kumtoul, and I rode over there in the 
morning. Here I met Mr. J — T — , who had been sent up 
to Tirhoot to look after the interests of the Oriental Bank 
in the many sugar factories that were under advances to it. 
I found him a very jolly and amusing fellow. Many tales 
are told of him and his eccentricities. One is about a fat 
Babu who owned villages that the factory farmed, and of 
which the rents were due. Having heard that a '' Burr a 
Sahib " (a great man) had come from Calcutta on business 
matters connected with the factory, the Babu set off at once 
to pay his respects to him, and see if he could not manage 
to get his money. On arrival he was admitted to the office 
where C — and T — were sitting. A chair was placed for 
him beside them, on which he squatted tailor-fashion. Hav- 
ing made a low bow, and inquired particularly after the 
health of the '' Bvrra Sahib," he proceeded to state his griev- 
ances, and enlarge on the hardness of not getting his rents. 
T — who understood very little of Hindustani, took advant- 
age of a pause to inquire what the '' fat beggar " was talking 
about, and being told that he was asking for his money: 
'' Tell him," said T — , " that money is very scarce at pre- 
sent, but as I should like to do him a good turn—/' Here 
the Babu burst into exclamations of delight : '' A prince 
indeed had visited the district ! The essence of honour and 
justice had come among them ! " — " I will pay him on a 



134 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

condition wliich must be strictly fulfilled." " Let my Lord 
speak the word, and his slave will obey," was the instant 
reply. T — got up, and solemnly taking a piece of chalk, 
which happened to be lying on the table beside him, care- 
fully marked a line on the floor, then another about two 
feet off parallel to it. " Now," said he, " let the Babu toe 
the first line, and jump over the second, and he shall have 
a cheque for his rents." The unhappy man looked round to 
see if it was a joke, but finding both men quite serious, 
descended from his seat, toed the line, looked at the one to 
be jumped over with a despairing glance, seemed suddenly 
to feel his dignity hurt, and with a low salaam, marched 
majestically from the room. Later on he made another at- 
tempt to obtain what was due to him, with as little success. 
T — , on this occasion, was at the sugar works when the Babu 
came in search of him, mounted on his elephant, and was 
requested to descend and make his business known. The 
elephant had squatted, and the Babu's servant was in the 
act of putting on his master's shoes preparatory to his getting 
down, when T — suddenly eased off the steam safety-valve 
attached to the machinery. With a roar, out rushed the 
steam — at tlie same moment the terrified animal rose to its 
feet, and, with the nearly frantic Babu, hanging on like 
grim death, half unseated, sped away across the country as 
hard as he coiild go. It is needless to say that the Babu 
never tried again to see that '' SJiaifaa Sahib" who had 
twice played him such tricks. F — G — was staying at 
Tiwarrali also. lie had given up indigo, and was going to 
the Nepal frontier to trade with the Nepalese. Foi this 
purpose, he had brought up a lot of things to barter, amongst 
them some very old muskets, wliich T— declared he might 
show his confidence in by trying them himself, so having, 
as G-- believed, loaded one of the pieces, T— - seized our 
luckless friend, and holding him in front of himself as a 



KEMINISCENCES OF BEHAK. 135 

buffer, put the butt to Gr — 's shoulder, G — all the time 
struggling to escape and shouting : " It may go off, I tell 
you, and kill us all." But though T — tugged with might 
and main at a string tied to the trigger, no powers would 
start the lock, so Gr — was released with the verdict : " That, 
though the weapons were undoubtedly of the dangerous order, 
the danger was greatly diminished By the fact that the guns 
would not go off/' 

In 1850-51, seeing no prospect of improving my position 
at Kumtoul, I applied to C — (who had gone to Dhoolie) for 
a vacant outwork under him, and receiving a reply in the 
affirmative, I started for Dhoolie, where I found C — and 
E — S — , and passed two or three pleasant days with them 
before going to my new home. During the two years of my 
stay at Sibnuggur, I had been able to gather together a few 
extra pieces of furniture and some pictures, with which I 
managed to make my little bungalow quite cheerful and 
nice. It was a much better house than the one I had left, 
well-placed above the edge of a lake, with a garden to the 
south, in which were several good mangoe trees. I had six 
rooms — drawing, dining, two bed-rooms, and an office — the 
sixth room was appropriated by the bearer for keeping lamps, 
etc., in. While dressing one morning, not many weeks after 
my arrival, my bearer informed me for my comfort that the 
place was haunted ; that a man who had preceded me in it 
some years previously had committed suicide, when under 
the influence of love and liquor; and that his restless spirit 
was still seen to wander by the banks of the lake where he 
had destroyed himself. The story was this : In this life he 
had become enamoured of one of the fair young ladies then 
inhabiting the District, had laid his heart and hand at her 
feet, and been refused. Keturning to the bungalow in a 
desperate frame of mind, he sought comfort and forgetfulness 
in drinking an unheard-of quantity of gin — a dozen squares ! 



136 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

— and having failed to find the peace of mind he sought, he 
prepared to die. Having planted a sword, point uppermost, 
securely in the muddy bank of the lake, he shot himself with 
a pistol, fell on th© sword, and was taken up quite dead. It 
was a gruesome story, and my bearer capped it with another 
scarcely less disagreeable. There was another ghost, it 
seemed, which was given to playing pranks on my domain; 
who were cooking their food by the roadside, seizing what 
appeared, no one knew where. Shortly after his departure, 
the people about began to talk of a wild man who had on 
different occasions rushed out of the cane-field on travellers, 
who were cooking their food by the road side, seizing what 
was preparing on the fire, and disappearing with it whence 
he came. Every on© was terrified. Shortly after these re- 
ports began to circulate, Walters' horse, on which he had 
been seen to ride frantically away, was found dead, and on 
search being made, Walters' body floating about in a deep 
thiir (swamp) also came to light. It came out in evidence 
that the natives had seen a man galloping about the neighbour- 
hood till at length the horse dropped dead from exhaustion, 
and the rider cast headlong, was drowned amongst the weeds 
of the morass. He was buried near the other poor fellow, 
but neither could rest in their graves, it was believed. 

I was returning rather late from inspecting my indigo 
lands, not many days after the relation of these stories, when 
my bearer came to meet me, looking much disturbed : 
" Strange things have happened, sir, in your absence ! Your 
slave went to eat his food, and coming back to the house 
not many minutes ago, found it in the state you will see ! " 
Dismounting, I entered the bungalow, and found, as he had 
said, everything in extraordinary confusion — the pictures 
turned with their faces to the wall, the table upside down, 
chairs and tables in the same eccentric position ! But one 
thing, I noticed, had defied the ghost, and thought it signi- 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 137 

ficaut — the sideboard still occupied a dignified attitude on 
its castors, and my glass stood on it, as Heretofore, unharmed. 
I was certainly rather puzzled. The bearer declared that he 
had heard a noise like the rushing wind through the house, 
and had been to see what was the matter, when just as I 
arrived, he found things as I have described. Thinking it 
over afterwards, I came to the conclusion that some friend 
passing through the factory, finding no one in, had per- 
petrated this little joke, and ridden off. Probably the bearer 
had gone off much further than he wished me to know after 
eating his food, and had not heard when, whoever it was 
who came, called for him. But to this hour, I have never 
been able to discover who played me this topsy-turvy trick. 

I own I never felt happy on a dark evening here. One 
night I was sitting reading, after dinner, when looking up, 
startled by some sound, I saw, or thought I saw, — ^or I put 
it down to fancy, — a face peering in from the darkness through 
the window. It was a cold, wet night, the wind howling 
through the trees, which made things uncommonly creepy. 
I had almost satisfied myself that I was under an illusion, 
when again the face appeared. This time there could be no 
mistake ! ' A cold shiver ran down my back, and my hair 
stood on end; but I put a bold face on it, and walked to 
the window. The face had again disappeared ; but, on open- 
ing the door to investigate further, — and what a start I got! 
— crouching down on the ground, I saw a figure — a creature 
with dishevelled hair, teeth chattering with cold, and the 
few rags that covered it drenched with rain. Seeing that 
the thing was of flesh and blood, I addressed it, and calling 
to the bearer to bring a light, found the disturber of my peace 
to be a wretched idiot, who had taken shelter, from the 
storm, in the verandah, and moved, 1 juppose, by curiosity, 
had taken occasional peeps through the window, to the great 
detriment of my nerves. I felt much inclined to box his 



138 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

ears; however, having called the factory watchman, I made 
him over to his care, with orders that he should be fed and 
allowed to pass the night in the " hhoosah house/' 

My nearest neighbour was F — at Attur factory. I saw 
very little of him. He died soon after my arrival, and was 
succeeded by O — who left to go into the army, and was fol- 
lo^\ed by G — . G — afterwards took up an appointment as 
road-engineer in Sarun, which berth he held for some time. 
During the mutiny he volunteered, with the force from Dina- 
pore, to relieve Arrah. The force was beaten back; and he 
narrowly escaped with his life. A shot grazed his spine, and 
paralyzed his legs. Fortunately, one of Rattray's Sikhs — a 
big, tall fellow — who saw him fall, came to his assistance, 
and having got him, mounted on his back, half carried, half 
dragged him along to the river bank, when the fire of the 
mutineers having become too warm, the Sikh dropped him, 
and made for a boat. Fortunately, he was seen by Venour 
and Waller, of the 40th Native Infantry, who rescued poor 
G — for the moment by lifting him into one of the boats. 
They, Iiowever, had to leave him there to his fate, as Yenour 
was shot through the leg while in the boat, and Waller and 
he jumped overboard and swam for their lives. It was here 
that Fraser McDonell crossed the river, and at the risk of 
his life rescued G- - and many other badly wounded men. 
For tills he got the Victoria Cross. 

Aiter G — left Attur. Y — from Dynannit factory, took 
charge, and many a wild day we had together. One of our 
exploits was a kind of steeple-chase. The Attur house being 
raised about 20 feet from the ground, you go up and down 
by a flight of steps which are rather steep and narrow. As 
we wanted the race to be a little more exciting, we agreed 
to start from the drawing-room and make the Suckree-house 
the winning post, a good five-mile course. Four of us started 
for lliis broak-neck business. The horses were got u'd the 



KEMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 139 

steps with some difficulty, and into tlie drawing-room where 
we mounted. There were but two doors leading out into 
the verandah towards the steps. At the word " off/' a rush 
had to be made to secure first exit. It was wonderful how 
we escaped; but we all reached Suckree without a scra-tch. 
The slightest mistake on the part of the horses, and we should 
have been killed or much injured. 

On the low land to the north of Suckree, there is very 
good quail shooting ground, and many a brace of birds have 
I bagged when out shooting with Colonel Apperly, a son of 
the celebrated " Nimrod." He was in charge of the Govern- 
ment Horse Nursery at Poosah, and many a jolly day have 
I spent there. Poosah is a lovely place, with fine avenues 
of teak, and suckooah trees leading from one stable to another. 
The stables were neatly-thatched houses, well kept, with 
large embanked enclosures in front for young cattle to stretch 
their legs in. The garden was nicely kept, and full of rare 
fruits and plants. Poosah was originally intended for a 
Botanical Garden, and the Government Stud Nursery was 
established first at Hajipore. But they found the young 
horses did not thrive at the latter place, and sent them to 
Poosah. In about 1875, the Government leased this beauti- 
ful place to Messrs. Begg, Dunlop and Co., who wished to 
set up a tobacco factory. 

The quail in the Suckree Chur remained till very late in 
the season, and we used to have good shooting in the early 
morning. I have often seen ninety brace shot, and on one 
occasion four guns shot three hundred brace — an enormous 
bag. During my residence at Suckree, we were visited by 
a tiger, who took up his abode in some big grass to the north 
of the factory; but he disappeared as quickly as he came. 

At Suckree I had my first experience in fauzdhavy. — 
The word is not easily translated, but it means a fray where 
a force of men is used. — The lease of a village not far from 



140 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR 

Suckree, belonging to a neighbouring Rajah, was about to 
expire, and as we had advanced money, and got a written 
promise that the lease would be renewed, we went on pre- 
paring our zerat land. One day, however, we heard that 
the Rajah had ignored his written promise, and given a 
lease of the same village to a wealthy banker, to whom 
he owed money, and that the banker was going to 
send a force to take possession, and sow down the land we 
had had so much trouble to prepare for indigo. Finding 
the report to be true, and that the enemy was concentrat- 
ing his forces, we at once called together a counter force, 
and by night had an army of about one thousand men ready. 
In the early morning the army was marshalled under the 
command of the factory jemadar or head cultivation servant. 
The drills and bullocks with cartloads of indigo seed started 
in advance. My work ended when they had all marched 
out of the factory, as I had been particularly ordered that 
I was on no account to go near the field of action. The 
Jemadar related to me aJfterwards the following account of 
the Battle of Tippery : " About half an hour after leaving 
the factory, we reached the Tippery village boundary, and 
putting our drills in order for sowing, sent them forward to 
the prepared factory zerats. No sooner were we on the land, 
than to the west, the Tippery army made its appearance, 
and advancing, the drills were obliged to retreat. Our men 
were then ordered to advance and meet the enemy. This 
they did with a rush and a shout; many of the young men 
in their excitement, jumping many feet into the air, as 
they tightened their kamvierhands (waist-cloths) I thought 
victory certain; but our opponents were commanded by a 
very clever old man who had been in many a fight. Allow- 
ing the factory army to come on until it was about 20 yards 
off, the Tippery General performed a sort of ' up guards and 
at 'em' movement, for he ordered his men to take advantage 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 141 

of the west wind (which was then blowing half a gale), to- 
stoop down and throw up the dust till they were almost 
hidden, then rush on, and suddenly, under cover of the dust, 
attack us. 

" This manoeuvre was promptly and well performed, a 
panic seized our men, and I had the mortification of seeing 
them come streaming back across country to tell the sad 
tale of our disaster." 

The jemadar came up last with the wounded placed in 
carts. I found that three or four men who had gone a 
little more forward than th^y intended, had got some bad 
knocks, one man in particular had an uncommonly nasty crack 
on his head. The news of the defeat was not long in reach- 
ing the head factory, and the manager soon arrived to see 
what harm had been done. The wounded men were plastered 
up and notice sent to the police; as the manager had to 
return through the Tippery village, I voluntered to return 
with him in case we might be attacked, so we mounted our 
nags, each of us carrying a good stick, and riding on the 
side of the road close to the hedges for fear of an ambush. 
However, we saw no one. In a grog-shop near the river 
a few of the enemies (wounded) were lying on the floor, but 
whether their position was owing to blows or liquor, we did 
not inquire. Next morning C — and I returned, and passing 
through the village, found the banker's people busy sowing 
the lands we had prepared before. It was amusing to hear 
the ploughmen squealing to their bullocks to go on fast, 
and to see the small army sent to protect them from attack, 
hopping about, and jumping into the air in a kind of dance 
of triumph as we passed. I did feel so inclined to put spurs 
to my horse and charge them, but on suggesting such a pro- 
ceeding, I was told not to be so foolish ! This was my first 
experience of a fauzdhary ; and, though I had to act in a 
similar way on one or two occasions, I am glad to say that 



142 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

rows of this kind are now seldom heard of: planters and 
zemindars fight their battles in civil courts. A row of this 
kind was a great windfall to the police. The darogah (now 
called head inspector) arriving on the spot, both sides make 
arrangements that the best of food and every comfort should 
be available for this great man (for the time being); and 
the side he honoured with his company was looked upon as 
the winning one. His head clerk, or mohurrir, had also to 
be suitably provided for, and after him the hurkandazeSj now 
called constables, made koosh (pleased). Then came the game 
of " What will ye tak', or what will ye gie? " both sides being 
powerful and wealthy. The darogah sahib wrote out his 
report, and having been well tipped by both sides, contented 
himself with announcing, that both were equally guilty, 
and sending up for trial before the Magistrate two or three 
of the smaller fry of each side. In due course they appeared 
before the Kuzoor^'*' who, following up the cue set by the 
police, punished men of both sides by a short imprisonment. 
We, after consultation, made up our minds to let possession 
slip through our hands, and try the civil court. A very 
amusing incident occurred some years ago in connection with 
the police. The Burra Sahib of the police was to come to 
Sonepore, his camp having preceded him; the district police 
were consequently fussing about getting everything ready, 
so that he and his officials might have every comfort. The 
great man arrived with a number of guests, and all retired 
to rest after the fatigues of the day. At about 4 o'clock in 
the morning there was an alarm of thieves. A good deal of 
shouting, and noise followed; and, a.fter' a time, it became 
known to the people in the camp, that the big man's camp 
had been robbed — he and his guests having been relieved of 
a quantity of jewellery. The darogah was at once summoned. 

• Hvzoor = Presence, — a terra of respect used to officials. 



KEMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 143 

Hearing what had happened, his distress was great, and he 
forthwith went to arrange for the capture of the thieves. 
By sunset he had caught them, and secured all the stolen 
property. The head of the police, a C.S. of long standing, 
immediately seeing in this darogah a clever, energetic, and 
intelligent policeman, ordered his promotion, and that a 
sword of honour should be given to him. The " outer world " 
will tell you how it was all done; the darogah paid some 
domes (men of the lowest caste), to go and commit the bur- 
glary — they would get a few months' jail, but they did not 
mind that, being accustomed to it. The stolen property was 
to be kept handy, and made over to the darogah. This was 
all carried out : the domes getting their reward in cash, went 
to jail, and the darogah got promotion, and a sword of 
honour. 



CHAPTEK V. 

RIDE OVER TO DOORIAH FOR CHRISTMAS — " DULCINEA 
DEL TOLBOSO " — RETURN TO WORK. 

Christmas in India, as in England, is a great time for 
feasting and making merry — large parties being given. In 
December 1851, I was invited to a gathering at Dooriah by 
C — G — ; and as his Christmas parties were noted for grand 
shooting and hunting, as also for open-handed hospitality, 
I started on the morning of the 24th December- to ride some 
forty miles. I had previously sent off my horses to the 
different stages on the journey, driving my two buggy-horses 
ten miles, as five miles is considered a fair stage for a horse 
in harness over katcha roads. The remaining thirty miles I 
was to ride, and having only two riding-horses, was com- 
pelled to borrow a third. Ten miles is a long stage for a 
riding-horse, the usual distance given being only eight, but 
as it was in the cold weather, a little extra distance did 
no harm. Leaving my own place at about 10 a.m., I got 
over my first ten miles in a little over an hour, and mount- 
ing my country-bred mare '' Dulcinea del Tolboso," I was 
not long in clearing the next ten miles. — My good old mare 
was destined to make herself a name in the very stirring 
times of the mutiny, for I sold her in 1854 to one Paddy 
Dunn from Mirzapore, who rode her all through the thick 
of it in company with the gallant Venables. Mr. Dunn 
received a handsome property for his plucky behaviour, and 
I hope ' Dulcinea del Tolboso " was placed, after the heat 
and burden of the day, in a comfortable paddock to eat, 
and dream away her uneventful life in peace and happiness. 
—My next stage was performed on a borrowed horse, and 
vemenibering the saying anent " a friend's horse, and your 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 145 

•own spurs," we skimmed alonjg the road at a brisk pace. 
Winter d^ys are short m India, and as I had halted for 
:some time at the club in Mozufferpore, I found "the shades 
of night were falling fast " before I reached my last stage, 
where my sturdy little "tat," "Peter," commonly.' called 
" The Pig " (from his likeness to a good-sized porker), stood 
ready saddled. It was quite dark before I reached Dooriah, 
tired, dusty, and hungry, where I met with a hearty welcome 
from my host and his party. After dinner, when the table 
was cleared and our cigars were lit, we discussed the pro- 
gramme of the morrow. 

It was arranged that we should hunt in the early morning, 
after which we should mount our elephants which our worthy 
host had provided, and shoot over the Ibwlands on the banks 
of the big Gunduk, where hare, partridges, quail, and wild 
pig abounded. 

Long before daylight we were astir, and having fortified 
the inner man, we soon made a start. The dogs had been 
sent on in a covered cart to the grasses we proposed to beat. 
There were terriers, greyhounds, and one or two nondescripts 
that gave tongue, and ran on scent. The greyhounds were 
put in slips, and posted at different corners of the grasses. 
When all was ready, the horsemen formed line, whilst the 
terriers and other dogs hunted about. We had not long to 
wait for our first scamper. A jackal broke away, and a 
pair of heavy kangaroo hounds were slipped at him with a 
ringing *' Tally-ho." Off we all went in pursuit, over ditches, 
into roads, through grass fields, the jackal trying all he 
could to dodge the dogs. At last, in a weak moment, he 
took to the open, the dogs at his brush. The pace grew fast 
and furious, the excited huntsmen hullooing encouragement 
at the top of their voices, the terriers behind yelping furi- 
ously. The jackal strained every nerve to reach a patch of 



146 BEMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

tfae^jungle not fifty yards off, where he would be safe, but 
the leading dog having seen this, put on a last spurt and, 
just as Mr. Geedkur* was almost safe, seized him, and the 
two rolled over together. The other dogs soon ran in, and 
finished him. One by one the horsemen came up; some 
having made acquaintance with mother earth — the conse- 
quence of trying to negotiate big ditches objected to by their 
horses, — but most of us had not been so unfortunate. 

After the hard work our horses and dogs had under- 
gone, we thought it as well to proceed to the shooting ground, 
where outside a fine mango grove we found our elephants in* 
readiness, and what was still better to the eye of the hungry 
sportsmen a dejeuner a la fourchette, spread under the cool 
and pleasant shade of the trees. We at once commenced 
operations, and for a long time nothing but the popping of 
corks, the clatter of knives and forks, and broken ejacula^ 
tions were heard, such as, " More pie, please !" — " Just pass 
the beer, will you?" — "What a capital moorghee! ''\ evinc- 
ing that ample justice was being done to the spread. There 
must be an end to all things, and so, alas ! it was with our 
breakfast. Cigars were duly lit, the elephants called for, 
and guns and ammunition handed up to our servants, who- 
had their seats behind us on the howdahs. About one 
hundred men were in waiting, each having a stick with 
which to beat the grass and jungle, and a pair of wooden 
clogs to protect his feet from thorns. Besides these beaters, 
there was a small detachment on our fiank outside the heavy 
grass, carrying certain baskets provided with bottles, tum- 
blers, etc., and we realized the fact that no man need thirst 
whilst he kept this little group within hail. It was not long 
before the game began to rise, and by evening we had a 
Bplendid bag of hare, partridge and quail, also — I blush to 

• Jack.al. f Fowl 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAiR. 147. 

say it — of " pig ; " but in those days pig-sticking was unknown 
in Tirhoot, and there was no disgrace attached to shooting a 
" porker/' This part of the country was the only part of the 
country in which wild boar was found, but the ground was 
so bad that it was considered madness to attempt to ride and 
spear them. In 1863, pigs began to overrun the District. 
Whence they came none knew ; but the natives said that the 
Doosads (swine-herds) had been told by one of their priests, 
that a curse would fall on the heads of those who kept pigs, 
and, in consequence, they at once let their herds of swine 
loose, which took to the jungles and big grasses, and in time 
became wild. In these days one can have pig-sticking 
almost anywhere in Tirhoot, Chumparun, or Sarun. J — 
S — , of whom I have mentioned as living at Poopri, is said 
to have been the first man to stick a boar in Tirhoot. He 
did it off a little Arab, which had been lent him, — as gallant 
a little nag as ever stepped. It had been left with him by 
a young man who had commenced life as an indigo-plante]% 
but afterwards, getting a commission in the East India 
Company's service, left Tirhoot to join his regiment, leaving 
his trusty little steed to follow when he had settled down; 
however, they never met again, as the poor little Arab 
caught cold and died. We lost sight of his master during 
the mutiny; but some years afterwards at Lucknow, whilst 
looking over the graves of friends who lay beside him " who 
tried to do his duty^''* my eye caught the name of my old 
friend. He, too, "had done his duty." We spent a very 
jolly week at Dooriah, hunting, shooting, and billiards being 
much enjoyed. On 31st December we sat up to " watch the 
new year in." On New Year's Day we all set off for 
Mozufferpore, where we spent the day — ^the party dispersing 
to their homes next morning. 

♦ Epitaph on Sir H. Lawrence's tombstone : " Here lies Henry Law- 
rence, who tried to do his duty." 



148 KEMINISCENCES OF BBHAR. 

Returning to work again was very dull, but after a few 
days I soon got back into the old routine. K — McL — , who 
superintended Attur factory, often came from Chupra, 
where he lived, to look round, and I was generally invited 
to meet him, thus spending many happy evenings in his 
society. He was a fair performer on the violin, and sang 
some good songs '' Maggie Lauder,*' among them. Who will 
forget " Ho Maggie, hey Maggie, hi Maggie Lauder !" sung 
in chorus, by a dozen voices to the accompaniment of old 
Mac's fiddle? Young (his Assistant Manager) could give 
you a lively ditty with violin accompaniment, when the good 
old song of " Duncan MacCallaghan's Ride " was warbled 
forth with true Scotch accent. I almost fancy I can hear 
" * De'il tak the hindmost ! ' says Duncan MacCallaghan, 
laird o' Talli Ben Jo," chorused forth by the company in 
mirthful harmony. Poor Young died on his way to England, 
where he had been ordered by his doctors. Mac, too, has 
passed away. 



CHAPTER VI. 

GO TO KURNOUL — FATTENED GHAINEE8 : — " MANY A SLIP 'TWIXT 

CUP AND LIP " — HOW CATTLE ARE TREATED — BRAHMINI BULLS — 

NARROW ESCAPE OP J. S. FALSE CASE. 

In November 1852, I was offered the sub-managership of 
Kurnoul, and as the pay was Rs. 280 per month, I gladly 
accepted it, and on 1st November took over charge from 
D — . Kurnoul was a very good concern. 

The dwelling-house was prettily situated on the banks of 
a small stream, and the undulating ground round about it 
greatly added to the coup d'oeil. The land near the house 
was dotted with fine large trees and clumps of bamboos. The 
stables and coach-house were substantially built and nicely 
situated. The garden was some distance from the house, 
and had been well cared for — grapes, mangoes, and plantains 
being plentiful ; and as winter was just coming on, I found a 
splendid supply of vegetables ready for my use. 

My predecessor had got into trouble with the surround- 
ing zemindars, through having undertaken the management 
of a beef club. He had purchased a number of dwarf bul- 
locks, called Ghainees, noted for the fine beef they make, had 
taken great care of them, and fattened them well up, ready 
for killing. A few days before the first bullock was to become 
beef, one of the zemindars, having business in the factory, 
paid his respects to D — . As they were sitting in the veran- 
dah, the zemindar remarked the Ghainees, which were 
grazing in front of the bungalow, and asked what was the 
use of keeping the dwarf cattle. D — , without thinking, 
replied that they were to be killed for food. The zemindar 
was of high caste, consequently this announcement was very 
offensive to him, so he got up, made his bow, and went away. 



150 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

Next day a petition was sent, asking that the cattle might be 
spared, but D — took no notice of it. About noon of the day 
on which the first Ghainee was to die, whilst all the factory 
servants were away at their homes, having their meals, a force 
of over a thousand men appeared and drove off all D — 's 
fattened bullocks; consequently the club lost their money, 
for only one was eventually recovered. They were driven 
right off to the Gorrukpore jungles, and then let loose to 
become most likely the prey of some hungry tiger. 

The whole matter was put into the hands of the police, 
and eventually a few zemindars were imprisoned. 

Hindus have strange ideas about the treatment of cows, 
Brahminy bulls, and bullocks. They will not allow any of 
them to be killed ; yet the way they ill-treat them is dread- 
ful. If a cow is ill, they will not give her medicine, for if 
she died, the donor would lose caste. The wretched bullocks 
working in carts and ploughs have nearly every joint in their 
tails dislocated, and their necks are very often badly galled. 

The Brahminy bull fares best; but if he is caught tres- 
passing in a field, he is well pelted with clods, and if he is 
not savage, beaten with sticks over the head and ribs. Yet 
if a bullock die with his head under the yoke, the driver is 
outcasted; the same happens if a cow, or bullock die while 
tied up, the person who tied them having to do penance, and 
feed the Brahmins before they are readmitted to caste. 

Brahminy bulls are very destructive, and where Euro- 
peans and Moslems prevail, they are quietly caught and 
used in carts or killed for beef — the Hindus shutting their 
eyes to this, as they prefer their crops to the sacred bull. 

Brahminy bulls are let loose much as scapegoats were 
in olden times. A man's grandmother dies, the grandson 
takes a small calf and brands him with the tirsool, " the 
emblem of Trinity used by the Hindu Grod Khristna," and 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 151 

drives it out of the village. The calf having the run of the 
crops soon becomes a fine big bull. 

At Benares they are an intolerable nuisance to the 
buiuiias (shop-keepers) ; there they roam about the bazaars, 
putting their noses into the baskets of grain placed at the 
window for sale, and thus they fatten on the best of food. 
If the hunnias only dared, they would make short work of 
these impudent cattle. 

My nearest neighbour, when at Kurnoul, was J — S — , 
who had been many years in the country; he was only some 
five miles off, so we used to visit each other very often. He 
had, some yeajrs before I met him, a narrow escape from being 
murdered by a fanatic Hindu. If he had not been very cool, 
and shown great presence of mind, E^ would have been killed. 

He was one day sitting at dinner about 4 p.m. — for J — 
6 — , like many old planters, kept early hours — when 
suddenly a native rushed into the room with a drawn-sword 
and held it over S — 's head ready to cut him down. 
S — , glancing up at the man, caught sight of a 
large gathering of ruffians outside, and at once seeing 
resistance was useless, quietly asked the man what was the 
matter. He replied, " I have been sent by Eam to loot and 
slay, and this," pointing to the upraised weapon, " is hia 
sword." I don't want to kill you at once; if you will give 
me money to feed my army that are waiting outside, I will 
spare your life for a time." S — replied : " I will, of course, 
give you whatever money you want, but I must send for it 
to my banker, and if you will allow me, I will send now for 
it by a man on horseback." This was agreed to, and a trusty 
Mahomedan syce departed with an order on his banker, but 
also with instructions to see the Magistrate and give notice 
of what was going on. Another man was sent to Kui^nonl 
to put J — H — , who wae then at that factory, on his guard, 
as the man in charge of Ram's sword had made known his 



152 RBMINISCSBNCES OF BEHAR 

intention of paying a visit there after he had replenished his 
coffers at Kaujpoor. The gentleman of the sword seated 
Jiimself in the verandah, awaiting the return of the messen- 
ger with the cash. Before long, memhers of the fanatical 
army began to disperse, and suddenly the man of the sword 
took himself o£P, for rumours of the Police and Magistrate 
heing astir, must have reaclfed them and their commander. 
Not long after their exit, the Magistrate arrived, followed 
by a number of policemen and village watchmen, who started 
in pursuit, 3 — havipg joined the party. He of the sword of 
dRam, was traced to a house standing within an enclosure, 
entered by a door which had been fastened and barricaded. 
The Magistrate called on the inmates to open and surrender, 
but as no response was made to repeated calls, the Magistrate, 
a good horseman and well-mounted, put his horse at the 
mud-wall, which he cleared at a bound, but landing on the 
slippery ground inside, the horse's legs went from under him 
and he rolled off. In a moment the fanatic, who had hidden 
himself in the house, was out with his drawn-sword, and had 
not a village watchman, who had climbed over the wall after 
the Magistrate, knocked him over, it would have been all up 
with the C.S. The fanatical leader was secured with several 
of his followers found hidden in the house. They were all 
sent up to the sessions, and imprisoned for long periods. S — 
had come to India when ** John Company" ruled supreme, 
and no non-official European could remain in the country 
without a permit, — and this right he forfeited if he did any- 
thing that was displeasing to the eyes of the powers existing. 
He told me how a native, whom he did not get on with, 
tried to have him turned out of the country by getting up 
a false case against him. A charge was sworn to before the 
Magistrate that S — had lost his temper with a ryot of one of 
the neighbouring villages and had had him tied with a rope 
and dragged by bullocks over a field, from the effects of 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 153 

which the man died; and that his body had been thrown^ 
into the river, etc. S — was put on his defence. He was quite 
astounded at the charge, for it was utterly false, yet the evi- 
dence brought forward against him was not to be shaken and 
things began to look ugly, when one of S — 's factory servants, 
who was standing near him, whispered into his ear: '* Why, 
there is the supposed murdered man sitting in court listen- 
ing to the case.'' S — noted this on a slip of paper, and handed 
it up to the Magistrate. The man was arrested, and the- 
whole thing came ojit. So jealous, however, were the officials 
in those days of what was called '* interloping " influence, 
that though the case was shown to be a vile conspiracy, S — 
had to leave the District, and it was only after he had 
arrived in Calcutta that he managed to get the order 
rescinded. 



I CHAPTER VII. 

J JOURNEY DOWN THE RIVER IN CHARGE OF THE INDIGO SONEPORE 

j FAIR AND SONEPORE RACE MEET. 

j Not long after I had joined Kurnoul, I was ordered to 

proceed as far as the place where the Big Gunduk River runs 
, into the Ganges, in charge of the Dooriah and Kurnoul 

I indigo on its way to Calcutta. The ifavigation was very 

I dangerous down the river, and one of the senior assistants 

! always had to see the Indigo safely past this particular spot. 

^ As the great Sonepore Fair was in full swing about this time 

^ of the year, the indigo once off safe, the man in charge was 

I able to amuse himself for a few days at this most enjoyable 

^ of gatherings. Leaving Dooriah at night, I drove down to 

the river, where my boats lay in waiting. I was soon on 
board and asleep. When I awoke I found we had gone 
several miles on our way. The air «n the river was, how- 
ever, very cold, and I found it necessary to wrap myself up 
well till the sun was high above the horizon. It was slow 
and tedious work, travelling in a native boat, but I managed 

!to pass away the time shooting. The Big Gunduk is the 
boundary between Tirhoot and Sarun ; it is a broad, shallow 
] river, except in the rains when it is deep and very rapid. In 

November it was dotted here and there with sandbanks, and 
on these were all kinds of aquatic birds, including wild 
geese and ducks, and basking in the sun numbers of 
alligators; so, with all these to fire at I managed to keep 
myself amused. In the evening we had to fasten the boats 
to a sand bank ; and then by the light of a very dim oil lamp, 
I managed to read till I fell asleep. 

On the third day I had got my boats safely through the 
dangerous part of the river and into the Ganges, and as my 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 155 

responsibility was over, I made my way up to the Sonepore 
Camp. 

Sonepore stands on a point of land where the Ganges 
and Gunduk meet. The natives call the fair " Hurrier 
Chutter.'' But the village in which stands the splendid 
mango-grove, covering some hundred acres, is called Sonepore. 

The juncion of any two streams is held sacred by the 
Hindus, but when these streams are the mother Ganges and 
Gunduk, their power is great, especially at a certain age of 
the moon, generally falling at the end of October or begin- 
ning of November. At an hour ascertained from the 
Pundits, thousands of men, women, and children rusb into 
the water. Those who reach the water, exactly at the second 
calculated, are supposed to be at once cleansed of all sin. 
Offerings of flowers and kids, also money, are made to the 
river, and it is distressing to see a wretched little kid floating 
down the river, bleating for help to save it from drowning, 
while at another place, two strong men of the lower caste 
may be seen fighting for another, nearly tearing its legs off 
in their struggles for its possession. For days after, the 
poorer classes search in the muddy bottom of the river near 
the bank, for the small copper coins that have been thrown 
in as offerings at the bathing time. On the day before the 
bathing-day the roads leading to Sonepore are crowded with 
pedestrians of both sexes, also conveyances of every deno- 
mination. Women of all classes, dressed in the brightest of 
colours with all the jewellery they have, sparkling on their 
«ars, wrists, ankles, and noses — some travelling on foot carry- 
ing the youngest of their family astride on their hips, others, 
hetter off, riding in bullock carts with a covering to protect 
them from the sun and cold as well as the public gaze. The 
ladies of the " upper ten " travel in palanquins covered over 
generally, with a red cloth, in which is cut a little hole cm 



156 REMINISCENCES OP BEHAR. 

each side to admit air, or to be used as a peep-hole, front 
whence they can see and not be seen. 

After the bathing-day the fair begins to clear, and very 
soon is. almost empty. The mango-grove, where the European 
encampment is pitched, is near the race-course. The canvas- 
town that rises into existence as if by magic ss, in a very short 
time, full of life and gaiety. The large camps with their streets 
of tents, are neatly and regularly pitched, the shamianahs 
handsomely carpeted and furnished; while at the back the 
dining tents, down the centre of which are placed long tables, 
indicate that a luxurious and Comfortable style of hospitality 
will soon be dispensed. 

There are generally several large camps to which a number 
subscribe, and ask their friends; there are also a few private 
and smaller camps. The routine of Sonepore oamp-life gener- 
ally commences with races, usually fixed for a Thursday. The 
<lay before, all are assembled in camp, and at about 9 p.m., 
the bugle for the Ordinary sounds, and such as are of a 
sporting mind, go there and join in the lotteries on the races 
to be run in the morning. At daylight next morning, a 
cannon is fired from the race-course, which rouses the camp, 
and shortly after, the band of the regiment from Dinapore 
marches down from the race-stand to the end of the encamp- 
ment and back again, to the lively strain of a regimental 
quick march. After these two hints to turn out, the camp is 
soon alive, and shortly after carriages, dog-carts, and convey- 
ances of all kinds, and pedestrians are to be seen making their 
way to the raoe-stand. By 8 a.m. all have arrived, and 
soon after, the saddling bugle goes. The grand-stand is the 
verandah of the ball-room ; couches and chairs are ranged 
all along the front towards the racecourse, leaving plenty of 
space behind for those who wish to warm themselves by a 
smart walk, or constitutional, to promenade up and down. 
At one end of the verandah, coffee, tea, and biscuits are 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 157 

provided; diiring the interval between each raee the band 
plays, while the ladies, not to be outdone by the sterner sex, 
make their bets for gloves, or join in rupee-lotteries on the 
next race. By 11 a.m. the races are over, and all hasten 
home to breakfast, and spend the afternoon in calling, etc. 
All Sonepore puts in an appearance at the evening drive round 
the course; this presents a very gay appearance. In the 
centre of the circle (formed by the racecourse, troopers belong- 
ing to the Irregular Cavalry from Segowlie entertain the 
public by competing at tent-pegging and other feats of horse- 
manship. This, however, has now given way to polo, and 
a struggle for superiority between a Trans-Gangetic and a 
Tirhoot team is always viewed with great interest by the 
fair lookers on, who behold the contest from the top of four* 
in-hand drags, seated on tandem carts, of carriages of all 
kinds. 

Being the ball-night, the drive comes to an earlier con- 
clusion than usual, and at 9 p.m., the bugler sounds his horn, 
giving all notice that in haM an hour dancing will commence. 
At this signal all is bustle and haste, those who had forgotten 
that time will fly, rush off to their tents to see that they 
look as charming as possible; the ''mashers" take a self- 
admiring look at themselves in the glass, give their hair a 
touch up and their moustaches an extra twirl ; then all start 
for the ball-room. Carriages arrive — young men rush down 
the steps of the ball-room to hand up Mrs. — , or help Miss — 
to alight. " I hope you have not forgotten No. 5 ! " — " Can 
you give me No. 14?" — "I can only give you one extra!" 
— ** Thanks ; shall we say the supper dance ? " — while some 
naughty one suggests : " We had better sit out that dance " 
— and the band soon strikes up with a quadrille ! 

The ball-room is a most brilliant scene. The elegant 
dresses of the ladies and the varied and many-coloured unir 



158 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

forms of the military men, mixed with the sombre evening 
dresB of the divilians, give the assemblage a gay and gaudy 
appearance. At midnight the band strikes up " The Roast 
Beef otf old England/' and at this signal there is a great 
rushing about of gentlemen in search of the ladies they are 
to take in to supper. To arrive at the supper-room you go 
into the ver-andah, and turn sharp half-right, walk down 
through a passage, which connects the ball with the supper- 
room — passing into the verandah you find the doors of the 
supper-room open to receive you. The happy couples find 
themselves in a long room. The supper stands on a table 
running up the centre of the room which is tastefully decorated 
with flowers that have been sent over from Bankipore, — for, 
if some of the gentlemen attend to the racing requirements, 
a number of the ladies take a great deal of trouble in embel- 
lishing the ball and supper-room. The ladies all take seats,, 
while the gentlemen wait on them. The champagne corks soon 
begin to pop, and the knives and forks to rattle — gradually 
the din becomes less, and the crack of a bonbon cossaque 
followed by a little scream tells that the " dear bewitchers '' 
have done supper, and are now about to go in for a little 
light amusement. The crackers having come to an end, the 
ladies and their partners make for the ball-room, leaving the 
siupper-room in possession of the " wall flowers." Some Of the 
elder gentlemen look forward to this repast with a good deal 
of pleasure. Many will remember an old General from Dina- 
pore who had to chaperone some young ladies, and how he 
used to make himself comfortable soon after arrival and go 
off to sleep ; but, as punctually as clock-work he would awake 
at ten minutes to twelve, and with a benign smile inform 
his nearest neighbour that in ten minutes " The Roast Beef 
of old England " would sound. 

After supper people began to leave, and by 2 a.m. most 
<rf the ladies had left. Then the young men went in for 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 159 

second supper. By 4 a.m. the camp is still. The only noise- 
heard is the howl of a hungry jackal, inviting his mates to 
join him in a feed off some well-picked bones he has just 
discovered . I have also heard at early dawn, the voice of 
some youth, under the influence of love and second supper, 
warbling in most melancholy tones, " Green leaves come 
again," as he tries to distinguish his own tent from the many 
others round him. The next or bye-day is passed playing 
lawn-tennis, and at large luncheon parties; in the after- 
noon, again, all go driving or riding, — as there is no ball 
on this evening, the band plays on the course near the race- 
stand; in the evening, dinner parties; and at half^past 
9 P.M., the lottery bugle sounds, and all those interested in 
the races bid tlieir hosts good-night and take themselves off 
to the Ordinary, which is held in the supper-room. There 
is a ball every race-day, namely, on Tuesday, Thursday, and 
Saturday; and the lotteries on Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday. On the Sunday Divine Service is held in one of 
the large shamianahs, the chaplain from Patna officiating. 
The racing is generally very good, and horses from all parts 
of India come to compete. *The purses are paid from funds 
subscribed by the visitors; they are collected thus: On en- 
tering the weighing-yard, which is also the lounge between 
the events, one of the stewards told off for the purpose places 
betfore you a subscription book, when you are expected to 
enter your name for as much as you can afford. Of course, 
no lady pays. The different Rajahs about give purses — Dur- 
bhungah and Bettiah, give a handsome cup — to be run for, 
so that, at a full Sonepore, the prizes are valuable. Alas ! 
Sonepore as a place for races and gaiety is fast fading away. 
The large camps at which hospitable residents from Banki- 
pore entertain their friends are also things Off the past. Who 
can forget the long lines of tents attached to M — 's camp, 
the hearty greeting to all old friends as they arrived at Sone- 



160 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

pore, all the fun that went on and the trouble their ever 
kind host and hostess took to make all happy? 

The scream of the locomotive, as it rushes past on its 
way to the North- West, warns us that Sonepore is doomed 
.and the end is at hand. The charm of Sonepore was the 
large picnic it represented; that gone, a visit to Sonepore 
resolves itself into a matter of business to purchase horses 
or other cattle. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LORD MAYO AND JUNG BAHADOOB AT SONEPOBE BABGAINING 

" A LA OBIENTAL " — GERMAN MISSIONABIES . 

The year in which Lord Mayo met Sir Jung Bahadoor 
of Nepal, and some years after when Lord Northbrook passed 
through on his way up-country, were two of the most success- 
ful race meets Sonepore has on record. 

Jung Bahadoor came down in great state, with a body- 
guard of about three hundred men. He and his followers 
had a large pieoe of ground under the shade of mango trees 
portioned off to them. On the arrival of the Prince df Nepal 
he was met at the river Gunduk by an A.-D.-C. in the Vice- 
regal carriage, and conveyed to his camp. A battery of 
royal artillery saluting him as he entered his encampment, 
where he was received by his own Bodyguard who presented 
arms. 

Jung Bahadoor's many wives had insisted on accompany- 
ing him to see and witness the sights and the fun, and bathe 
in the sacred Ganges. There were over thirty of these part- 
ners of his weal and woes, and as each had a retinue of women- 
servants there was a goodly number in all. Next day I went 
and called on Sir Jung, and found him looking at Lord 
(Mayors jewellery and comparing it with his own. Lord 
Mayo's were beautifully set, and snone forth with dazzling^ 
resplendency, while Sir Jung's, representing enormous value, 
were dully set and badly cut. Jung Bahadoor was very 
affable, and conversed 'freely in Hindustani, which he spoke 
well; he was a little man with a sharp, restless, and cruel 
eye. The face was clever biit cunning ; and you might hope 
in vain for mefcy if once in his power. 

The morning after his arrival, he and his suite arrived 
at the race-stand on their state elephants. These animals 



162 REMINISCENCES OP BEHAR. 

were magnificently caparisoned with cloths of gold and golden 
howdahs, A Durbar or reception was held at midday, and 
all Europeans, as well as native gentry, invited to attend. 
It was held in a large shamianah, at one* end of which was 
a raised platform with two steps up to it. There were three 
chairs of gold on the dais; chairs in rows down each side of 
the shamianah were placed, the 'front row to one side for 
the members of Sir Jung's staff, and, behind them the native 
gentry. On the opposite side, chairs were placed for the 
Europeans, while up the centre was a carpeted walk leading 
to the dais. Before midday all the chairs were filled, and 
shortly after Lord Mayo (in court-dress, wearing his star and 
band of the Order of the Garter) walked in. All rose in 
token of respect, and His Lordship bowing to each side took 
his seat in the centre chair on the dais ; as he did do, a royal 
salute vollied forth, and the band of the European regiment 
played " God save the Queen.'' A few minutes after the 
Viceroy had taken his seat, a commotion outside announced 
the arrival of Sir Jung and suite; again the guns boomed, 
the guard of honor saluted, and Sir Jung Bahadoor entered, 
sparkling with jewels, wearing on his head a golden helmet 
studded with precious stones, and on top a ruby valued at 
three lacs of rupees, out of which dropped bird of paradise 
feathers. He was met by one of the Secretaries, while his 
«on or brother was taken in hand by another. These Secre- 
taries, taking them by the hand walked them half way up 
the passage where officials of higher standing met them and 
conducted them to the ifoot of the dais. Lord Mayo descend- 
ing one step, offered Sir Jung his right, and the other his 
left hand, and seated them on either side of him. The other 
members of his suite had been placed meanwhile, by the 
junior secretaries, in the front row chairs kept for them. The 
Governor-General, after exchanging a few words with the 
Nepalese Magnate, desired to be introduced to the members 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 168 

of his suite; on this the Secretary handed them up one by 
•one, another man calling out their names. Lord Mayo shook 
hands with some, bowed to others, and they passed on and 
reseated themselves. After this. Government-house servants, 
dressed in red and gold, appeared with large trays a! pan, 
-a leaf in which is inclosed spices, betelnut, and a mixture 
of lime and catechu. The pan was made up into little 
cocked-hat shapes, held together with a single clove, and 
beautified by a covering of silver paper. A Secretary went 
round with the attur-holder and sprinkled a little on each 
•of the suite. Sir Jung and his brother had been specially 
served. After sitting the time required by Durbar etiquette, 
♦Sir Jung according to the custom of Orientals, asked to be 
allowed to take his departure, which being granted, he rose 
.to leave, all the spectators rising at the same time. The 
Secretary again handed them down, one man going to a 
certain spot and making them over to Juniors, till they 
reached their conveyance, when the guard of honor again 
saluted. The big guns boomed and Sir Jung returned to 
his camp. Lord Mayo sat a short time after Sir Jung had 
retired, then rising, walked down the passage — the spectators 
rising. As soon as His Lordship was out of the shaniianah, 
the audience dispersed. That afternoon the horse artillery 
from Dinapore were to exhibit their skill with their breech- 
loading Armstrong guns to the Nepalese Prince and Generals. 
There was, of course, a great crowd to see the performance 
in which Sir Jung took the greatest interest. The practice 
both with shot and shell, was very good. When the firing 
had stopped. Sir Jung examined and admired the light can- 
nons; he then gave a general invitation to all, to come and 
witness a review of his troops, next day. That evening Sir 
Jung appeared with some of his staff at the ball ; they were 
all most gorgeously dressed. Orientals do not understand 
ladies and gentlemen dancing together. They think it is a 



164 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

useless exercise. Their idea o(f the right thing is that the 
young lady should dance and the lords of creation admire. 
Several of the ladies went to call on the Ladies of Jung Baha- 
door. They were ushered in by the husband, and were re- 
ceived by the principal and the youngest of the Ranees. 
One of the ladies who called, described them as cheerful,, 
rather nice-looking women, with strong Mongolian features, 
and fair for Orientals. 

The Ranees on parting with their visitors presented each 
with a piece of jewellery, the value being suited to the rank 
of the lady's husband. 

Next aitemoon the Nepalese troops were paraded. They 
were a fine body of little Goorkhas, with legs that no High- 
lander need be ashamed of. As they marched past, their 
band struck up " Should auld acquaintance." They bad 
evidently learned their drill from some old French officer, 
for when they went at the double, they kept time to the 
tap of the drum which beat the pas de charge. 

The last and most amusing evolution was the bayonet 
exercise, quick time. The band struck up " Pop Goes the 
Weasel,'' and the fixed bayonets worked up and down, here 
and there, in exact time to that well-known old tune. Not 
many of these gallant little fellows ever saw Nepal again; 
for cholera broke out in their camp next day, and though 
they were hurried off at once, the fatal disease never left 
them. One thing a Nepalese Goorkha fears greatly is a little 
soap and water, and to this aversion, I put down the attack 
of cholera that proved so fatal to the little force that visited 
us on this occasion. There were several fine elephants among 
those that came down with the Nepal retinue. While th^ 
were at Sonepore, one of the elephants brought to the fair 
for sale, went mad, and breaking loose, did great mischief, 
and people were in danger of their lives. Sir Jung hearing 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 165 

this, sent one of his hunting elephants after him ; he came 
up to the savage beast on a sandbank near the river opposite, 
and at once charged. His Sonepore opponent put down iis 
bead, and rushed to meet him. With a terrible shock they 
met, both seemed to stagger if or a minute, and then the mad 
one turned tail and bolted, pursued by the other. The 
chase was not a long one, for Sir Jung's tusker gained on 
the other fast, and as he was descending to a lower part of 
the bank, caught him in the rear with such force that he 
drove him head for^ost into the sand, where the now very 
much-tamed elephant lay, receiving a dig in the ribs now 
and then from his stronger brother. The Sonepore elephant 
having hauled down his colours, his mahout or driver mounted 
on his neck, and off he marched, looking as sheepish and 
cowed as an elephant possibly could look. Lord Mayo's year 
will be long remembered by those who were present at Sone- 
pore. The Viceroy's kind and affable manner to Europeans 
and natives of every class endeared him to all. I shall never 
forget the delight of a Hindu merchant from Cawnpore, who 
walked up €o Lord Mayo as he was promenading the weigh- 
ing enclosure, and made him a low salaam; His Lordship 
held out his hand to him, and, aiter shaking hands, inquired 
in English all about him. The man, understanding a little 
of what was said, replied by signs and a word or two. When 
he marched out of the enclosure, he was at least six inches 
taller; and one of the stewards feiking advantage of his 
elated state presented the subscription book to him, and 
extracted a hundred rupees towards the race-fund. To this 
day the native merchant talks of the time when the Burra 
Lat Sahib (the big Lord Sahib) came to Sonepore. Lord 
Mayo was a good horseman, and delighted in a smart canter 
Tound the racecourse. After the races were over, he used 
to mount his big Irish hunter, and go at a rattling pace, his 
aide-de-camp flying after him. Our great sportsman and 



IQiJ REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

rider Mr. John, one morning gave His Lordship a specimen 
otf good riding. He mounted a pony called Bezique, one of 
the most difficult animals imaginable to sit — to ride an eel, 
if you can fancy it, would have been easier. The little beast 
would dart forward, stop suddenly, letting her head con- 
veniently bob down, so that there should be nothing to hold 
on to in case you were inclined to go over her head; to 
accelerate your departure she would give a nice little kick 
up behind ; failing to dislodge her rider, she would suddenly 
spring to the right, then to the left. She seemed convulsed 
all over as if the saddle and rider tickled her into muscular 
contortions, but it was no use, Jimmy stuck to her like wax ; 
suddenly a bright idea seemed lo seize the little vixen, for 
she made a dart to where some branches of a mango tree 
came low down to the ground, and before her rider could 
evade them, a branch had caught him by the neck and swept 
him over her tail. Waving a parting farewell with her heels, 
which passed uncommonly near the rider's head, the young 
lady gracefully retired to her stable. It was not long after 
His Lordship's visit to Sonepore that, while at the Andaman: 
Islands he was cruelly murdered by a fanatical prisoner. 
India, Native and European, rich and poor, mourned for 
this ^reat and noble statesman. Somewhere about 1873, 
Lord Northbrook paid a visit to Sonepore, where he held a 
" Durbar." His visit, however, was only a casual one, and 
the durbar was not as grand as it should have been. His 
Lordship made up for it by giving a ball at the race-stand 
ball-room. Everything came from Calcutta by rail, and the 
whole thing was a most brilliant success. The supper was 
a chef-d'oeuvre. The long table in the supper-room was re- 
placed by numerous small tables, on each of which was served 
a perfect Petit Souper. The " fiz " was good and all agreed 
in pronouncing His Excellency's ball the best and most enjoy- 
able they had been to for many a day. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 167 

I will now take my reader round the Sonepore Fair. 
To do this efficiently you must secure some of the Govern- 
ment Commissariat elephants or Borrow some steady ones 
from the Durbhangah or Beteah Rajah. Young elephants 
are half-trained and dangerous, and become quite excited by 
the noise and turmoil off the fair. 

A very serious accident nearly took place on one occa^ 
sion when some young ladies were proceeding on elephants 
to see the Native fair. The elephant on which one of the 
ladies was to mount was ordered to kneel down. The animal 
obeyed the order, but before the fair rider was settled on 
the pad, the timid monster jumped up, and the young lady 
was left for a time in mid air, for her cavalier who had 
mounted first held on to her manfully, but at last had to 
let go, and she fell at the 'feet of the lot of elephants that 
were wasting for the rest of the party. A gentleman, who 
was looking on, rushed in and dragged her out of danger. 

Having mounted our steady old elephants, we start in 
Indian file down the main road, passing through the centre 
of the encampment. From our high position we can see the 
camp to great advantage. Each set of tents has a drive 
marked out among the trees, and on a board hung on a con- 
venient branch, the name of the Host or Hostess — ** Mrs. 
Fesd-em-well's Camp," " Mr. Smoke-and-Peg's Camp," " Th^ 
Tirhoot Busters," and so on. As you reach what may be 
called the east end, the camps get smaller and less preten- 
tious. Passing these, you come to tents got up as shops, in 
which all kinds of European toys, groceries, brandy, beer, 
soda-water, etc., are sold; beyond, carpenters from Dina-^ 
pore and Patna expose rfor sale chairs, beds, tables, and every 
article of furnitur©; while coach-builders offer dog-carts, 
carriages, and conveyances of all kinds and sizes to intending 
purchasers. Here the tents end, and the horse-fair begins; 
numbers of screaming, kicking ponies are being ridden up 



168 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

And down the broad road that leads you to the fair, the 
riders going as if their lives depended on the pace. Tethered 
under the trees on either side of the roa^, are the bigger 
horses of every class and denomination. Let us go and see 
what wonderful animal is picketted under that small shami- 
anah. There stands a tall white horse with pink eyes and 
nose, and a wonderful mane and tail dyed all the colours 
of the rainbow. 

He has a head-stall worked with gold thread, and on 
his legs gold bangles, while round his neck hangs a number 
of small lockets of silver containing charms and verses from 
the Koran. We inquire out of curiosity, what price is asked 
for this horse. The owner, an up-country man, with rather 
a swagger, informs us that the price is one lac of rupees, 
and that he is a horse meant ior a Rajah to buy. Nothing 
daunted by the rebuff, we inquire what are the pecAiliarities 
in the animal to make him so valuable, and are told that 
he has all that is required by a native horse-fancier, that is, 
the hair on his forehead curls the proper way, and that behind 
the ears, haa the proper twist. The beast is actually value- 
less to a European eye ; his hocks are as big as your head, 
and he has splints and ring bones on his forelegs. Well 
reined up with a sharp bit, he will be considered magnificent 
by the natives, especially at a wedding procession. There 
he will be mounted by a native professional rider, who will 
send him along at a furious pace, then suddenly pull him 
up dead on his haunches, wheel about, and retire in the 
same way, then stop, and bridling the horse sharp up, make 
him perform a kind of pas, which would be called by a soldier 
'* marking time." To this is someCimes added the firing off 
of match-locks and other Circus performances. With this 
kind of handling before many years are over, the poor brute 
has not a leg to stand on, and his mouth is as hard as iron. 
When he has reached this state, he reverts to the lowly posi- 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 169 

tion of a teekahrgharrie (hired carriage) horse, where he gets 
the most humble of fare and plenty of whip-cord, and finally 
•dies broken-hearted. 

As we strike the Chupprah road we turn to the left and 
pass to our right the Camel fair. At this point two roads 
•cross, and the crowd is very great. Here you find the Ger- 
man Missionaries hard at their good work. Recognizing one 
•of them, we inquire after his health and that of his wife, 
to which he replies. " I am well, good. Sir ; but my wife, 
poor fellow, is very sick.'* We express sorrow ; and he goes 
on with his exhortation. The way these hard-working men 
have mastered the Hindustani language is wonderful. 
There are few Natives who have the facility of speech, or 
can speak what is called Urdu, — the language spoken in 
polite native society — as they do. These men are indefatig- 
able in their work. They will stand for hours in the sun 
and dust, expounding the scriptures or arguing points of 
rel^ion with some Moslem or Hindu. The Missionary always 
gets the best of the argument as he has studied the Koran 
and Shashtras thoroughly, and actually can quote passages 
from both, that the follower of the Prophet or the believer 
in Ram never heard of. It is difficult to understand how 
these most zealous workers manage to exist. They are all 
married and have families. The miserable pittance doled 
out to them with great irregularity by the Society in Ger- 
many barely pays for the most meagre food. Residents of 
the district about subscribe to the Mission; but this money 
is devoted to the feeding, clothing, and instructing of the 
•converts. I fear that, after all, not much good is done. 
The converts, with one or two exceptions, turn out badly; 
^and it would ssem as if the story in the old Delhi Sketch 
Book had a great deal of truth in it. When the Protestant 
Missionary calls on a man to become a convert and join his 
<;hurch, the man replies: "Roman Catholic padri pay five- 



170 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

rupee piece for convert ; what Massa give ? " We must leave 
our old friend, the Missionary, to preach and proceed on our 
tour. As the camel fair is poor, and the animals neither 
beautiful to behold, nor pleasant to the nose, we leave them 
to themselves and make for the large clump of trees near 
the river. Here we find the elephant fair. Some of these 
animals are magnificent and stately specimens, while others 
are poor, under-fed, and under-sized brutes. There you see 
a dear little baby elephant little more than a day old. The 
old mother, rather grumpy at the crowd monopolizing so much 
of the youngster's attention, grunts and grumbles, giving an 
occasional little trumpet as if a warning of danger, when 
master elephant rushes under his mother for protection. 
Elephants are certainly curious animals, and most amusing 
to watch. You will see a little boy of five or six years old 
ordering about a Huge monster who is as obedient as any 
schoolboy. In another place the mahout, being of a musical 
turn, amuses himself by singing, and at a certain part of 
the refrain the elephant joins in with a kind of squeak. I 
have seen elephants taught to dance and keep capital time. 
The mahovt had a lot of small bells, like those used by danc- 
ing girls, on the elephant's feet; he then began to play on 
a small drum, singing at the same time, when the elephant 
commenced to hop about in the most ludicrous way. Pass- 
ing through the trees, we come on the river Gunduk, where 
you see numbers of elephants having their morning bath. 
They look like great children being washed. Lying down in 
the water they first turn over on one side and are well scrubbed 
with a piece of hard brick ; they then roll over to the other 
side. When thoroughly scrubbed and cleaned, the driver 
mounts on their neck, and they proceed to the sugarcane 
market, where a bundle is purchased. This the elephant 
raises to his mahout, who places it on the pad, and away 
they go home, when the elephant has a breakfast off the 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 171 

cane, which he seems to enjoy very much. The next place- 
is the tent fair, this we pass quickly through, as there is 
not much to be seen. From this we make for the bird fair. 
To do so we have to pass through lanes of native eating 
and sweetmeat shops. I cannot say the dishes look tempting, 
while the smell of bad ghee makes you wish you had put a 
little extra eau-de-cologne on your handkerchief before you 
left your tent. However, Sonepore, like Christmas, only 
comes once a year, and many people see it but once in a life- 
time. We soon reach the bird fair which is not much. There 
are birds of all kinds — Indian, foreign, and often performing 
ones. The din here, from the screeching of the different 
species, is overpowering, so we move on and make for the 
bazar, which will be found close to the temple where the 
people bring their offerings to the ruling Hindu god of the 
place. Passing on, you find yourself in a street with canvas 
shops on either side, where you can buy almost anything — 
goods from Manchester, Birmingham, Delhi, Cawnpore, the 
Punjab, Cashmere, or Afghanistan, and you can often pick 
up rather neat Indian-made curios at a reasonable price. 
The street turns to the right, and you again find a lot of 
sweetmeat shops. Ghee predominates here too ; and a short 
visit is considered advisable. We proceed to the temple, of 
which, not much more than the outside walls of a rather 
clumsily-built mass of brick and mortar is to be seen. The 
door-way is crowded with religious mendicants of all kinds, 
some sitting, some erect, with one hand well raised above 
the head and a finger rigidly pointing heavenwards. The 
arm is withered, and the finger nails are more like the claws 
of a wild beast than that of a human being. Another is 
sitting cross-legged, and his bones and muscles have set and 
stiffened into the one position, out of which he has no power 
to move. Another is buried head downwards, up to the- 
waist, two bamboo tubes are inserted into his nostrils through 



172 REMINISCENOES OF BEHAR. 

which he breathes. In fact, so many hideous sights meet 
the eye, that the mahouts are ordered to turn the elephants 
homewards, and, passing through another comer of the horse 
fair, we strike the Chupprah road near the big well that 
supplies mos^ of the Sonepore visitors with water, then, turn- 
ing to the leift, up the road Maharaj Sing's encampment of 
Kabul horses comes in sight. This class of horse being cheap, 
strong, and hardy, is generally purchased for the use of 
Indigo Planters' Assistants. As I have been asked to pur- 
chase one or two for friends, I proceed to buy one. Taking 
a look along the two lines of Kabuls, I pick out a few that 
look like the kind wanted. Old Maharaj Sing, the horse- 
dealer, has been watching, as a cat does a rat, to see if he 
can make out by my face the one I particularly fancy, then 
1;hrowing the rude reins (made of pieces of rope) over the 
head of the horse I pick out, he jumps on and away as hard 
a€ the beast can go ; he then trots back, and afterwards walks 
the animal to allow of my judging if he is all right on his 
pins ; I then examine him, and, as he seems to be all right, 
the important question : " What do you want for him ? " is 
put. Perfectly amazed, the horse-dealer puts himself into 
a position of surprise : " What, sir, you who have bought 
hundreds of horses from me have to ask the price of that 
splendid horse, which is almost an Arab, up to great weight, 
goes like the wind, and for whom I refused Rs. 500 at 
Cawnpore ! " 

This last statement is like a hint. So my move is to 
walk away. Maharaj Sing follows and coming up inquires: 
" Don't you want the horse? " " Yes; but not at the price 
you name." "Well he has cost me a lot to feed; I was a 
fool not to sell him at Cawnpore, and I don't want to take 
him back. What will you give fof him?" " Rs. 150," is 
the reply. "What! Rs. 150 for that horse? You're joking 
with me ! " This kind of thing goes on for some time till 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 173 

I see he is inclined to accept my price, when I slip a rupee 
as earnest-money into his hand, and the bargain is clinched. 
If, however, he does not give way, and I want the horse, I 
advance, say Rs. 25, and generally end in securing the 
animal. 

Some of the old hands, and large buyers understand 
the way to bargain a la oriental, which is taking the dealer's 
hands in yours, a blanket is placed over them, then you begin 
operations. The joints of the different fingers represent so. 
much money. The purchaser, say, presses the two first joints 
of the forefinger of the right hand, that means Rs. 200. The 
vendor in reply squeezes the same, but also pinches the first 
joint of the intending purchaser's next finger, meaning Rs. 
250, and so on. A bargain is very quickly struck in this 
way, and as secrecy is considered the right thing, the dealer 
may sell much below what he asks, and no one but the pur- 
chaser be the wiser. We have now been all over the fair; 
so taking the racecourse where it skirts the camp as our 
way home, we reach it, feeling very much dislocated aftec 
some four hours on a rough elephant; however, once in a 
way it is well worth the trouble, and young people enjoy 
the fun and novelty of the thing. At last the end has come. 
The final dance has taken place, and all that remains to 
be done is to settle — the ladies, their khansamahs' bills — and 
the gentlemen, their lottery and race accounts. At mid-day 
the settling bugle sounds to give notice, and shortly after 
men, followed by their servants bearing bags of money, walk 
towards the supper-room where the settling comes off. At 
the head of the table, the Secretary sits with his books and 
lottery papers, this only of late years; for formerly every 
one had to make up and collect his own account which the 
Secretary now does, and deducts 5 per cent, from your win- 
nings for the trouble, which does not benefit him, for his 
labour is that of love, and the 5 per cent, is credited to the 



174 REMINISCENCES OF :BEHAR. 

Race Fund. A Sonepore Race Secretary must be a perfect 
''Job/* He has to attend to everything; and if anything 
is wanted from an elephant to a ten-penny nail, he must 
supply it, or meet the great displeasure of the claimant. 
Settling under the new system, is child's play to the old, 
and it is all over in ten minutes. Years ago, before the 
sepoys had turned nemuk ha? am, a lot of young subs, attached 
to one of the Native Infantry Regiments at Dinapore, put 
their savings together and came to Sonepore, determined to 
win a fortune. Their settling kept them at work from early 
morn till sunset, and when, after paying out and receiving 
several thousand rupees, they balanced their accounts, they 
found one rupee to the profit side, which they divided as 
their winnings among them. As you leave the settling-room, 
you notice that tents are fast falling and carriages and dog- 
carts, full of passengers, are leaving: as they pass you give 
them a farewell cheer. 

The unfortunate ones who have to remain behind on that 
-day could express their feelings in Moore's words : 

** He feels like one who treads alone 

Some banqaet ball deserted, 
Whose lights are fled, whose garlands dead, 

And all but he departed.'* 

The place is soon a desert, strewn with straw, broken 
plates, pots, and dishes, and empty beer and champagne 
bottles, which always denote, in India, the place where the 
Briton has feasted. 



k 



CHAPTER IX. 

MY CHRISTMAS PARTY AT KURNOUL WILD BUFFALOES SHOOTING 

AN ALLIGATOR — VISIT OF MY BROTHER GET THE MANAGEMENT 

OF DOOMRAH ^MY ASSISTANT KEEPS SNAKES AS PETS — 

REVIVAL OF THE MOZUFFERPORE RACE MEET. 

As I now held the dignified position of Sub-manager of 
Kurnoul, and C. G — (whose Christmas party at Dooriah I 
have described) having gone to Calcutta on his way for a 
seartrip, I determined to give a small Christmas party. Hav- 
ing issued my invitations and stated that we were to pass our 
time in shooting, I had to find out where sport could be 
got. So, summoning a couple of sharp men, I sent them oflF 
to seek. The evening before my guests were expected, one 
of the men came in and told me he Had found a place simply 
swarming with game, and insisted on my going to judge for 
myself. As the shooting ground was not very distant, I 
•ordered an elephant I had the loan of to be sent on ahead, 
and, in half an hour, followed in my dog-cart, and mounting 
the elephant, proceeded to look round. I found the report 
as to quantity of game in no way exaggerated; the hares 
were running about like rabbits in a warren, and quail and 
partridges seemed to swarm. I did not take out my gun, 
as I was afraid I might be tempted to fire, so I at once 
returned home quite pleased at the prospect of giving my 
friends such grand sport. They arrived at last, and, early 
on Christmas morning 1852, we started for the shooting 
ground. Here we found our elephants and beaters formed 
line and advanced. Our day's sport proved very successful 
as we shot forty-three hares, twelve brace of partridge, and 
several couple of quail, also a few pigs. As we were proceed- 
ing toward the spot where breakfast was spread, and when 



176 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

we least expected to see anything, what was our astonishment 
when up jumped a fine spotted deer amd bounded away. 
Only one shot was fired at him ; but it did not take effect. 
We were much disgusted at losing so fine a supply of venison. 

Breakfast in the open air on a cool fine December day 
in India is always a cheerful meal. We were all hungry 
after our exercise, and every one seemed quite satisfied with 
himself and the world at large. The villagers flocked round 
us to look at the sahibs feeding, a piece of curiosity which 
we did not appreciate, so we asked them to move further 
away ; this they did, but as soon as our attention was directed 
to our food, they again gradually drew nearer and nearer. 
The place where our breakfast was laid was a clear space, 
while all round was a kind of scrub jungle. There were 
footpaths leading to the cleared patch, by which our admir* 
ing on-lookers had come. One of our party hit on a capital 
plan to keep them back; he cut some cold beef, put it on 
as many plates as there were paths, then requested the crowd 
to retire. When they had reached a respectable distance, he 
placed a plate of beef on each path, and having informed 
the spectators of the contents, returned to finish his meal in 
peace. This plan was most successful, and the plates of 
beef were as good as sentries with fixed bayonets. 

After breakfast we mounted again, and were just starting 
when a little boy, a cowherd, came running up to tell us 
that two wild buffaloes were in a big grass close by, and that 
they were very troublesome, coming out and attacking the 
tame ones grazing under his care. This was grand news; 
we all loaded with ball, and before long arrived at some very 
heavy grass. We were afraid it was too thick to beat through,, 
but determined to try. Our perseverance was rewarded, for, 
as we neared the centre of the grass, it got thinner, and 
was not so high. Just then a shot fired to the right told 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 177 

us the game was afoot, and soon the banging became general. 
At last one of the buflPaloes, badly wounded, tried to swim 
the river — the Big Gunduk — but before he had gone fifty 
yards, his heart failed him. He just managed to reach the 
bank when he turned over dead, and would have been carried 
away by the stream, ha^ not one of the sportsmen, who waa 
much excited, jumped from his elephant right into the water, 
and holding on by the dead animal's tail, dragged him 
triumphantly to shore. He proved to be a fine young bull, 
in capital condition, with a fair pair of horns. Having 
dragged him well away from the water, we started in pur- 
suit of the other. He proved to be more savage, and if he 
had not speedily received his quietus, would have done mis* 
chief among the beaters. He also was a young bull. They 
had evidently been driven out of the wild herds to be found 
in the jungles above Bettiab, by some of their more powerful 
brethren. The low-caste coolies had a grand feast of buffalo 
meat. It was a case of "cut and come again," for it lasted 
several days. I had the hide carefully taken off and tanned, 
and found the leather made splendid traces. The two headr 
adorned the Kurnoul bungalow for many a day. Our sport 
on the day after Christmas was not so good; but we were 
rewarded for our patience by a big bag in the shape of a 
man-eating alligator. We were making towards our dog-carts 
and horses when an old Hindu woman came running out of 
a village very much excited, calling out that there was a 
big alligator on a sand bank near at hand, and that he had 
carried off several heads of cattle, and many men and children. 
We immediately dismounted, and taking our guns loaded 
with ball, advanced cautiously to the place indicated by 
the ancient dame. There lay a regular monster, basking in 
the evening 5un. The order was whispered for all to take 
an aim, and at the word fire " to pull trigger together." Thia 
was carried out, and the guns went off as one shot. The monp 



178 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

«ter seemed to struggle for a second, then striking the sand 
with his tail once or twice, glided into the water. We were 
much disappointed at seeing him disappear; however, the 
old woman told us that it was "very shallow just there, so we 
called a boy we saw some distance off, and asked him to 
step into the water, and look if he could see anything. Think- 
ing that we had shot some bird or small game, the youngster 
4it once stepped into the pool, but had barely gone a couple 
of steps, when, with a yell of terror, he rushed out, calling 
•out as natives generally do: Bap^ re, hap! (father, oh, 
father !). When he had run some distance and stopped, we 
ascertained from him that the animal was lying at the bottom 
of the pool; but he could not say if he was dead or not. 
With some difficulty we procured a small boat, and crossed 
a stream that ran between us and our alligator. We then 
offered a reward to any one who would go into the water 
and find out. A plucky gowalla (cowherd) at once volun- 
teered, marched into the water, seized the beast by the tail 
and began pulling at him. The minute the other natives, 
who had gathered round to look at what was going on, saw 
the alligator made no resistance, they all joined, and he was 
soon landed on the sand bank. He seemed quite dead, but 
to make sure, we thought we would put another bullet into 
him. Luckily all were told to stand clear, when the man 
who was to fire the final shot advanced. As behind the 
shoulder was considered the most deadly shot, he aimed there 
and fired. To every one's astonishment, the beast gave one 
tremendous lash with his tail, which would have broken any 
one's leg had they been in the way, and fiirned over on its 
back quite dead. It measured 19 feet in length, and it was 
as much as two bullock-carts could do to carry, and four 
bullocks to drag it, some five miles to the factory. The skull 
was a very good specimen and the teeth perfect. We found 
nothing of the men and children, reporfed to have been eaten. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 179 

inside it, althougli often bangles and jewellery are to be found 
if an alligator has lately fed on a Hindu boy or girl, who 
Jiave always some small ornament of value on them. This 
is the only man-eater I have ever shot, though many fish- 
eaters have fallen to my gun, one fully as long but not such 
.a formidable looking beast, as the man-eater. They are 
known amongst Europeans as the " snubnosed " and " long- 
mosed." The natives called the former hoch and the latter 
(JO or gurrial. What, with the two wild buffaloes and the 
big alligator my first Christmas party was a success. One 
of my guests was a Frenchman called Verpleough, he was up 
to all kinds of tricks, so some of the men determined to play 
.off a trick on him. They got a pie-dish, and taking the 
pastry cover off, sent down to the river for a few frogs which 
they placed in the dish, covering it with the pastry top. The 
•pie at dinner was set before " mossoo," who was full of life, 
chattering away. The pie no sooner placed before him, than 
he at once offered to help one of his neighbours. Cutting a 
big triangular piece he inserted the spoon, when out jumped 
the frogs right into his lap. With a yell of horror the French- 
man threw himself back, lost his balance and fell on the 
floor, carrying with him his righthand neighbour. It took 
some time for the gallant Gaul to recover his nerve, and 
during the rest of the dinner he eyed every covered dish with 
suspicion. Jokes of this kind were common in the district 
in those days ; but men were more like schoolboys when they 
got out for a holiday, and the softening and polishing in- 
fluence exercised over the rougher half of society had not had 
time to act. Though several ladies were to be found in the 
District, they were yet few and far between, and could be 
counted on your fingers. We all went on to Dooriah to spend 
New Year's day with A. H — who was the assistant there. 
We shot down the daubs (low lands) from Kurnoul to Dooriah, 
l)ut did not make much of a bag. However, we spent a very 



180 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

enjoyable day; and on the morning of the 2nd of January^ 
the party broke up. 

I returned to Kurnoul where I had plenty to do, for I 
had to attend to the Dooriah work as well. I passed two* 
very happy years at Kurnoul. My youngest brother, from 
the Mauritius paid me a visit while I was there. He did 
not give me much notice, as I only received his letter to' 
say he was coming two days before he himself arrived at my 
house, so I suppose the ship he came by carried both him 
and his letter. I had left him quite a little fellow, and, 
when something over six feet two inches uncoiled itself out 
of the palkeCy I was quite taken aback. It was a great 
pleasure after so many years to see one's own kith and kin 
again, and we sat and talked of all the near and dear ones 
till nearly daybreak. He had had a dreadful journey of it. 
Men in Calcutta in those days knew very little as to how 
up-country districts were to be reached. The people, my 
brother was consigned to, had started him off in a palkee, 
by what is called a Government dak, that is, the postmaster 
arranges for a change of bearers every so many miles, and 
they carry you, by stages, to your destination. For this 
uncomfortable mode of transit, he had to pay RrS. 300, and 
buy a palkee, which cost him Rs. 50 more. If proper inquiry 
had been made, he could have come by horse-dak, that is, in* 
a palanquin-carriage drawn by ponies, for Rs. 64. However,, 
he was started off by this antediluvian style of travelling. 
All went well for the firsE two days and nights, but, on the* 
evening of the 3rd, when he was hoping he was nearing the 
end of his journey, his bearers put down his palkee and bolted. 
Having heard of snakes and tigers, and the spot being a very 
jungly one, he drew his hunting-knife, the only weapon he 
possessed, and mounting on the top of his conveyance, deter- 
mined to sell his life dearly. Not long seated thus, think- 
ing how much more comfortable he would have been if he 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAB. iSl 

had remained at home in the Mauritius, he was aw»ken«d 
from his dream by a distant rumbling sound, and notes on a 
bugle came floating towards him on the breeze. He could 
not understand what it meant. The sounds came nearer and 
nearer, and he could make out a black liimbering object 
through the darkness. Determined to do or die, he jumped 
in to the middle of the road brandishing his couteau de chasse. 
A jaded pony half frightened by the palkee on the road, 
.and the figure with up-stretched arms before it, stopped 
short. The driver in afright yelled out, and out of the dak 
^gharrie jumped three young sube just out from England on 
^heir way to join their regiment. My brother quickly ex- 
plained matters to them, when they insisted on his going on 
with them, and wished to put his palkee on top of their car- 
riage. This the driver objected to, and, b» they could not 
manage to lift it without his assistance, it ha^ to be left be- 
hind. The conduct di the driver was talked over, and the 
youngsters coming to the conclusion that he must be leagued 
with robbers, arranged that they should take it turn about 
to sit on the box beside him with a cocked revolver pointed 
at his head, and to shoot him on the slightest provocation. 
"The driver, trusting to fate, drove on ; and, ae he took them 
safely into Sherghatty by next morning, they formed a more 
favourable opinion of him, and took off the sentry. At Sher- 
ghatty, my brother left the light-hearted young subs, who 
proceeded on their journey. He was kindly and most hos- 
pitably treated by an old colonel residing at Sherghatty, who 
got him a fresh set of bearers and another palkee, and sent 
him on to MozufFerpore. Here be stopped at the club, which 
lie took for an hotel, and very much offended the doctor (a 
pompous little man who lived a6 the club) by asking him for 
his bill. From MozufFerpore he came to Kurnoul. 

From Kumoul I was promoted to the charge of Poopree 
and Doomrah. I had had charge of the former for a shatt 



182 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

time before, and had to look after the work there, as well' 
as at Kurnoul, and, as I got no extra pay, found it hard 
work. I was relieved of the charge of Kurnoul by my suo 
cessor, A. Inglis, and went to Poopree in 1853-54. I had 
to superintend Doomrah, for which I got no pay; but re- 
ceived 5 per cent, commission on the profits. These profits 
were calculated in a peculiar manner; thus, the Indigo was 
priced at R-s. 120 per maund, then as many maunds were* 
deducted from the total Indigo made at Rs. 120, as wouM 
cover the outlay, and on every maund over and above that 
you received Rs. 5 per maund. This was a very poor style* 
of commission compared with how it is calculated now. I 
was very successful that season, making one thousand maunds- 
at the two places on an outlay of Rs. 74,000 or thereabouts, 
and received the large sum of Rs. 1,800 as commission. At 
the end of 1854, the Tirhoot Indigo Association gave me the* 
option of managing Poopree or Doomrah ; and as the latter 
was the more cheerful of the two, I went there — J. C. Muir 
relieving me at Poopree. When I had charge of the two- 
concerns, I had an Assistant at Bungong, an out-factory^ 
attached to Poopree, and another at Doomrah. The latter 
was a great man for training animals of all kinds. I gave 
him a young bear I had caught while out tiger-shooting about 
this time. In a few weeks he taught it to dance, wrestle 
with him, and if you pointed a stick at it, and made a noise 
imitating a gun, he would fall down and sham dead. 

While quite young, he was tame enough ; but got very 
savage as he grew older, and had to be given away to some 
performing Nutts (gipsies). My Assistant used also to amuse 
himself in catching snakes, and the most vicious cobra had 
no chance with him. These reptiles seemed to know he was 
their master, and would turn tail and bolt the minute he 
Attacked them. His mode of procedure was this: As soon 
as they turned to go off, he seized the snake by the tail, and 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 183 

whirled it once or twice round his head, to stupefy it; then 
letting it^ head hang, he' would impart a tremulouB motion 
into the snake by shaking Ms arm as if he was suffering from 
ague. This seemed to have a paralyzing effect. He tlien let 
its head drop on the ground, and with a forked stick, pressed 
on the back of its neck. This made the snake open its mouth> 
when he inserted a piece of cork between the jaws, and with 
a bent needle extracted the poison bag. This done, the 
reptile was harmless; and he would keep them as pets. I 
must say I objected to them, with or without poison bags; 
and whenever I saw one of these objectictoable pets, I knocked 
it on the head. 

Ill January 1854, the Mozufferpore race meet was again 
set afoot . This had died a natural death. Some yeaxs before, 
partly on account of the heavy losses sustained by proprietors 
in sugar, and partly by a bad feeling that existed between 
the planting and civilian community. Lord TJlick Browne 
and A. K — who had been appointed as Magistrates to the 
district, were determined to try and remedy this unfortunate 
state of affairs, and notice was sent round that there would 
be sky races, and that the Station would give a ball to which 
all Planters, their wives and families were to be invited. 
Not to be outdone, some gay, young, bachelor Planters an- 
nounced their detemiination to give a return ball to the 
Station, and this was followed up by a dance subscribed for 
by every one. It was one of the joUiest meets I have ever 
been at. The sky razees were great fun; the horses entered 
being mostly our own riding and driving nags. In one case, 
a mare taken out of a dog-cart and then and there saddled, 
won a handsome silver tankard presented by F. D — , Magis- 
trate, then at Buhaira. The pony race, where " Jack," 
" Junab-i-Ali,'' and " Kiss-me^Quick,^' vied for honours, and 
the grand finish for the Galloway Purse, where "Indigo," 
" Diamond," and " Chocolate,'' piloted by such cracks as 



184 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

Simmy, Ulick B — , and Frank V — , are things of tlie far 
off past, though fresh in the memory of those who were but 
boys in those days. If the races were a success, our dances 
were even more so. The bachelors got a slight advantage; 
they discovered that a party of young ladies were passing 
through Mozufferpore on a visit to friends, so they at once 
sent them an invitation, and actually mustered eighteen 
ladies married and single. 

The 13th Native Infantry kindly sent us their band, 
which put great life into the entertainment. 

Before I left Poopree to come and live at Doomrah, we 
got permission from the Durbhangah Rajah to shoot in what 
had been his preserves at a place called Piprone. The late 
Rajah was not much of a sportsman, and the place had not 
been carefully preserved. We found, however, some spotted 
deer, peafowl, partridge, and a splendid wild boar. We 
bagged a deer or two, and some smaller game; but the boar 
escaped. 



CHAPTER X. 

ANOTHER SHOOTING EXPEDITION TO NEPAL MUD-lMBEDDED 

ELEPHANT — A NEPALE8E COLLECTOR. 

Shortly after this, my old friends C. G — and J. C — 
^rote and asked me to arrange for a tiger-shooting expedi> 
tion. This I did; and early in March we found ourselves 
Again under canvas in the Nepal Terai. To have described 
one shooting party is to describe all, so I will confine myseJlf 
to incidents that may interest my readers. 

On the morning after our arrival and just before starting 
to shoot, a very dirty-looking Nepalese official asked for an 
interview, and demanded to see our permit to shoot. This 
was rather a stumper for us, though we had written to 1:he 
Resident, and he had replied to say he was sending one, the 
piece of paper had not turned up. We informed the man in 
authority of this, and said, we expected it by that day's post 
when we would show it. He was rather unpleasant about 
the matter, but went away, so we started off shooting; but 
we observed that we could get no one to show us where game 
was to be found, and the Nepalese shikari, whom we had hired, 
did not look happy. On our return to camp in the evening, 
we opened our post letters in the hope of finding the required 
order; but no such thing had come. Again, next morning, 
the unpleasant official came, and this time told us we could 
not shoot, and must leave Nepal territory. This was a sad 
disappointment; and, as we had been to some expense, we 
determined to see what effect, as the Yankees say, " the 
^tlmighty dollar" would have. The man was invited into 
my tent where we were all seated, and, to my disgust, the 
first thing he did was to half recline himself on my bed. First 
impulse pointed to summary ejectment, but that meant an 
•end to our sport, so I said naught. J. C — opened the nego- 



186 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

tiations by insinuating that we would make him happy if 
he would only wink at the non-arrivar of the permit. The 
man bit at once. He might get into trouble, and, of course,, 
would expect to be rewarded according to the risk. We all 
felt that Rs. 50 each, at least, was about to be extracted. 
What was our astonishment, when his demand was placed 
before us, to find all he wanted was, that one of the deer we 
had shot should be given to him and sent with him, on an^ 
elephant, to his home! We presented him with two deer, 
and gave ham some powder and shot; and off he started, 
having given orders that we were to receive every assistance 
from the villagers about. 

The deer you get in the Nepal jungle is very dry, and 
European sportsmen hardly ever eat them, their servants feast- 
ing off venison and, where their caste will allow, wild pig. 
Of the game we bagged, partridge, hare, florican, pea and 
jungle fowl, were all that found their way to our table. A 
very young fawn cooked whole, with a stuffing of nuts, is 
not bad. Having got rid of our Nepalese friend, we started 
for the shooting grounds, and before long came on two young 
bears in some grass. Giving two " peons " a blanket each,, 
we told them to get down, and throw the blankets over the 
young bears, and catch them. We, meanwhile, formed a 
semi-circle round the men to protect them from the angry 
mother in case she made her appearance. The men were 
plucky fellows, and at once rushed on the small bsars, not 
bigger than good-sized pups, and rolling them up in the 
blankets, handed them up. They were put in the box of 
the howdah under the seat where provisions are generally 
kept. The little beasts kept up an incessant cry, night and 
day, while we were out. They, however, ate their food, and 
were not very vicious. One of these I presented to my Assist- 
ant afterwards, who taught him all kinds of tricks. Besides 
the bears, we bagged a leopard that day. He had been 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 187 

wounded ; a bullet liaving passed through one of the joints 
of his tail. This made him very savage, and he charged like 
a tiger at my elephant, who at once turned and bolted; but 
as she turned round, I took a snap shot, and fancied I saw 
the leopard turn on his back. After a bone-breaking expedi- 
tion on the runaway elephant of nearly half an hour's dura- 
tion, she was persuaded to stop and return, and, sure enough, 
there lay a very handsome leopard dead. Our next day's 
bag consisted of another bear and two young ones, one of 
which was badly wounded, and had to be killed. We traced 
the old mother bear to a fallen tree, and, as the old lady 
objected to come out, we let off some fireworks in the different 
hollows of the tree. This had no effect, so the shikari said 
he would crawl in and see. The tree was on the ground, — 
a splendid one it must have been ; but fire and age had hol- 
lowed it out thoroughly, and a middle-sized man could walk 
in if he stooped down. In started " Mooson," our shikari, 
but he was not long in making his exit. We all admired 
the clever way in which he evaded the bear ; for, instead of 
rushing right away as he came out from the tree, he just turned 
and hopped on to the fallen trunk. The bear, with her two- 
young ones, clinging to her hips, went straight ahead, and 
was immediately rolled over. The two little ones holding on 
to her like grim death. On this occasion we were out for 
over fifteen days, and though we got capital sport ae ifar as 
small game went, we were not over-lucky with tigers, only 
getting one. He, however, showed fight. We disturbed 
him while he was having a good feed off a buffalo he had 
just killed, and was in no mood for a bolt. I was fortunate 
enough to see him first, and rolled him over like a rabbit. 
My mahout at once took my elepha,nt towards the place where 
he fell, when, with a roar, he came at me. I gave him my 
right and left, but that did not stop him, and, in a moment, 
there he was, his hind legs holding on to the elephant's trunk,. 



188 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

while his f oreclawg were well dug into the poor animal's ears. 
I could, if I had felt so inclined, have stroked the head of 
the savage brute. He did look grand as he stared at me, 

;hi8 eyes starting out of his head, the hair on his neck and 
head standing on end, and as line a set of teeth as one would 
wish to see, were most unpleasantly brought to notice. The 
elephant behaved very pluckily. She stood her ground well 
when the charge was made; but as soon as the tiger settlfed 
on her, she began to shake so violently to try and get rid 

«of the tiger, that I was thrown down on to my seat, and 

.could do nothing but hold on to my guns to prevent their 
being thrown out. My hoirilah had attained an angle of 45 

. degrees, and I could not now have held on much longer, when 

'C. Gr — of our party, ranged up alongside, and shot the tiger 
from ojff my elephant's head. I had the greatest difficulty 
in getting out of my now very lopsided howdah ; but, by mak- 
ing a man hang on to one side, I managed to scramble out 
olf the other without pulling it on top of me. The tiger was 
a fine one, about 9 feet 10 inches in length. The next big 
thing that fell to my gun was a boa-constrictor. He wa» 
17 fest long; and though I put a bullet right through his 
head, it was a long time before he was dead all over. We 
had great trouble to get him padded, as the natives are very 
much afraid of these reptiles. Our last adventure on this 
occasion was the sticking of one af our elephants in the mud, 
while crossing one of the small streams that run through the 
jungle. The beast was a weakly animal. It had been poorly 
fed, and made no attempts to help itself. It sunk deeper 

;and deeper into the mire. We cut branches of trees, which 
we stuck into the mud at its sides; but to no effect. Most 
elephants when they stick in the mud in this way, will take 
advantage of every help that is put within reach of their 
trunk, and utilize the branches of trees thrown near them, 

*by tucking them in under their side, then rolling over on 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 18J) 

to them, commence the operation on the other side again y. 
and rolling over until a sufficient quantity of branches have- 
been placed to support them, in this way they gradually work 
themselves out. Our miserable beast would do nothing, and 
gradually sank; a few minutes more and only his trunk 
would have remained above ground. One of the mahottts 
suggested making the other elephants pull him out bodily. 
He said, there were two elephants who had been used to drag 
the dead elephants away if or interment, and that he thought 
they would be able to rescue this one. Fortunately, we had 
a spare howdah-Tope, and this, with some trouble and no 
little danger, the mahout had to pass underneath the mud- 
imbedded elephant; for there was always the fear that he 
might take it into his head to help himself by tucking things 
under him and commence with the mahout! They kept, 
however, well away from his forequarters. The rope having 
been fastened, and then secured round the neck and chest 
of two other elephants, the order to pull was given. The 
two elephants at once set to tugging, and the wretched one 
in the mud was suddenly hauled on to his back, where he 
lay resisting, and kicking with his heels in the air like a 
naughty baby. The two elephants, being strong and well- 
conditioned, gave another long and strong pull, which 
brought the refractory one out of the mud, with, a flop as 
loud as the explosion of a good-sized bombshell. It was a 
relief when we got him out ; for if he had died, it would 
have added very much to the cost of our shooting party. We 
had been out for a fortnight, and it was time to return. 
Though we had not shot much, we had enjoyed ourselves 
thoroughly. The fortnight cost us Rs. 150 each. We had 
met and joined camp with the Soorsund Babu, so we had the- 
use of his elephants to beat. These, with what we had, 
gave us a grand line of beating elephants. I think our total 
muster was seventy, — sixty of which we took out with us^ 



!l90 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

the other ten remained behind to carry branches as fodder 
for the others. We were up, and in the saddle, early in the 
morning, having a long ride before we reached British terri- 
tory. As we neared the boundary, villages became more 
numerous; and, not being quite sure if we were on the right 
road, we made for what looked like a village kutcherry (office). 
Here a very respectable and civil official came out and put 
us on the right way. Noticing several 7'yots in peculiar posi- 
tions, some standing on one leg ; others in the same position, 
but pedestalled on an inverted earthen pot surrounded by 

;A thick bed of thorns, we asked why they were kept thus : 
"Oh," replied the official, "this is how we collect rent; '* 
we inquired whether they found that the punishment had 
the desired effect. The reply was that these men would pay 
in an hour or so ; but if the saheb would like to see some of 

.the very refractory ones, the official would be glad to show 
them. Following him, he led us into a long, low-roofed house, 
and there we found about half-a-dozen men buried up to 
their necks in the ground. " These, sir, are great budmashes 

i (scamps); but they will pay." We asked how long they were 
likely to be kept there, and the reply was : " By sunset they 
will have paid all rent due by them." On returning to the 
open air, the little Nepalese Collector with great glee ex- 
plained to us the nature of the punishment of the one-leg tor- 

-ture. The man had to stand on one leg with the other foot 
resting on it, as well as to keep himself balanced on the 
inverted pot. Near him stood a man with a good long stick. 

^t the slightest attempt, on the part of the prisoner under 
punishment, to put down the other leg, £he earthen vessel 
was smashed at a blow, and the unfortunate ryot would fall 
sprawling on his hands and knees among the thorns strewn 
to receive him. 

As we mounted our horses to go on, the little official, 
with a grin on his face, remarked that he hoped we had 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 191 

noticed everything, and that when we returned to our coun- 
try, we would try his plan with oiir ryots, and find it succeed. 
It is a strange fact that the Tirhoot ryots are constantly 
holting into the Nepal Terai, showing that there they are 
treated in a way wBich they understand, and where they are 
not harassed by new laws, which are changed every few 
years, and where no " Ilbert " may. intrude his little bill. 
Justice in Nepal is very summary. Sir Jung Bahadoor, 
when he came to Sonepore, had a living instance of it in 
his suite. This was a treasurer who had made free with the 
coin under his charge. The offender's right hand was ordered 
to be cut off, which was forthwith done. He was not dis- 
missed from his place; the punishment had condoned the 
-offence, and, as Sir Jung remarked with a knowing twinkle 
oi his little eye, " he is not likely to steal again." The 
treasurer rode a beautiful Arab, and managed him most skil- 
fully notwithstanding his handless arm. 

A sharp canter brought us to our dog-carts, where we 
separated, and each proceeded to his own home. On reach- 
ing Doomrah, I found a letter from my Assistant, asking for 
leave to go with a party to shoot in the Rajah's preserves at 
Peeprone, and, as I would be delayed a day or two at Doomrah, 
I sent a reply by express with the required sanction. The 
party shot some deer and peafowl, and returned after a 
-couple of days' shooting. 



CHAPTER XI. 

I TAKE CHARGE OF SHAHPORE-MIRCHA JOURNEY, 

AND VISIT TO CALCUTTA OUTBREAK 

OF THE MUTINY. 

In 1856 I was offered charge of Shabpore-Mirclia, which 
I accepted. As the manager who was To relieve me at Doom- 
rah was away on leave, I found tnyself in charge of that 
place also. I had, therefore, Doomrah, Shahpore, and Chit- 
warrah on my hands, and, as my Assistant at Chitwarrah 
was on the sick list, I had plenty to do. The head native 
servant op moonshi, one Kali Prasad at Shahpore, was sup- 
posed to have the factory under his thumb. He certainly 
had acquired a lot of property, and had a great deal of power ; 
but I found him a very good man, and he took great interest 
in the place. 

He told me he began life as a writer on small pay in the 
concern; that the proprietor of thcj factory finding him 
shurp, gradually promoted him till he became the head native 
servant. He then, by doing a little banking, gradually 
amassed money, and purchased landed property. His father 
before him had already some zemindaris. I may mention 
that he eventually became a shareholder in the factory, and 
that his son, or. rather his widow — for poor old Kali died 
some years ago — is now proprietor of the whole concern. 

About this time I had occasion to go to Calcutta, and, 
as two other friends were going also, we arranged to travel 
together. We drove to Bankipore, and there found our 
dak gharrie or palJcee carriage, waiting. We had taken sup- 
plies for the road ; and, as our first day would be Christmas 
Day, a turkey and a couple of bottles of " fiz " formed part 
of our store. We went out of Bankipore with a flourish. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 193 

as the tT^p was horsed; but, after going some ftftaMi milefl, 
tre came to' the end of the macadamised routs, and were then 
propelled by coolies. This was very slow work, and it wa« 
well after 10' p.m. before we reached the Jehanabad dah 
bungalow (rest-house) very hungry and sleepy. The old khan- 
Mimah was not long in getting out the bumpers, and by the 
time we had eaten a few slices of turkey and finished our 
two bottles of champagne, we felt quite lively again. We 
had no time to lose, the things were packed, and we were soon 
eti roixtt again. When we awoke in the morning, after rather 
an uncomfortable rest, for a dak gharrie is not meant to 
carry three, •especially all good sized men, we found oura^ves 
close to Gyah. As it was very cold, we stopped and brewed 
some coffee, and found a cup of strong coffee a great " pick- 
me-up." By 10 A.M. we were comfortably seated in the Gyah 
dak bungalow at breakfast. The verandah waa crowded 
with men offering for sale images of elephants, sacned bullfl, 
etc., carved out of Gyah stone. Gyah is to tJie Hindoo a 
very sacred city, and the Hindoo priests, who have posses- 
sion of the different temples, make a very good thing out 
of it. They actually, during the pilgrimage season, send 
out " touts," who go miles out on the different roads to per- 
suade pilgrims to come to certain temples, and there «re 
often most serious riots between the employees of the pro- 
prietors of the different temples. Gyah is made extra sacred, 
as it is one of the places where Vishnoo put his foot on earth. 
He seems to have been going on one foot with a kind of hqp 
before he took the next step, as the " Yishn Pud," or foot- 
prints of Vishnoo, seem all to be in one convenient coimer 
where all the temples stand. The supposed footprints are 
cut out of stone. This represents the impression of a foot of 
gigantic dimensions. When a wealthy pilgrim goes to any 
of these shrines, he is supposed to fill the footprint with 
gold or silver coin. This is, of oourte, taken by U»e " Gy^ 



194 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

walls/' «« the proprietors of the temples are called. Gyah 
is a very dry place, the bare hills in the warm weather throw 
out great heat. The fields are surrounded by low embank- 
ments to catch any rain that may fall, and when the soil is 
moistened, it becomes a sticky red clay. Beware of Gyah 
mosquitoes: thej are the most vicious little insects ever met 
with. There is a story told of a Scotchman, who lately 
arrived from his native heath, and who had heard of mos- 
quitoes (most likely Gyah ones) from some of his travelled 
friends, inquired on seeing an elephant if it was a mosquito. 

From Gyah we were propelled by coolies to the Grand 
Trunk Road. There is nothing to see but large sun-burnt 
plains on which a few herds of graceful antelope were feeding 
on the little grass they can pick up. They are very wild, 
and if you attempt to get near them, off they go bounding 
high into the air before they settle down to a steady pace. 
Beaching the Grand Trunk Road, we changed our coolies 
for horses, and away we went at a more cheerful pace. The 
scenery, as you pass the noted Dunwah Pass is grand, and, 
as you have ascended to a higher level, the cold is intense. 
The road is naturally very much uphill, and to warm our- 
selves and ease the horse, we got out to have a brisk walk, 
but when not very far from the top of the hill, the driver 
told us we would be safer in than out of the trap, as tigers 
very often jumped out of the jungle and carried away men. 
.We took the hint and got in. After sunset, we spied the 
twinkle of a dak bungalow light, and ordered our Jehu to 
pull up; our provisions were soon unpacked, and the kJiati- 
iomah added a few potatoes to our supplies. We made a 
good dinner, and lighting up our pipes, started on our way 
rejoicing. Next morning we found ourselves in a grand 
dimate somewhere among the Santal Hills, where our con< 
yeyance pulled up to change horses, and we were surrounded 
by an admiring crowd of very lightly clad children. We 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 195 

were much amused by tlie ingenious way in which they kept 
themselves warm; each carried an earthen kuttiah (a kind 
of earthen pot) in which were some live embers. This 
when they squatted down, they popped under the little cloth- 
ing they had, and thus kept themselves warm. It took three 
days and two nights to reach Calcutta, but the journey had 
to be timed so as to arrive at Ranigunge early enough to 
catch the train to Calcutta, which then only ran as far a« 
that place. By 9 a.m. we found ourselves at Howrah, the 
East Indian Railway terminus. We had to gather our goods 
together, and employ a few coolies to take them to the steam- 
•er at the railway pier, where the ferry-steamer lay, and she 
took us across the HooghJy. Now this river is crossed by 
a fine bridge standing on floating pontoons. 

I had not visited Calcutta since my arrival in the coun- 
try, but found very little change in it. One or two fine build- 
ings were in course of erection, but a man from up-country 
soon tires of the constant sameness. The one pleasant thing 
is the evening drive on the Strand by the river's bank. Here 
you enjoy the cool searbreeze that begins to blow about sunset. 
The number of really stylish equipages briskly driving up 
»nd down the watered way, and the number of well mounted 
horsemen and women puts much life into the scene. The 
Eden Gardens existed in a small way in those days, but 
under another name. There, now, with the band playing, 
is found a most delightful lounge for the weary denizens of 
•the City of Palaces. While in Calcutta, I went to see the 
Indigo sales at the Mart. On arrival there, I was as.ked if 
I would not have some lunch, and walking into a long apart- 
ment something like an empty store-room, I saw a table round 
which were men all busy at lunch. Thomas and Co. and 
W. Moran and Co. are famous for their cold beef, salad, and 
draft beer tiffins, and I can say I enjoyed mine. As the clock 
strikes two the sale begins. One of the partners mounts 



IH REMINI8CE]SrCES OF BEHAW. 

th^ first ch^ of Indigo to be sold. Thete are geEberftlly sold 
by tens; tHey Are assorted by the brokers, so that the <n)lours 
Ihiy run as evenly a« possible. To sell ten chests does not 
tfeke two minutes ; the bidding is so brisk, the great object 
of intending purchasers being to catch the auctioneer's ear 
first with the final bid; this is shouted out by half-a-doiten 
men at the same time, for they know to a rupee what the 
batch will go for, and when it comes to the final bid, the 
scream for precedence is bewildering. Indigo sells now frona 
about Rs. 225 to Rs. 280 per maund. After the failures of 
1847 Indigo fell to very low prices, but gradually rose again, 
varying with the demand. If the crop be poor, and the 
demand good, prices range very high. 

We were not sorry when the time came for us to leave 
Calcutta, which we did towards the end of January, 1857,. 
returning as we came. It would be useless to describe out 
trip back. We passed many sepoy regiments encamped by 
the road, for this was the marching season, and we were 
overtaken By General Anson, the Commander-in-Chief, who 
had been to Calcutta to see his family off to England. We 
have often thought how lucl&y it was the mutiny did not 
br(9ak out while we were on our journey as, if it had, we 
cottld not have escaped. Poor General Anson did not live 
long after we saw him ; he died before Delhi worn out by 
the cares and anxieties of that siege. In due course of time 
We reached home, and were glad to get back again. In May, 
1857, we heard unpleasant rumours of mutiny among the 
sepoys, first from Barrackpore, then an outbreak at Meerut. 
These soon spread like wild fire over the country ^ To show 
that the natives had some idea of what was going on, a 
khansawah, an old servant who had accompanied his master 
on a visit to Calcutta, one evening as he was helping him to 
undress, said : " Saheh, is it true that all natives are to be 
made Christians?" Te which his master answered jokingly^ 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. HJT 

**y«B." "Then," replied the domestic, '' I would not give 
miAch for the cold meat, etc., it will all be stolen ! " A native 
who is in caste is barred from eating anything that has been 
at a European's table on the plea of its being to them un- 
clean. But the day a native becomes an outcaste, he call* 
himself a " Kistian,*' i.e., Christian, and, as Baboo Keshub 
Chuuder Sen said in a lecture at Mozufferpore, at once 
Adopted all the vices of the European, but none of his virtues. 
The cold viands and master's liquor were bound to go once 
the conversion took place. The conversion of Moslems and 
Hindoo, by ruse or force, if necessary, by the English, was 
the red rag flaunted by those who wished to fan the fire 
of rebellion, and the report of bullock's and pig's fat being 
used in the lubricating composition for. the cartridges was 
all to this end. The Commander-in-Chief published a General 
Order denying the report^ but to allay any fear, as to losing 
caste by biting the cartridges, new drill was set on foot, 
whereby the cartridges were to be torn, not bitten. When 
the regiments mutinied, they thought nothing of using these 
very cartridges they so much oljjected to. While aJl this 
was going on, the startling reality was unpleasantly brought 
home to us by a letter from the Magistrate, summoning us 
into the station (Mozufferpore), to assist to protect it and 
ourselves. As the summons seemed urgent, I at once sent 
out horses to the different stages, and in a few hours after, 
started, armed to the teeth with one double-barrelled gun 
in the splash board, another put up behind the buggy, and 
A revolver in its case at my feet. In this way we, my wife, 
and I, for I was now a married man, journeyed some fifteen 
miles, feeling anything but happy at the look of things. 
Our little daughter, we had put into her small basket cradle 
at our feet.* Arrived at Mozufferpore, we went to Secunder- 
pore, where the Magistrate and Collector lived, and to whose 
house we had received an invitation. We found a number 



li)8 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

of plantem and their families already gathered there. Leav- 
ing ray wife and child there, I started off round the station 
to find out what was wrong, and gathered that trouble waa 
expected from the " Nujeebs," a provincial battalion who 
supplied men as guards for the treasury, etc. One of the 
officials, a good linguist, had disguised himself, and loiter- 
ing about the Nujeeb barracks, had overheard some treason- 
able talk. The Magistrate had, therefore, considered it 
right to call in all Europeans for mutual help in case of need. 
Meeting several planters, we talked over the state of 
affairs, and determined to call on the officials to meet us, 
and say why they had called us in, and what they wanted 
done. A letter was accordingly drafted and sent, asking 
all the officials to meet us at noon the following day. At 
that hour we assembled, and were told by the Magistrate 
we were wanted to mount guard as sentries over the treasury, 
as the Nujeebs could not be trusted. This we objected to 
do; but suggested that we were ready to disarm those sus- 
pected, and thus get rid of the threatened danger, and, if 
necessary, send the treasure to Patna in our factory-carts 
under a planter escort. This did not meet the views of the 
Collector, and we did not see the force of leaving our wives 
and families to take care of themselves, while we took care 
I of the Government treasury. 

The meeting ended, therefore, in nothing being done. 
The planters from the far-off districts began to arrive, and 
soon there were over three hundred men, women, and children 
in Mozufferpore. 



CHAPTER XII. 

WE FOBTIFY THE DOCTOR'S HOUSE — THE *' VIBILLE OUASDE " 

TAKING A PRISONER — FALSE ALARM — MURDER OF MAJOR 
AND MRS. HOI4MES — MUTINY OF THE NATIVE INFANTRY 

AT DINAPORE DEFENCE OF ARRAH — THE MUTINT 

OVER HOMEWARD BOUND. 

The Magistrate could not ent^tain all, and it would 
not do for us to be scattered over the place, so the doctor 
and Mr. Weston offered their houses and grounds, and we 
formed two camps and messes. The houses were 500 yards 
apart, but stood almost in the same grounds. We all moved 
into our new quarters; the ladies and children occupying 
the houses, while the gentlemen slept in tente formed into 
small camps, one at each flank of the houses, and one in the 
front, as an advanced guard. Each of the camps supplied 
two sentries, and we all had to do our two hours' watch 
every night. At a meeting, one of our number was appointed 
commandant of the garrison, and he again named his sub- 
ordinates, placing one man in command of each small camp. 
Besides these camps, there was a portico guard composed of 
old gentlemen, who kept watch till 11 at night. The reason 
for establishing this " Vieille Guarde " was, that the ladies 
would not see that there was any danger, and insisted on 
enjoying themselves. The young men were quite of the same 
opinion, and the commandant was at his wits' end how to 
keep the sentries to their duty. At last the bright idea of 
a guard, to consist of non-dancing men, who were to act till 
11 o'clock, suggested itself, and the arrangement was carried 
out. A General Order was issued to the effect that at 11 



200 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAH. 

o'clock all lights were to be put out, and dancing, etc., 
stopped. We had just got things into working order, when 
the Magistrate asked for a few men to go out and seize a 
daragah (head inspector of police), who was reported to be 
up to mischief. Three men and the Assistant Magistrate 
were (chosen. One of the planters had his house near where 
the police station stood, and sending out word, tha^ he was 
coming with some friends to shoot, they started in the even- 
ing. Early next morning they drove straight to the police 
station, not a minute too soon, for they found the darogah 
writing a letter to the rebels, inviting them over to loot the 
treasury, his horse ready saddled for a bolt, in case of need. 
.He was, very much astonished when he was arrested and 
placed in charge of the three gentlemen of the Blues, who 
mai«hed him out. While arrangements were being made for 
having his papers examined, one of his guards noticed the 
darogah eyeing the revolver, which one of them was holding 
very carelessly^ and paying more attention to what others 
were doing than to his prisoner. The inspector suddenly 
made a grab at the revolver, but the man who had been 
watching him, cai^ght him a smart blow over the fingers, 
which made him leave it alone. He was now put on to the 
back seat of the dog-cart pinioned, and tied to iJie back rail- 
ing of the trap. His guards Chen jumped up, and they drove 
off to Mozufferpore. Here a tent had been erected as guard- 
room, and two men were placed as sentries over him. The 
wretched man evidently saw that things were not all right 
for him. He was a Moslem, so he began at once counting 
bis beads and praying. At night, a guard of Irregular 
Cavalry, part of the 12th Irregular Cavalry, commanded by 
Qolmes at Segowlie, took charge of the prisoner; and next 
morning he was placed in an ekahy and sent off to Segowlie 
under an Irregular Cavalry escort to be dealt with by Major 
fiohnes. Ob the evening of the next day, we w^re surprised 



KEMINISCENCES OF BEHAK. i'()i 

to see the escort and prisoner return; and a private com- 
munication from Holmes, to say that his men were much 
Averse to having the peeler hanged at Segowlie, he being a 
Moslem; so he had sent him back, and advised his being 
9ent to Patna, to the Commissioner there, who seemed to 
have no fear of consequences, and had already strung up one 
^r two mutineers. Givin^g the unhappy man a night's rest, 
we packed him off to Patna under the same escort. He was 
not long kept waiting, for he was hanged that evening, martial 
law having been proclaimed, and justice was quick and sure. 
*' Warris Ali,'' for that was the rebel's name, died, calling on 
all Mahomedans to inform the King of Delhi that he had 
been true to him to the last. The seizing of a rebel, and 
his passing a prisoner to and from our camp, caused some 
little excitement : but we were destined to have another little 
shock, rather unpleasant while it lasted. One night, one of 
our sentries to the front, observed a long line of lights sud- 
denly advancing towards the house, and, as he was consult- 
ing with his brother sentry whether he should turn out the 
different guards, two or three natives rushed in through the 
gate, calling out " Bagho Sahib ! ' " Run away, Sir ! " Mean- 
while, the garrison at the next house l»ad been alarmed, and 
the men were turning out, when one of them not quite ^wake 
from his slumbers, accidentally discharged his gun. The re- 
port of danger had been conveyed to the ladies of this house, 
and they were in great alarm, but when the gun went off, 
there was a regular panic. Fortunately, the report had 
frightened more than the garrison; for, as soon as they 
heard it, the advancing line stopped, and in a second, every 
light was thrown to the ground. Just then our mounted 
patrol (for we patrolled the town also to see that order was 
kept) arrived. One of the men, a fiery Scot, drew his sword, 
and explainin^g that he would like to try the teniparr of his 
blade, was about to set spurs to his horse, when a Si^atry hjeld 



202 REMINLSCENCE8 OF IJEHAIl. 

him back, and told him not to be foolish, for what could he 
do one against hundreds. The Scot drew out a pistol, cocked 
it, and presenting it at the man, called outj " just you let 
go," which he did at once, and the horseman at a bound 
disappeared in the dark. He was followed by the rest of 
the patrol, and we expected to hear shots every minute, but 
in about half-an-hour they returned. They reported they 
could see or find nothing but the smouldering torches, and, 
though they scoured the country, not a sign of a living being 
could be found. This sudden appearance and disappear- 
ance has always been a mystery. Some thought it might have 
been a wedding procession, but knowing we were in camp, 
and looking out for an enemy, I doubt if a wedding proces- 
sion would have come there; besides this, wedding procesr- 
sions do not march silently. My idea is that it was a ruse 
to try us, and see if we were really on the alert. The shot 
accidentally fired ; they at once took as a signal for attack, 
and knowing that the sudden extinguishing of the torches 
would facilitate their retreat, they threw them down, and 
dispersed over the country. The men we suspected were the 
Nujeebs; if they could have got rid of us, over ten lakhs of 
■ rupees were in their hands. On Sundays prayers were read 
in the open air under the shade of the house. A guard over- 
looked from the top of the house in case of a sudden attack. 
We had stored numbers of bags of rice and dhal (a kind of 
split pea), and hundreds of earthen pots of drinking water 
on the top of our residence. The verandahs were protected 
by sand bags. Things, however, soon quieted down again 
after this alarm. The rains set in, and it began to pour,- 
this rather damped the ardour of the gallant Blues who had 
to sleep in tents; and as a report, which afterwards proved 
false, of the fall of Delhi, and defeat of the mutineers, was 
received, we made up our minds to return to our homes and 
await the turn of events. The whole thing had, after all. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 203 

been a very pleasant meeting, and we were rather sorry 
when the time came to part. I forgot to mention that we 
book another prisoner, a small " zemindar " (landholder), liv- 
ing near Doulatpore factory, who took advantage of the 
absence of the manager to proclaim himself king of those 
parts, and to collect blackmail on the river, stopping boats, 
and making them pay toll. This coming to the Magistrate's 
ear, an order was gfven for his arrest, and two men, one of 
them the manager of the factory, started off to drive about 
fifty miles and carry out the order. The thing was most 
successfully done, and the man caught in the act of issuing 
orders for certain illegal proceedings. The manager, W. C. 
B , as soon as he reached Doulatpore factory, started off^ 
for t he village where this man lived, and, entering the en- 
closure in which his house stood, found him, sitting in State 
with the members of his council round him. B - holding 
out the warrant to him^ called on him to surrender, at the 
same time pointing his revolver at his head. The crowd of 
admiring courtiers were not long in making themselves scarce,^ 
and the unhappy " zemindar '' was strapped to the back of 
the dog-cart. They at once started on their return journey, 
and by evening the zemindar was safely lodged in jail. He 
was tried and imprisoned for ten years. We were not to- 
be left in peace at our homes long, for in about ten days or 
less, after our return, we rscerved the news of the mutiny of 
the 12th Irregular Cavalry at Segowlie. They had mur- 
dered their Commanding Officer, Major Holmes, his wife,, 
also the doctor of the regiment, and his wife. It was sad 
to think that a gallant officer who had been through many 
a campaign, leading these very men to victory, should be 
shot By them. His wife, too, had escaped from the Cabul 
massacre of the first Afghan War when her first husEand, 
Captain Sturt, was killed. Mrs. Holmes was a daughter of 
Lady Sale, who was also one of the Afghan prisoners. The 



^04 REMINISCENCES OE BEHAR. 

story told of the murdor of Holmes and his wile by the 
natives is a« follows: — 

They were out for their usual evening drive, when 
Holmes saw a section of his men riding up to them. He 
immediately suspected villany, and called out to them : ^* 1 
know what you want, it is my life; that you can have, but 
spare the lady; " the reply was a volley which killed both 
him and his wife. The mutineers decapitated poor Holmes, 
carrying away his head. The whole regiment then marched 
out of Segowlie, passing close by Lall Seryah Factory; they 
.nevsr stopped to do any harm, but continued on their road 
towards Lucknow and Delhi. The doctor and his wife at 
.Segowlie refusing to come out of their house, it was fired, 
and they being driven out by the flames were shot; their 
bodies were never discovered, the fire having consumed them, 
house and everything. The news of this sad tragedy reached 
D — (who lived some nine miles away) in the afternoon, and 
he determined to make an attempt to recover, and bury 
Holmes and his wife. This he did, and had them buried at 
Motihary, the chief town of Chumparun. The only Euro- 
pean saved from Segowlie was a little child of the doctor's, 
who was out with her nurse for a walk. The ayah (nurse), 
hearing what was happening, hid her little charge in a native 
soman's house, and as soon as the Irregular Cavalry left, 
took the child to the nearest European, who sent her on to 
her relations. The day we heard of the mutiny of the cavalry 
at Segowlie, the news of the mutiny of the three Native In- 
fantry Regiments at Dinapore arrived. All hope of escaping 
seemed to us to be at an end, and the Commissioner of Patna, 
being much of this opinion, sent an order to tho officials 
under his orders, to at once muster at Patna, and to call in 
all the residents of their districts, and bring them with them. 
This order was acted on, notice being sent to all residents in 
the district to go to Patna ; and :i^ter dinner all officials, 



REMINISCENCES OF BEflAR. 205^ 

non-H>fficiftls, and others started off for a moonlight journey 
to Patn». Before continuing what took place in Tirhoot, I 
will state to my readers how the regiments mutinied at Dina- 
por3. There were three regiments there, the 40th, 7th, and 
8th Native Infantry. Public opinion was very strong on 
the disarming of these regiments, but some of the oflScere 
objected to it. The Commanding Officer and Adjutants had 
great confidence in their men, so the evil day was put off. 
At last, a« a detachment of ihe 37th Queen's happened to* 
be at Biaapore with the 10th Queen's, it was determined, 
at any rate, to remove the ammunition, consisting of so many 
rounds per man, in possession of the regiments, so ammuni- 
tion waeggons were sent off to effect this. The carts were 
sent to the magazines of the two furthest off regiments ; at 
first the men did not understand what was being done, and 
the ammunition carts had removed the caps and cartridges 
of one regiment, and were on their way to the next, when 
the meti turned out and forming, made a rush for the cart. 
Meanwhile, all the European officers had joined 
their men and tried to keep them quiet, but to 
no effect; they rushed down after the carts, which by this 
time had come on to the parade ground of the next regiment. 
Why or, wherefore, no one seems to know ; the regiment, on 
whose ground the other had trespassed, fixed bayonets, and 
drove the trespassers off, so that the officers of that regiment 
felt convinced of their loyalty. Meanwhile, notice had been 
sent to the European re.giments and artillery to move up from 
their lines about a mile distant, and the minute the Native 
Infantry heard the tread of the Queen's regiments and the^ 
rumble of artillery, a panic seemed to seize them, the evil* 
disposed firing at their officers (some of whom in their enthu- 
sia-^m were going about trying to stop the men from leaving), 
while a few loyal sepoys walked about knocking up the muskets 
of th«se who were trying to shoot dow;n their officers. Seeing 



206 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

the firing commence, the invalid soldiers of the European 
regiment (who had been armed and placed on the top of an 
hospital overlooking the parade ground), began to fire, and 
this settled the matter, for the Native Infantry Regimen t* 
at once went off; some men of the 7th and 8th remained, 
and about one hundred of the 40th Native Infantry. The 
guns arriving late, limbered up, and sent a few round shot 
after the mutineers who were far away in the distance by 
this time. The mutinied regiments made their way to Arrah, 
where they found the residents had fortified the station billiard 
room, into which the Magistrate and Collector had taken all 
the Government treasure. The latter soon found themselves 
l)esieged. The defence of the Arrah house has become a 
matter of history. There were besides the residents, some of 
Rattray's Sikhs, now the 45th Native Infantry, in the house, 
and they helped most materially in the defence. A well had 
to be dug in the ground floor, as they were short of water, 
this the Sikhs did at once. The alacrity shown by them in 
seizing some sheep that had been allowed to stray near the 
house was much admired. 

The mutineers, without a leader, showed very little 
pluck; they had got a small cannon which they fired from 
the roof of an overlooking house, but the artillery men hid 
behind the chimney stack, pushing the gun out and firing 
at random. A leader well primed with bhang (hemp) having 
been obtained, one or two attempts at a rush were made, 
but, fortunately, there were in the Arrah house some crack 
shots who picked the leaders off, when the main body at once 
turned and bolted. The mutineers once tried to smoke out 
the little band. Piling up dry grass, with quantities of 
<jhillies mixed with it, they set it on fire. Fortunately, the 
wind changed just then, and the besiegers got the worst of 
it. The officer commanding at Dinapore, as soon as practic- 
able after the mutiny of the sepoys, had sent off a force to 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 207 

relieve Arrah, but they were unfortunately caught in an 
ambush, and so cut up that they had to return to Dinapore. 
When the remnants of the force arrived, they were met by 
the women of the regiment, and their lamentations were loud 
for those who had not returned. From grief, their emotions 
turned to fury, and they surrounded the General's quarters, 
calling on him to come out; if he had, they would have 
pulled him to pieces, for they considered his not disarming 
the sepoys to be the cause of their sorrow. The men of the 
Native Infantry who had been true^ were placed in tents 
behind the officers' mess-house. A report had gained ground 
among the European soldiers that their remaining was merely 
a ruse, and that those who had gone off would return by 
boat at night, and, assisted by those who pretended loyalty, 
would murder all. The effect of this was, that just after the 
officers had dined one evening, a great uproar was heard ; 
and rushing out to see what was wrong, the officers found 
that the native soldiers had been killed as they lay asleep. 
The assembly was sounded, and the arms of the Europeans 
examined ; but though every one knew who had done this, 
things were in too critical a state to take notice of it. The 
Arrah garrison were getting sadly pressed when Sir Vincent 
Eyre, with a party of the 5th Fusiliers and two guns, marched 
on Arrah from Buxar, and defeating the mutineets, relieved 
the place. Stories of the mutiny have been written from 
every part of India. I will confine myself to what happened 
in our district. The day after all the officials and residents 
had been summoned to Patna, I got an express from my neigh- 
bour J. C — telling me that all officials had left the district, 
and, advising me to go over to him, thence to Poosah, and 
from there by river to Jeetwarpore, which place he proposed 
we should fortify and remain at until obliged to move on. 
We were not long in answering this summons, and reaching 
Dhoolie, found J. C — ready for a st^rt. We arrived at 



208 REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 

Poosat at mid-day, where a boat was all ready. We wei^ 
joii>ed here by several young men from the neighbouring fac- 
tories, and the officer in charge of the Poosah Stud. Drop- 
ping down the river, we reached Jeetwarpore next morning. 
Whea at Poosah, we heard that the detachment of Holmes* 
Irregular Cavalry (then at Mozufferpore), hearing the main 
body had mutinied, at one? began to loot. Captain B — and 
his nephew had a narrow escape; they arrived at Mozuffei^- 
pore after, the officials had left, and rode up to the Magi^ 
(rate's house where they found an old servant only to receive^ 
them, who begged of them to go on, as the troopers had 
already sent once to see if any " Sahibs " were still there. 
Fortunately they started at once, for not ten minutes after 
they had left, the troop of cavalry galloped up and surrounded 
the house, then entered, and helped themselves to everything 
that might be useful. They then went to the stable and 
took all horses that had been left behind. We were some 
three days at Jeetwarpore, and not a lettor or paper had we 
received ; we were therefore perfectly ignorant of what wa» 
going on elsewhere. I had sent an old syce (groom) to see 
what had become of the post ; late at night, on Thursday, 
he arrived ^vith a r^ular bundle of letters and papers. He 
then told us what had happened at Mozufferpore. The 
Sowars, after looting the Magistrate's house, rode down to 
the Treasury, and called on the Nujeebs to divide the treasure 
with them. (The Nujeebs had been well fed by the bankers 
of the city, who knew once things got into a state of anarch j 
that they would be the first to suffer.) This they reused to 
do, saying, that as they had charge of it, they would keep it. 
Some unpleasant words then passed, and the Nujeehs fired on 
the cavalry, who took to their heels. Those bankers who live 
on the main road which passes through the town had invited 
a body of Nujeebs to guard their premises ; and, as the 
troopers rode down tlie street, a purting volley was fired; Mf 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAK. 209 

washerman had been with the .^yce, and he remarked, " a lot 
of powder and sFot wa* expended; " but when I asked for 
an idea of the number of slain, I found that there was only 
one wounded, and that, an elderly woman one of the troopers 
was carrying off. The poor thing had her thigh broken by 
.•a bullet. Hearing that Mozufferpore was left without an 
European head, volunteers were called for from among our 
small party, and some five or six men decided to go in the 
next morning. The syce explained the non-arrival of our 
(post; he said, the Sowars had kept the Bengalee Postmaster 
locked up for fear he should send notice to Dinapore, and 
they might be interrupted. The next day our men drove to 
^within five miles of Mozufferpore, and then mounting their 
iiorses, and taking their guns and swords, rode on. As they 
got into the heart of the town, the men and women met them, 
and threw themselves down before them, beating their 
breasts; they were delighted to see white faces back again, 
>^is they knew that Ihey were now safe from l>eiiig looted. 
The police had already given one or two of them a screw up. 
The post office being central, the horsemen made for the 
rplace, dismounted, and held council as to what was to he 
•done now they were in possession. As they were talking, 
^hey heard the distant noise as of a big mob approaching, 
and seizing their double barrels prepared to do or die. 

What was their delight to see their old friend, the Mag- 
istrate, accompanied by the Government Schoolmaster (who 
had volunteered to return with him) ride up, followed by half 
'of the population of the place. The Magistrate's first act 
"was fo interview the Nujeebs, and express to them how satis- 
fied he personally and the Government were with their 
behaviour and ordered a handsome reward in cash to be given 
to each man. The Magistrate and all the Europeans returned 
4/hat night to Dhoolie, and next day those of our party 
j^turned to Jeetwarpore, while the MagiRtrate and the School- 



210 REMINISCENCES OF BBHAR. 

master joined the other officers who had been ordered to returik 
to MozutTerpore. Shortly after a detachment of Sikhs, under 
Lieutenant Waller, was sent to Mozufferpor€, the doctor'^ 
house was properly fortified, loop-holed, and christened by 
some wag " Fort Pill Box.' It was well stored with rice, 
dlial, etc., but, fortunately, its services were never required. 
We had many alarms after this, but things gradually settled 
down. We had regiments of Goorklias from Nepal quartered 
ill ^'lozufTcr])ore for a time to interrupt mutinous regiments 
supposed to be trying to make their way to Delhi; also the 
Yeomanry Cavalry which did such good services in Goruck- 
pore. This was a corps raised in Calcutta and armed with 
old arms, which some said were those used at the Battle of 
Plassey one hundred years before. Be that as it may, theyr 
did good service with them. Our plans in retreating to Jeet-^ 
warpore wore, in case of necessity, that we should retire on 
Doulatpore factory, further down the river, where a garrison 
had formed; and there the house had been well protected 
with iron sheeting, while long rakes with, their teeth sharpened 
and turned point upwards, formed a very good chevaux de 
friae in case of sudden attack. The top of the house was 
provisioned, and a stair led through a hole in the roof in 
case a retreat there was considered necessary. If we had 
lieen driven out of this, we would have retired down the river, 
and reached the Ganges. We were, however, never in any 
danger from a rising in our own district, the people being 
purely agricultural ; a very few men having enlisted as sepoys,, 
and most of these knowing what was to happen, I fancy, 
took leave, and came to their homes where they remained 
till all was quiet again. With the fall of Delhi, and relief 
of Luck now, British rule again asserted itself, and the disturb- 
ing re])orts that used to keep us in such an unhappy state 
of uncertainty Began to cease, and matters gradti»lly to run 
in their old groove. 



REMINISCENCES OF BEHAR. 211 

As I had now been out in India over eleven years, I 
thought a change home, after all the excitement of the last 
few months, necessary; so about the beginning of December,: 
1858, we started by steamer for Calcutta, the road being still 
dangerous from bands of rebels. After a trip of eight days 
we reached Calcutta, and in a few days after steamed out 
of the City of Palaces in the good ship John Bellj once more 
bound for old England. 



TFRHOOT 

AND. ITS 

INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 



JAMES SLADE. 

One may call spirits from the mighty deep, but will thejr 
come ? No ! There is nothing, however, to prevent my re- 
calling the past and placing before the present the deeds and 
doings of many jolly fellows who were white-headed when 
I first came to India, and whose sons and grandsons in many 
cases represent the immediate present. I will begin taking 
them in order of seniority as far as my memory serves me. 
Good old Jemmy Slade ! — how few are there now in the. 
district or out who remember him? He came out to hia 
uncle, Mr. Ball, who now reposes under a mass of masonry 
in the Eaujpore Indigo Factory garden. The days when 
Slade arrived in the district were wild days, and I remem- 
ber his telling me how his uncle and a gentleman called 
Woods, who managed Seeraha Factory, insisted on his drink- 
ing on his immediate arrival, threatened to whip him if he 
did not, and when he did and became the worse for liquor, 
they whipped him because he got drunk. This happened 
in the middle of the day, but all windows and doors were 
shut to make it appear night. Slade was in India during 
the days when interlopers, as they were called, were viewed 
with suspicion, and a man who did not hold a license from 
John Company was liable to be turned out of the country 
should anyone trump up a false charge against him. Slade 
had suffered from these unfriendly attacks and I will men*^ 



214 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

tion one of the charges made up against him, which was 
proved to be false and Jemmy so got off. Here is the case 
some of his native friends dished up. They made a repre- 
sentation to the police that Slade had a spite against a man 
and had ordered him to be tied by the legs and neck to two 
pairs of bullocks and made what the cultivators in Tirhoot 
call a hingah of, used to rub down and smooth the land 
after ploughing. It was represented that the man while 
undergoing this treatment died, and was thrown into the 
river. Well, Slade was brought up for preliminary trial 
before the Magistrate, the case proved up to the hilt, and 
'things were looking very black for him when his Munshi, 
* who was in court, whispered to his master : " The man you 
nre accused of killing is in court.'' So Jemmy wrote a line 
> to the Magistrate who was presiding, and he immediately 
ordered all the doors of the court to be closed and no one 
allowed to go out, — when the dead man was found very much 
alive. It turned out they were so sure of getting the pri- 
soner punished that the guilty one could not resist the pleasure 
of hearing sentence passed, and was caught. 

Old Slade also passed through another unpleasant ex- 
perience, and that was when a man who said he held the 
sword of " Ram " suddenly appeared behind his chair while 
he was sitting at dinner. The holder of " Ram's tulwar," 
with the sword drawn, called on Rim to provide his " army " 
with food and money. Slade did not lose his presence of 
mind. He replied that he had no money in the factory, 
16ut would send for some to the nearest station, where his 
banker lived. This was agreed to, and a syce was sent off 
on horseback to bring out money, but also with a note to 
the Magistrate calling for help. A few hours after the 
'*^army" began to get uneasy and desert. Evidently news 
df coming help was in the air. At last the holder of Ram's 
sword got unpleasiant news and he and his immediate staif 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 215 

•cleared. A few minutes after, the Magistrate appeared with 
a posse of '' chowkidhars.'' Blade joined the Magistr-ate and 
off they went in pursuit and traced the marauders into an 
enclosure. The Magistrate being young and active put his 
Arab at the wall. The game little horse cleared it, hut the 
flooring on the inside of the enclosure had been smoothed 
down with mud and water and the Arab's feet slipped from 
under him when the Maistrate found himself on his back, 
«rnd the gentleman of the sword, who was hidden in a house 
within the walls, on top of him. Fortunately one of Ihe 
village chokidhars had followed the Magistrate, and he gave 
the holder of the sword of Ram a tap on the head which 
rolled him over. The man of the sword was pinioned and 
taken off to do ten years' hard labour. Several others wert* 
caught and got lesser punishments. Jemmy Slade was a 
good old fellow but his mind had been much narrowed by 
so long a residence in tbis country. He dearly loved io 
hear his own voice and lay down the law. He looked on 
everyone as a grif and used to begin his theories with " !Mark 
my words, no one but a grif," etc. Eventually old Jim had 
to throw up the sponge and go. He retired to Bath. I 
met my old friend several years before his death : he was 
comfortably housed, but he was not what he was accustomed 
to be — '' King of Raujpore." 



CAPTAIN HENRY BECHER. 

There are few still remaining who remember that good 
old salt. Captain Henry Becher. He began life in the East 
as an officer in the East India Company's navy, and used 
to delight in fighting some of his battles over again after 
dinner. The tumblers, wine-glasses, and plates represent 
the enemy or lee-shore, wind, ships, etc., and the old gentle- 
man having placed each in position began to move about 



216 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

ships, elements, etc. The tumblers were generally filled with 
beer, representing the wind. A wag one day thought he 
would noil plm the Captain ; he emptied the tumbler full 
of beer which represented the wind, when the old man cried 
out " Steady there, steady ! you'll have the fleet on a lee- 
shore if you use up all the wind.'' Captain Becher had an 
old East India Navy list where his name was mentioned as 
Lieutenant Henry Becher, deceased, opposite which in big 
scrawly letters were written " Not yet, thank God, — H.BJ' I 
cannot say in what year he came up-country, but it must 
have been in the early thirties. He started as an indigo* 
planter at a factory to the north-east of Tirhoot called Beer- 
pur. He was very fond of carpenter work, and employed 
some fifty carpenters. On one occasion these men had finished 
what they had been set to do and the English writer wrote 
to Becher, who was away on a visit to a friend, to ask what 
they were to do, now they had finished the work they had 
to do. The old Captain was not much of a linguist, so he 
asked his friend to reply. "What am I to say?" asked 
the friend. ' Tell them to hold on by the slack till I return.'' 
How this was translated into Hindustani, has never yet 
transpired. 

Old Becher was a bit of a fire-eater, and though I never 
heard of his having fired or been fired at, he had a pair of 
brass-barrelled pistols that were the terror and amusement 
of the district. There are many yarns told about them. 
One evening after dinner the Captain thought he had been 
insulted by one of the many planters at the Club. He was 
just about to start for his home, but meeting in the verandah 
the man who was supposed to have insulted him, he addressed 
him : "My name, sir, is Henry Becher. You know where 
I am to be found when wanted." With that he made for 
his trap. There his old syce Byro (as much a character as 
his master, and who was always on the lookout in case the 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 217 

old Captain was a sheet in the wind) was waiting. The 
Captain immediately gave him the news. — Byro, Byro ; hurra 
larayt hoga CByro, Byro; there will be a great fight). To 
this Byro replied with a slight sneer: Ajt karwagt laraye 
karta. Gali dcjeige: laraye mat. (You are always wanting 
to fight ; abuse, but don^t fight.) Another time having had' 
a difference of opinion at a party with one of the guests and, 
called him out, he started for home, and immediately set 
to work to cast bullets. As the quarrel had been rather a 
serious one and might have ended in bloodshed, one of the- 
party gave notice to the Magistrate, who started off to bind, 
our old fire-eater down to keep the peace, and caught him 
red-handed, having cast no less than fifty bullets to do for 
the '' black and blue gentleman " whom he had fallen out 
with. Another yarn about Captain Becher, and one of his 
old syce's wise sayings is told. Becher had been dining at 
Khanti Factory, and as it was New Year's Eve had been . 
pretty free with what he called the Kiki de Vint. I suppose 
he thought this name had a French smack about it, and that 
it meant liquor. Bidding his host good-night he climbed 
into his buggy (he lived about half a mile away), and off 
he started. After some half hour or so the old chap began 
to think he should have arrived and addressed old Byro,. 
who was sound asleep wrapt up in his blanket behind the 
buggy. Byro awoke shuddering, ^ya sahib 1 (What is it?)- 
he exclaimed, to which in reply the following query came 
from his master — " Byro, Byro khub poncheyga? '' Byro sagely 
replied and retired forthwith into the depth of his blanket, 
— "If you go on driving round and round the Nogole (cir- 
cular front by the house) I don't suppose we will ever get 
home! '' 

" Another story about the old Captain and I will end. 
He had been on a visit at Hatowri Factory when Bob Taylor 
ruled that concern. He (R.T.) had had some difference 



218 TIKH0OT ANB ITS 

with the ryots in a certain village Captain Becher had to 
pass through. He had given the old sea dog a trap to this 
place, where Beclier was to be met by his own. Arriving 
there he, to his surprise, found his buggy, horse, and syce 
surrounded by a lot of shouting natives flourishing sticks. 

'The old gentleman, though unarmed, marched into the midst 
of the howling mob and harangued the meeting thus: - 

^^ Buggy (^apfain Becher ghora Captain Becher ham Ca/)- 
tain Becher and haniara hat tamanook hie,*^ which he trans- 
lated as: "This buggy "belongs to Captain Becher; the 
horse is Captain Becher s; I am Captain Becher, and my 
word is as good as my bond." On hearing this, he said, 
they knew I was not Bob Taylor, and I passed on unmolested. 
After leaving the E. 1. Co.'s Navy, the Captain, as I 
said above, tried his hand at indigo planting, but as his 
ideas of calculations and those of the agents diifered, he gave 
up that industry. He borrowed an outlay of Rs. 50,000 and 
sent to his Calcutta agents Us. 5,000 worth of indigo, and 
when they expressed themselves surprised at the small return 
the old gentleman was very indignant, as he said — " Con- 
found them ; I have given them 10 'per cent, on their money." 
At the age of about seventy-nine the Captain went to Cal- 
•cutta, and while there j>assed away peacefully. He went 
to bed apparently quite well, and was found dead in his bed 
in the morning. Thus died the poor old Captain, jolly old 
<;ompanion, the essence of kindness, and a perfect Lord 

^Chesterfield as to politeness. 



JOHN MACKENZIE. 

John Mackenzie was one of the most genial and kindest 
hearted o: men, beloved by all who knew him. He was 
born in 1803 at Galston Parish of Barvas in the Island of 
Lewis. He was educated at the Marischall (Aberdeen) Col- 



INHABITANTS OP THE PAST. 2 ID 

lege under Professor Jack. He was a finished scholar and 
-elegant writer, and was, therefore, looked up to by all the 
planters of his day as a man of first class education and 
-one who could put what was required down in a few well- 
»expressed words and well to the point. Mr. ^Mackenzie had 
seen a good deal of life in his younger days. In 1823 he 
had a very narrow escape of being drowned, being the only 
on© saved out of 150 passengers. It may be interesting to 
detail the circumstances of his escape. He was on his way 
to India, and was then a tall young man and very powerful. 
In 1823 there were no steamers or any regular conveyance 
between Stornaway, the capital of the Island of Lewis and 
the south. As Mr. Mackenzie was bound for India he took 
passage in a Stornaway vessel that was going to Ireland, and 
thence to Liverpool, on board a packet calle-d '' The Alert.*' 
The ship by bad navigation struck on a rock not far from 
Holyhead. The captain and crew disserted the ship and 
passengers, — going off at once with the only boat and leav- 
ing the 150 passengers to perish. Mr. Mackenzie was a 
good swimmer, but had great difficulty in getting clear of 
the drowning passengers. Once he was dragged down, but 
managed to struggle to the surface. Then he and two others 
swam to an object they saw some distance off which proved 
to be an egg crate, and to this they clung. One dropped off 
and the other who was lashed to the crate died of exhaus- 
tion. Mackenzie was eventually picked up insensible and 
carried by the boat that rescued him to Holyhead where 
means were used to restore him to life. He had kicked off 
all his clothes but his shirt, and suffered terribly from the 
cold. He was taken in by the officers at a military outpost 
who were most kind to him and supplied him with clothes 
and money as he had lost all his own. His money he had 
tied round his waist, but as it was all gold the weight was 
so great he had to let it all go to save his life. 



220 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

Shortly after Mackenzie sailed for India, his only friendl 
there being Mr. Murdo Mackenzie a cousin. Murdo Mack- 
enzie founded, if I mistake not, the Calcutta Exchange (Mack- 
enzie Lyall and Co.) He also made the acquaintance oi 
John Colviii, who eventually became a fast friend, and 
through his influence got John Mackenzie a berth as an assist- 
ant at Attur Factory under Mr. Sterndale, whose daughter 
afterwards married Sir Cecil Beadon, late Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor of Bengal. The year young Mackenzie made his debut 
as an indigo planter proved a very propitious year: the fac- 
tory made a very big season, namely, 1,000 maunds which 
sold at an average of Rs. 300 per maund, giving an enormous 
profit which must have gladdened the heart of Macadam.; 
Stewart, who was one of the proprietory firm of Gillanders 
Aibuthnot and Co. In 1833 Mr. Mackenzie had a severe 
illness and took a trip home intending to return to India in 
a year after. Great iveports, however, about this time were 
spread of the fortunes to be made in Canada, and Mr. Mack- 
enzie determined to give it a trial; especially as his mother 
to whom he was much attached did not care that he should 
return to India. (She unfortunately died on the voyage 
out.) On arrival in Canada they found things were not what 
they had been painted, and they much regretted they had 
ever left the Lewis. For a time Mackenzie acted as Agent 
for the Canadian Land Company and edited a paper in that 
Company's interests. He also acted as a Volunteer during 
the Mackenzie riots in Canada, and was given a commission 
as a Captain in a battalion of the County Sherbrook in 
Canada. (Stran,ge to say some years after when managing 
Meerpur Indigo Factory in Champarun, a Magistrate, who 
was said to be not quite compos mentis, had Mr. Mackenzie 
arrested as the rebel Mackenzie because he heard he came 
from Canada!) This commission is dated 28th. April, 1835. 
The appointment was made by Lord Aylmer, Captain-General* 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 221 

in-Chief, Province* of Lower Canada. In 1838 he had 100 
men who hailed from the Lewis placed under him as Volun- 
teers. Before this he had a roving commission from the 
British American Land Company. I now quote to show how 
liighly his services were estimated, a letter from the Com- 
missioner written in Sir Alexander G-alt's handwriting — 
'* We, the Commissioners in Canada of the B. M. L. Co., 
considering that it is desirable for the Company as well 
^s important to emigrants that the value of their operations 
and the value of their territory be more generally known, 
considering also your experience in the country, your general 
intelligence, your kind philanthropic disposition, your in- 
timate knowledge of the operations and objects of the Com- 
pany, and having confidence in your wise discretion for ful- 
filling with faithfulness and zeal a mission on their behalf, 
we do now request you to proceed with the least possible 
delay on a tour or journey through Maine, New Brunswick, 
etc., etc., or as much thereof as you can attain, especially 
where there are British settlers desirous to obtain richer soil 
and more productive climate, etc., etc., etc. (Sd.) John 
Fraser and A. C. Webster, Commissioners." 

In about 1847, Lord Elphinstone, who was making a tour 
through India, met Mr. Mackenzie, and was so taken with 
the charm of his manner and refined mind that ]ie offered 
him the management of all his Ceylon estates, which unfortu- 
nately he did not accept. In 1848, Mr. Mackenzie purchased, 
in partnership with Mr. John Beckwith, the Jeelwarpur Indigo 
Concern and took a trip home with his family, some years 
after, returning again in 1855. In January 1857, just before 
the Mutiny broke out, he again went home, and thence to 
Canada. The long winters were too much for him, and in 
1862 he and his family found themsleves again in Tirhoot. 
Thence they went to Naini Tal, where a house was built, 
hut after a time as all his daughters were married or about 



222 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

to be, he made, up his mind to leave India for good, and 
eventually retired to Island Bank, Inverness, where he died 
in 1868. He was buried in the pretty little cemetery of 
Tumnahurich where a handsome tombstone marks the spot 
where lies one of the finest and best of men. Such a leader 
to guide young heads in our indigo troubles at the present 
moment would be, indeed, a blessing. Mr. Mackenzie had 
a younger brother who was an assistant under him, but he 
died young and reposes under a bamboo tope at the Buchour 
Indigo Factory, now the property of the Maharaja of 
Durbhanga. 



JOHN GALE. 

John Gale, I first met in the early part of January, 1848. 
He was known by his intimate friends as John Cherry Gale, 
as he used to sing a song called '* Cherry ripe," and any 
peculiarity of this kind was quite enough to be the cause 
ctf a nick-name which often stuck to a man for life. John 
Gale was, if I mistake not, son of Captain Gale, an ofiicer 
in the E. I. Co.'s service. He started life as an indigo 
planter, but when sugar became a mania in Tirhoot, John 
Gale at once dropped indigo and went in for cane and expen- 
sive machinery. This sugar craze was introduced by one 
JVlr. Robinson, who came up from the Mauritius. He was 
certain large fortunes were to be made in sugar, especially 
in Tirhoot, where land and labour were cheap, and he man- 
aged to talk over a great many. It was a good spec for Mr. 
Robinson, as he was also a manufacturer of steam engines, 
and had brought out a speciality in engines adapted for 
cane crushing. Our local poet thus wrote of Mr. Robinson' 
and sugar : — 

" The Lion King stretched out his hand, 

" Talked of the cheapness of Labour and richness of the 
land. 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 223 

" Of twenty maunds a Begaha,-^ 

*' Take the cypher ^rom tEe aught, divide the ten by 
two, 

'' The result will be the product exceeded but by few. 

'' Then things went on right jolly, 

"Till the district was dotted o'er with monuments of 
folly/' 

The above is all I can remember of this effusion, but 
it went on for many stanzas. It wa« written by George Wil- 
liamson, if I remember right a relation of Mr. Williamson of 
the firm of Williamson Magor of Calcutta. He had been 
in the West Indies as a sugar planter, and got an appointment 
from the Tirhoot Association of London. He did not get 
on with the Superintendent, and so relieved his feelings by 
launching into verse. There is a great deal of truth in the 
few lines I have quoted, for on the sandy banks of the rivers 
to the north of Tirhoot immense masses of machinery are to* 
be found strewn about, and high chimney stacks are the monu- 
ments of folly which represent the ruin of many a good man, 
and the spot where large amounts of capital were sunk. 

Sugar, which was started with a tremendous flourish of 
trumpets, gradually died a natural death — where the return i 
from an acre of sugarcane began with ten maunds, it really 
dwindled down till it at last fell to a couple of maunds. That 
was as miKjh as the impoverished land would yield, and the- 
expensive machinery that had to be purchased gradually 
ruined most of those who had put their trust in sugar. John? 
Gale was a man of gr-eat moral couragip a«id determination, 
and he made up his mind to work with the strictest economy, 
and by gradually doing away with sugarcane and bringing 
back indigo, try to reduce his debit balance, and bring his 
head above water .^: This he set to work to do, and after very 
many years of steady work he was able to retire very fairly 
well off. John Gale had a nervous peculiarity, and i£ youi 



224 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

did not know of it, you would be apt to get a bit of a start. 
'When coming into a room, if be was excited or in an absent 
mood, be would start off with a bop, step and a jump, rub 
tbe fist of one band into the palm of tbe otber, at the same 
time making a bubbling noise with his mouth ; rush up to- 
wards you, stop dead opposite you with an absent smile on 
his face. A stranger's first idea must have been to turn and 
fly, but the smile was generally very reassuring. Another 

• of his weaknesses was a little jeu de mot be liked to indulge in, 
and youngsters were always laying a trap for it. If John 

"Gale was about at the Tirhoot Planters' Club, just as he 
entered the breakfast room one of the boys would call out 
*' Confound it the eggs are all hard boiled.' John then 
would out with it " Harder where there's none,'' and with 
a hop, skip, jump, rub of his fist and burr-r-r with his mouth, 
fly out of the room. 

Pundoul Concern had several outworks, but only at one, 
namely, Buchour, was there an assistant, whose name was 
Hubbard, a very amusing fellow. Hubbard left the district 
in about 1849, and went to China, where I heard he did well, 
but I do not know if he is in the land of the living or not. 
Pundoul was noted for its garden, for John Gale was very 
fond of gardening, and it was a well known fact that he 
oft/en fed his pigs on pineapples, for Pundoul boasted of 
a Pork Club, and was noted for its bams and bacon, and good 

' they were or should have been considering how daintily these 
animals were fed. There was rather a good story 

/told in connection with this Pork Club. One of the members 
of the Club suspected the man who apportioned the meat of 
keeping back some of his portion. So he waited till his 

* turn came round, and on arrival of his share took stock of 
it and convinced himself there was a deficiency. He then 
wrote to Gale to say that though he had received a pig's 

:<head as his share on several occasions, be had noticed that 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 225 

he never got a neck. I can fancy Gale's glee as he went with 
the usual " hooroosh '" to his desk to write a long letter to 
say that " pigs had no necks." 

John Gale eventually retired to Cheltenham, where he 
bought a house with a good garden attached. He passed his 
time looking after the fruit which he grew in great ahund* 
ance. John Gale's first wife was a Miss Stalkartt, a relation 
of that kindly and well known ok) gentleman who lives at 
Goosery, near Calcutta. His second wife was a Miss John, 
stone, whose brothers were in business in Calcutta. His sons^ 
John and Marmaduke, followed their father's footsteps ia 
the indigo line. They have now retired to England. The 
son by hifi second wife is an ofl&cer in the R. E's, If any of 
my readers go to Lordship Lane, Norwood, they will see 
Pundoul House there, and know that a Galie lives there. 
Tyrol! trees were a great weakness, of old John's,, and Pundoul 
House was rather too much shut in with these, and though 
the place looked well when the trees were in full bloom, 
the mosquitoes of an evening were almost strong enough to 
lift one out of bed, and the man who saw an elephant on 
his first arrival in or near Calcutta and asked if it was a 
mosquito, would not have been so far off the mark in hia 
comparison if he had met with one of the Pundoul type. 
All the avenues round Pundoul were named, as well as the 
small sluggish stream that flowed past the back of the house,, 
but I have forgotten the different names. Pundoul Concerm 
has been rather dismembered of late. Buchour now belonga 
to the present Maharaja of Durbhanga, while Benepur, one 
of the principal outworks, has been bought by Mr. Percy 
Jones, son of that gallant old gentleman. Colonel Alfred 
Jones, who gained the V. C. at Agra, during the Mutiny 
when a Lieutenant in the 9th Lancers, and where he was 
terribly wounded, his recovery being despaired of. Pundoul,^ 
the head factory, has also passed to other hands. John Gale 



U26 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

ditd at Cb^ltenham, and I think sleeps alongside many of 
hia old Tirhooi friends who ended their days there after or 
went before. 



DB. BEOG. 

Dr. Begg came out to India in about the end of the 
thirties. He came out to a^st as assistant to Dr. Charles 
Mackinnoni who was then Planters' Doctor. Shortly after 
his arrival Dr. Charles Mackinnon had to leave and Dr. 
Begg took up the work. He soon became very popular as 
he was most hospitable. The owners of big concerns made 
«11 their indigo seed orders through his agency, and this 
brought him a fair income over and above what he made as 
Planters' Doctor. With this money he in time bought a 
share in aa indigo seed firm of Cawnpore — Christie and Co., 
which then became Begg, Christie and Co. During the 
Mutiny the members of the Christie family were all killed 
and Harry Brown « one of Dr. Begg's indigo factory managers, 
waa sent up to look after things. He had a narrow escape 
ahortly after his arrival, as he had to fly for his life into the 
C!awnpore entxenchment when Wyndham was beaten by the 
Owalior contingent. Not long after this Harry Brown was 
recalled, and Dr. Begg's brother-in-law Donald Macfarlane, 
now Sir D« H. Macfarlane, M.P., was sent up to put things 
together. In 1853 or thereabout Dr. Begg purchased Kanti, 
Motepore, Belsund and Bekonpore factories, his chief and 
trusted manager being David Russel Crawford, who con- 
ducted the purchase and clinched the bargain. As often 
happens a hasty word destroys the friendship of years. 
David Craw!ford thought he should have a share in this pur- 
chaae. and wrote to David Begg to this effect strongly. From 
that day the two friends becmme cuts and David Crawford 
Ml his comfortable berth at Kaiiti and purchased Futteteah 



INHABITANTS OP THE PAST. 227 

Factory. Many years after this I was walking ixi Loiidbi 
with D. R. Crawford when I came upon Br. Bdgg, and all 
I had to speak to him I dropped my friend and went oii 
with him. 

" Who*s your friend ? " asked David Begg. 

"Don't you know?" I said. "Why old Dlavid CrAw- 
rford." 

" Is it indeed ? poor old David ! " and the good old doc- 
Ttor relapsed into silence as if thinking otf the past. 

After speaking to him of what I Wanted I returned to 
David Crawford, who saluted me with, " Who was that grey- 
bearded old chap you went off to speak ioV 

" Why," I said, " don't you recognise him? old Dr. Begg." 

"No. Poor old David Begg ! " 

It was evident by the manner of both those men that a 
very deep-seated friendship had existed and was still there; 

Dr. Begg had purchased Messrs. Bathgate and Co.'s busi* 
ness and in 1856 he sold out and set up Messrs. Begg, Dun- 
lop and Co., taking young Dunlop, a very nice young fellow 
into partnership. Poor fellow he diH not last long as he died 
shortiy after I think of cholera. Dr. Begg was a right good 
friend to many a Tirhoot and Champarun man. He helped 
Joseph and James Hill in the failures of 1847-48 and to his 
old friend James Wilson of Kumtoul he was more than kind. 

Jimmie had gone home, a grown-up man after an absence 
of about 28 years. He had left England a boy of twelve, 
and was determined to enjoy himself. The money flowed 
like water till one fine day the banker refused to cash his 
cheques. Then he Ifound that he was well on the wrong side 
of his account. He managed to scrape enough together to 
pay for a passage out to India. On his arrival in Calcutta 
he went to his old friend Dr. Begg, and almost immediately 
got knocked over with severd illness when Dr. Begg took up 
the management of his affairs, and sent James off home with 



228 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

an i^llowi^nce of £400 per annum till things bettered them- 
felves. Poor Jimmie Wilson did not last long. He died 
ahortly after getting home. There are many other such acts 
of friendship done by Dr. Begg I could relate. Before the 
Mutiny Dr. Begg returned home and resided in London. 
.He lived at a fine place called Cannon's Park. Dr. Begg 
married while Planters' Doctor in Tirhoot Miss MacFarlano; 
They had no children. Mrs. Begg survived the old doctor 
several years. 

There are few lefft now of Dr. Begg's contemporaries, 
OF I am sure they would back me in what I say. The doctor 
had two brothers out here James and John. The latter got 
into bad health many years ago and went home and died. 
Poor Jim died not many days ago after a long and trying 
illness. One of his sons now represents his uncle of the past 
ae Begg, Dunlop and Co. Another manages his father's tea 
garden in Assam. I wish I could have said more about Dr. 
Begg, but though I corresponded with him for many years 
in the most familiar and kindly ierms, I only met him and 
his wife once, and this was when I had been invited to their 
house to receive one of the many acts of kindness he was 
always doing to anyone connected with Tirhoot. 



KENNETH MACLEOD. 

There are still a ♦few, a very few, in Tirhoot, Saran ox 
in Calcutta who remember that prince of good fellows, old 
Kenneth MacLeod. He was the son of the late Captain 
Niel MacLeod, of Gesto^ in the Island of Skye. He left his 
native country at a very early age, sailing as an apprentice 
round the Cape for India, a way many youngsters in those 
days started in life. Arriving at Calcutta he was received 
by his cousin. Dr. Charles Mackinnon, who passed him on 
to one Bob Robertson, then manager of Belaund Factory. 



ii 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 22^ 

'Kennetli was a shrewd hard-working Highlander, and it was 
not long before he began to mount the ladder oi life, for he 
soon became manager of Seryiah, one of the finest factories 
in Tirhoot, from the profits of which, and Dholi both the 
estates of Dr. C. Mackinnon and E. Studd they built up the 
splendid fortunes they amassed. Seryiah now belongs to 
His Highness the Maharaja of Durbhanga and the late Mr. 
G. Llewellin. After a time MacLeod lefft Seryiah. He 
thought he saw his way to being practically his own master 
and make enough to keep him comfortably. He had many 
friends in Calcutta, and several in the indigo districts, among 
'those Mr. John Mackenzie, who was a fellow Highlander 
from the neighbouring island of Lewis. It was a pleasure 
to see these two old friends meet with a hearty Gaelic greet- 
ing. Few understood the meaning of it, but the hearty way 
in which it was given made ample amends for that. 

On leaving Seryiah MacLeod took up his abode at Telpa 
House, Chupra. There he had for a time to fight the fight 
ai life. He tola me that he at first found difficulty in put- 
ting enough money together to say his expenses to Calcutta 
by the Grand Trunk Road. However, it's a long lane that 
has no turning, and in times things got brighter, and the 
inhabitants of Chupra began to appreciate the value of Mac's 
advice and assistance. He was also able to do the old Bettia 
IKaja a good turn, and they were fast friends ever after. 
MacLeod used to enjoy an occasional trip to Calcutta, and 
-as several of the firms had indigo concerns that were not pro- 
gressing well MacLeod was asked to superintend them. 
Among these was Dulsing Serai, a place Mr. W. Poe, of the 
firm of Abbott and Co., had purchased for a mere song, but 
finding it in a terrible state of confusion asked old Mac to 
take it in hand, which he did and put Tom Martin in charge, 
and the consequence was a record season such as has neveif 
been beaten before or since. Messrs. Gillanders, Arbuthnot 



?30 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

and Co. tlaen got Kenneth to superintend Attur. In tl^ioae 
days Mr. D. Mclnlay was a partner in G., A. and Co. s^d 
as he was a Lewis man the two Highlanders were always great 
friends. Ferrier, nicknamed " Fagan,' because he had a 
long beard and a Jewish nose, was put in to manage Attur, 
but after a time he was allowed to go, and Ogilvie came in 
his place. After a while O's friends bought him a Com- 
mission in the army and he left, and Garstin was put in. 
He, however, bettered himself, eventually getting the en- 
gineering of the roads in Chupra. During the Mutiny he 
volunteered, and went to the relief of Arrah, but was wounded 
when the relieving force was beaten back. Garstin was fol- 
lowed by Young, a hard-working chap, very simple and 
the essence of good nature. He unfortunately always did 
the wrong thing at the wrong time. So his friends called 
him '' Pudding Head " and the name stuck to him to the 
last. Old MacLeod used to enjoy a litlle fun as much as 
any schoolboy, and I remember him at Attur on one of his 
inspection visits, having a grand time of it. After dinner 
he would send for his violin, and we would have " Maggie- 
Laoder " with a good found chorus. Young was also musical, 
and he owned a violin, so he would .strike up too and the 
fun would be fast and furious. Mac would jump up on to 
the table, and step it out to the " Devil among the tailors," 
played by Young. All this exercise was not gone through 
without a certain amount of thirst, and by the time we 
retired to bed we were all more than ready for sleep. After 
one of these nights poor Young, who did not understand that 
one might have too much of a good thing, wanted MacLeod 
to begin the last night's tamasha over again, when he 
was at once frowned down and snubbed. From that 
day he was dubbed " Pudding Head." Poor old " Pudding 
Head " worked well for MacLeod, for no man knew better 
bow to get work out of his subordinates ; he was a born leader 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 231 

of men. Gradually Kenneth MacLeod began to acquire 
shares in several indigo factories, and so well did he pick 
and choose his managers, and co-proprietors, men like 
Baddeley Cox and L. Co«3erat that in a few years he and 
they had amassed large fortunes. Besides the factories in 
Tirhoot MacLeod had shares in many Chupra factories. He 
was very keen at a bargain, selling and buying, and many 
a deal he had with his old friend Kazi Ramzan Ali. 

Let us just step across She big Gunduk to Sonepur, and 
there we will find MacLeod in his glory, managing the 
Planters' Mess. There are few if any now left of that jovial 
band. I can see the old chief at the head of the table, hia 
face beaming with kindness and hospitality. Kenneth was 
a good judge of a horse, and had two or three race horses- 
— two were Cape but one, a half English bred mare, was a 
special favourite. She was called Diana. I remember well 
the excitement in the Sonepur camp, the first year she ran. 
She was a mare of peculiar temperament, and was not to- 
be driven. A man called Curran, a private in the old 1st 
European Bengal Fusiliers, had been got to look after her, 
and MacLeod finding the mare took to him kindly bought 
his discharge, and Curran was put up to ride this race where 
the N. W. was represented by Sir Uharles Oakley's Mercury 
and South Ganges by Mr. F. Vincent's Helen. Diana, being 
the pride of the Planter community, represented the Blues. 
At the cfrdinary the night before the race, the excitement 
was terrible. I heard an old gentleman who had never bet 
more than a 4-anna piece in his life offer to back Diana for 
a cool 500. Next morning we were all aroused, from our 
sleep by the Sonepur gun followed by the lively strains of 
the band which marched up and down to a quick march. 
We were not long in getting on our clothes and assembling 
at the grand stand. Presently all three horses appeared 
looking as handsome w paint and fit to run for their lives. 



•232 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

Diana showed a little temper. The band, Iwae said, had 
•disturbed her last forty winks. However they came up to 
the post, and at the word off started Mercury leading, Diana 
next, but not moving kindly, and Helen last. At a corner 
where Diana had a weaknesis of running off the course Helen 
was made to rush past her, but Curran kept patting her and 
speaking to her. The mare seemed to remain sulky, for 
she would not improve her pace, and the other two sailed 
away, and we of the Blues gave up all as lost, when suddenly 
the little mare seemed to answer her jockey's coaxing and she 
started off. She did not gallop, she simply flew. Mercury 
was a good half mile ahead, with Helen not far behind. I 
suppose laughing in their sleeves at poor Diana, but when 
they heard the thunder of her hoofs as she picked them up, 
hand over hand, they thought they might try to put on a spurt, 
^bs the winning post was not far off, but it was no use. Helen 
was passed at the distance post. Mercury struggled on, but 
was collared half way up, and Diana won by a good neck. 
The shouts and hurrahs that followed this victory were deafen- 
ing, and congratulations from all sides were showered on the 
Highland chief. As to Curran it was his ruin. He got in- 
numerable presents in the shape of cash and riding whips, 
but what did for him was this, that during the whole of 
Sonepur he was never allowed to dine without quaffing of the 
glorious vintage of Champagne. Consequently he took to 
drink and he and his kind master had eventually to part. 
Diana ran for the first Governor-General's Cup in 1857, but 
broke down. Curran became a trooper in the Yeomanry 
Cavalry and did service in Gorrukpur in those stirring times. 
The last time I saw him was when going over Cook and Co's 
stable, with old MacLeod. 

Should any of my readers ever find their way to a place 
•called Dunach, near Oban, in the Highlands of Scotland, 
they will see there a picture of the Laird of Greshornish stand- 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 233 

ing with one arm round the neck of his mare Diana. It i* 
a, fine picture. MacLeod was very good company, as he had 
u good idea of musTc and could tell a good and amusing story 
he was in his element among a goodly gathering of young 
men. His manner was genial and attractive. Children took 
to him at once, and it was a great day for them when they 
knew MacLeod Sahib was coming, for he always had some 
little amusing toy in his pocket, with which to captivate his 
young friends. After some 30 vears in India MacLeod re- 
turned to his native home, i.e., in 1858. He bought up 
several properties in the Island of Skye, and settled down 
at Greshomish, where he kept up his life-long reputation for 
hospitality. He had a grand music room at this place where 
every musical instrument under the sun could be found. He 
^as a good landlord to his tenants. Poor Kenneth MacLeod 
breathed his last at Coulmore at the residence of his old 
friend and kinsman MacLeod of Coulmore; a fine old High- 
land gentleman very much of his own stamp. Our dear old 
friend forgot no one who had the slightest claim on him, for 
he left all his managers handsome legacies, endowed a hos- 
pital near Greshornish with money enough to pay all expenses 
and give a salary to a doctor. A printed note which was 
circulated among MacLeod's friends at his death says : " He 
will be remembered as one who achieved a great position 
with no adventitious aid and by no unworthy means, who 
turned it to good account during his life an3 earned the 
l)lessing of the poor, who never forgot a friend or one who 
had done him a good turn ; and if he had any enemies had 
i:hem only among those whose approbation was not a thing 
to be desired." 

MacLeod was buried in the hurrying place of ^ the Mac- 
Leods of Gesto by the burnside of Bracadale, on the 22nd 
Ma.Tch, 1869. Kenneth never married. He left Greshornish 
to a nephew, Kenneth Robertson, who took the name of Mac- 



234 TIEHOOT AND ITS 

Leod. Another nephew, Lauchlin MacDonald, came out to- 
Tirhopt under MacLeod's auspices in 1861, and began life 
at Ottur under Young. The old chief always looked on him 
with an eye of great affection. He has followed his worthy 
uncle's footsteps and is now Laird of Skaebost, where he is 
greatly loved and respected by his tenants. He has also 
property in India where his ryots are treated in the same^ 
open-handed way as those of his native Island of Skye. 



JUSTIN FINCH. 

Justin Finch, of Shahpur Oundie Indigo Concern, was 
the fourth son of Joseph Finch. This gentleman (Joseph 
Finch) was a man of note, and was the first of this family 
who had come to India. Soon after his arrival out here he 
got attached to Sir Eyre Coote's staff, and was with him in 
the Carnatic during the war with Tippoo Saheb. Here he 
greatly distinguished himself. Hyder Ali's Standard bearer 
challenged anyone of the enemy to meet him in single com- 
bat, when Joseph Finch rode forth and attacked the man. 
After a most ezcitfng set-to Joseph came off victorious, for 
he slew his man, cut off his head, and having possessed him- 
self of the Standard presented it to Sir Eyre Coote. For this 
act of gallantry he received a gold medal with the following 
inscription : " Joseph Finch, Ob Ees Fortiter Gestas Apud 
Sholeingurh, F.C., A.D. MDCCLXXXI." This brave deed 
was enacted in the presence of the contending armies just 
before the general action began. Anyone passing through 
Patna who has time to visit the Roman Catholic Cathedral 
there will find his grave, over which is placed a large slab 
with an inscription on it giving the history with full details 
of this remarkable man's career. I may mention that the 
medal is now in the possession of Justin Finch, eldest son of 
Joseph Finch and great grandson of our hero. 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 236. 

Joseph Finch, left five sons — Jeffry, Simon, Joseph, 
Justin and Fredrick. Jeffry Finch went to England in 
about 1848' ,w^tb his sister Matilda. He was much respected 
by all who knew him, Europeans and natives. Both he and 
his sister are dead. I never met them myself, nor Mr. Simon 
Finch, who died, I believe, in the Qorrukhpur district. 
Joseph became proprietor of Bubnowlie, which was sold not 
long aft^ his and his wife's death. He left sons, who are 
all dead except Simon Finch, who is a priest in France. 
Frederick for some time managed Shahpur Oundie. He left 
one son, Joseph, who is alive, in Tirhoot, and whose son 
Justin possesses the medal. 

Justin, the fourth son, after Frederick went home, took 
charge of Shahpur. He was a right good fellow and a grand 
host, and treated his guests en prince when they visited him. 
There was splendid duck and snipe shooting near the factory, 
and many a good bag has been the result of a day on the jhit. 
Justin bad every description of duck gun one could think 
of — the good old gun some six feet long with flint locks show- 
ing they were of ancient pedigree; breech-loaders of more 
modern construction, and a punt gun which I remember waa 
brought up to Mozufferpur to be loaded with swan shot to 
keep off mutineers in the stirring days of- 1857. All these 
guns required a good deal of skill in handling on a dug-out, 
and many a novice has been knocked overboard by the kick 
of these guns. Shahpur Factory could boast among other 
good things of a first rate Tealery which Justin looked after 
with tender care. The teal, pintail and other duck were so 
well fed that they were as fat as butter. Rather a good story 
is told of Finch and a civilian friend who dearly loved some- 
thing good to eat. They were looking into the Tealery and 
admiring the birds feeding, when Justin, pointing with his. 
finger at a fine big pintail duck, said : '* Do you see that 
fine fellow there with the single long feather in his tail? 



-236 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

Well, when that fellow is well cooked with a good sauce — ! '* 
This was too much for the gourmet, who almost fainted at 
the idea, and gasping replied, '* Ah don't, Justin, don't ! '- 
The prospect of the delicious morsel was too much for him. 

At most of the race meets, at Mozufferpur and Sonepur, 
Finch, when he had a camp, did things in style. He had a 
lordly way of speaking and lading down the law. He once 
very nearly fell foul of Captain Becher's brass barrelled pistols, 
but the quarrel was made up. Old Justin, like his ancestor, 
was ''all on '' to iight, and as he was a very good shot the 
old Captain might have got the worst of it. Finch was a 
man of good solid proportion, and weighed a good round 
weight. I remember a bit of fun on this subject that took 
place once when I was at Shahpur Oundie on a visit. We 
all went down to the indigo factory to be weighed — that is 
Justin his brother Joseph, Edward Studd, James Cox, and 
myself. On the way Joseph started a theory that the stoutest 
looking men did not always weigh the heaviest, as bonee 
weighed more than fat, and he went on to say that though 
he did not show as much fat as his brother he was quite sure 
he weighed quite as much. (Joseph was not ever weighted 
either with fat or bone). However, they both mounted the 
scales one on each side. Meanwhile Studd, who was always 
a bit of a " farceur," slipped his walking stick down the 
inside of the leg of his trousers and pressed down the side of 
the scale on which Joe had mounted, and as he was the first 
to mount, the scale on his side rested on the ground. Studd, 
with the end of his stick resting thereon, stood gracefully 
as if he was leaning on his walking stick, and put all his 
weight in Joseph s favour. Justin was lost in amazement at 
the result, and Joseph with a cry of triumph called out " Bone 
must tell.'' At last, Justin perceived a wicked twinkle in 
Edward Studd's eye, and saw what was up. Gathering him- 
self together in a most majestic way, he said to his brother, 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 237 

''Joseph, thi^y are making a fool of you/' and descending 
from the scales walked away. Poor Joe was very crestfallen, 
and did not say much for the rest of the day, nor did we dare 
to allude to the little joke as Justin Finch had a particular 
objection to anyone playing a joke on him or at the expense 
of any of his relatives. 

Shahpur Oundie, called also Patoree, is among the oldest 
of Tirhoot indigo factories. It was built in 1790, by Joseph 
Finch, the head of the family and the hero of the single 
combat. He, however, was not fortunate in his speculations,, 
as one of his managers got possession of all the indigo made, 
and disposing of it, cleared out with the proceeds. This left, 
the proprietor very much in debt, and the agents took over 
all his property except Shahpur Oundie. 

Justin Finch died on his way back from Calcutta up the 
river on board a steamer, in 1861, I tEnk. He was buried 
at Monghyr, but his body was afterwards taken to Patna tO' 
the burial place of his ancestor. After his death his brother 
Frederick came out from England to manage, bringing Charles 
Strachan with him, whom he left eventually in charge. 
Strachan himself did not remain long, and Mr. Lloyd was 
left in charge. He managed for many years the estate which 
had been put into Chancery. When at last the property got 
out of the hands of the Court William Finch, grandson of 
Joseph Finch, the follower of Sir Eyre Coote, was put in 
charge. He and his brother died a few years ago. William 
Finch left sons, but his brother died a bachelor. There are 
still living of the fourth generation seven male heirs, six in 
Tirhoot and one, the priest brother, in France. 

DAVID CRAWFORD. 

David Russell Crawford began life on the sea, and coming 
out as a young man to Calcutta, he was sent by his uncle » 
Mr. Stephen Crawford, then a merchant in Calcutta, to his^ 



:238 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

brother, John Crawford, who managed an indigo factory in 
Bengal. In those days Bengal wais in its prime, and many 
of the Bengal planters were small princes in their way. John 
Crawford himself had begun life at sea and was of a rough 
and ready class. The yarns I have heard told, of the wild 
•doings of the owners and managers of these Bengal factories, 
were well worth remembering, but when I heard them I 
never for a moment thought I would be in the land of the 
living to write " Tirhoot and its inhabitants of the past." 
So many of them have been forgotten, however, I will as 
I go on try to recall some of the wild doings of these Bengal 
planters 

One story that rather amused me was the gentle way in 
which an indigo factory was taken possession of in those 
times. A firm in Calcutta having bought an indigo concern 
had to get possession of it, for, as a rule, the planter proprie- 
ter did not see the fun of turning out in a meek and mild 
way because he had been sold up. The merchant, therefore, 
wrote to John Crawford, who was a friend and a well known 
wild young man, telling him that they had bought such and 
such a factory, and would he take possession for the firm ? 
Nowadays a polite letter would have been sent to say, " Sorry, 
old chap, but I have orders to take overcharge from you. 
Will you come over to breakfast to-morrow," etc. This was 
not the good old style. The head fighting man was sent for, 
and a goodly number of fighting men called on to be ready 
next morning at a place convenient to the coveted factory. 
Meanwhile, the enemy having got notice that possession was 
to be asked for, had made arrangements for a reply. The 
attacking force in the early .morning, having made an ad- 
vance, were received with a volley, the bullets whistling about 
rather unpleasantly, lliis was a bit hot, so a council of war 
was called, and an old and knowing fighting man pointed 
out that the enemy were firing through tlie windows of the 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 239 

^ouse. He suggested that he and another should make a 
detour and advance towards the house, keeping near the side 
wall, and as soon as they got near the point from whenee 
the firing came, they should creep down n^r the ground 
(the house being of but one story), and as the guns were 
presented out of the window a good swinging blow with a stick 
was to be brought down, if possible, on the fingers of those 
firing, which would make them drop their weapons. On this 
the attacking force were to rush in and complete the cap- 
ture. This was all cleverly carried ouf, and the native part 
of the defending force bolted, leaving the planter who was 
in command of the besieged and who was well saturated with 
gin. He was at once knocked over and secured. He very 
nearly caused an unpleasant accident, for wiiile he was being 
tied up he managed to get out of one of his pockets a pistol 
which he was trying in a half drunken way to discharjsi^e. 
Jimroodin, one of John Crawford's fighting men, seeing what 
he was up to, caught him a crack on the fingers, when the 
pistol fell, exploding at the same time. This timely act on 
the part of Jimroodin saved the life of Andrew Crawford 
4it whom the weapon was pointed and with whom the aggres- 
sor was at the time conversing in' the most friendly maainer. 
This was the way things were managed in those days, and 
if I recollect right, the ousted planter was taken back by 
the victors to their home and feasted to his heart's content. 

As I have said before John Crawford was a very rough 
<!ard. One of his favourite jokes was to make his assistants 
take off their shoes and run over a red-hot brick kiln. This 
was what Jack called giving them a taste of hell ! Men of this 
peculiar turn of mind are not, I ana glad to say, met with 
nowadays. However, this training certainly made a man of 
D. R. Crawford, for he was plucky to the backbone, and 
the very essence of good nature, and, as an old lady once 
remarked. " When Russell comes into the room it is like 
a ray of sunlight entering the house. '^ In time David left 



240 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

Hengal and became manager of Pupri Factory in North 
Tirhoot. Here he remained for several years. When there 
he had a strange adventure. His cousin, James Wilson, who 
was his assist ant, having gone to bed one night, was awakened 
by hearing some one passing through his room into another 
leading to where David slept. Getting up on tip toes he 
followed the fleeting footsteps of the intruder, and just as 
he was passing into D. R. Crawford's bedroom, Jim, who 
was a very powerful lad, let him have one. This knocked 
ilio thief (for such he was) right into David's bed on top of 
him. David awoke in this sudden way let out too, and the 
wretched thief was pounded into a jelly. This was bad 
enough, but mark the sequel. A few nights after this Wilson 
was fgain awakened, as he thought, by sounds similar to 
that he had heard the time before. Getting up very quietly, 
off he went in pursuit. However, when he got to David's 
door nothing was visible. Meanwhile, David hearing foot- 
stofvs on the other side of his door, jumped up, and they 
each opened the bedroom door at the same moment. They 
iNich saw siune one in front of them, and went there first, 
and in a moment they were on the ground sl(^;ging one 
another. At last, one getting a nastier crack than he cared 
for« made use of strong language, and the other, recognising 
the voice, called out- -** Is that you, Jim?" Then, breath- 
less* all, they both arose with noses bleeding and blackened 
evts. They looked at each other and burst into roars of 
laugliter. For they hH>ked awful ruffians after the punish- 
ment each had received. For many years Crawford ruled 
at Pxipri, but at last was promoted to the management of 
one of X^vl and CV/s indigo factories, and sec himdelf up 
at Kanti Factory, Here he ruled for many years. He was 
looked upon as one of the best indigo planters the Tirhooi 
had ever $een He was netliodicai to a degree, and haviK 
been K^^^)^ht up in his yt^uth on ship board had been taught 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 241 

neatness, system, and method. Everything was in its plac9 
and the essence of neatness, and all work dona and finished 
to the hour. David, though a good planter, had not mucS 
knowledge 6t horse flesh. There is a story of his going to 
a race meet. (This did not happen often for he was too tied 
up in his factoily work and spare time for such a frivolity 
as horse racing.) However, he was introduced by some yoiUB^ 
friends to go to Mozufferpore races and after dinner to go 
to the ordinary. I suppose friend David had got a bit merry 
and so, hearing one of the racehorse's chances up for sale, 
he began to bid, and finally a horse with a very poor chance 
was knocked down to him for Rs. 150. " What a muff you 
were to bid for that brute," called out a friend. *' Oh," re- 
plies David^ " it does not signify. If he won't do for the 
saddle he'll do for the buggy," and, quite happy in the idea 
that he had bought the animal out and out, he wen€ to bed 
— to be undeceived in the morning! After many years at 
Kanti David Crawford had a difference with his old friend> 
Dr. D. B^g, who had meantime become proprietor of Kanti, 
Motipur, Bekonpur, Belsund and Rajpund Factories, so he 
purchased Tatterreah and took overcharge of that place. 
Here he remained a short time and then went home to Eng- 
land, leaving his brother Andrew in charge. Poor Andrew 
died of cholera next year, and David had to return to India: 
He next put James Smith in charge, and again returned 
to England, and when some years after that gentleman left 
he sold the factory and retired for good. He died in Chelten- 
ham at a good old age in the midst of many of his old con- 
temporaries, who, again in their turn, have joined the 
majority. David Russell Crawford left two sons and two 
daughters. His eldest son now manages Bara, and is a worthy 
representative of his father. His younger brother, who i» 
very many years Tiis junior, is in England. Mrs. Crawford 
survived her husband but a short time. 



242 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

In the firet part of this paper I mentioned ohe Jimroodin, 
« favourite fighting man of John Crawford's. As his career 
h remarkable I will end this article with an epitome of the 
latter part of his life. As he had got into various troubles 
wd serapea in Bengal^ the police were aftet him, and Jack 
Otawford had the greatest trouble in saving him from their 
bajads. At last it got very hot for him, the police being 
almost at the door. So Jimroodin was called up and asked 
what he suggested should be done to save him. "Well," 
says he, " I don't see much chance of escaping, but perhaps 
if ydu bad me killed and buried, I might be smuggled up 
to Tirhoot in the garb of a woman and escape." So Jim- 
roodin's funeral was celebrated. He was duly buried, as far 
as all burial ceremonies went, while be in the flesh, repre- 
senting a buxom young woman, was carried off in a mohuffa 
to Tirhoot, and made over to his old master's nephew, David, 
where he lived for many days in peace. He was true to his 
old master or any member of the family. During the Mutiny 
he watched over his old master's nephew, wife, and family, 
uninvited and unknown, and it was only when the storm 
was nearly over that he came to this gentleman, and, making 
A low salaam, said — " Sir, there is no danger now. Jimroodin 
had lost two fingers in the service of his old master, and 
would have given his Eiead sooner than that his master should 
have received the slightest hurt." Alas! like many other 
good brave men Jimroodin has paesed away. David Craw- 
ford was once called on to fight a duel. His opponent wa^ 
John Becher, a nephew of old Captain Becher's. They had 
had some business row, and David, in course of conversation, 
spoke 0% Becher as an " unclean potato/' This roused the 
ire of John, and he issued a challenge. The battle wa£ to 
fome eff across the Nepal boundary. David, who was a 
heavy man and not much of a rider, drove out to Dyne- 
ehuppra, a factory near the Nepal boundary, intending to 



INHABW^ANTft OP tHJ^ PAST. 243 

pop ov^r in the morning, while Becher, who was light and 
« good horseman, started before daylight itom Moiuffcrput 
and rode to the place of rendezvous. Just as David waji 
leaving the house aTDynechuppra he wae pounced upon by 
* couple of constables and carried back to Moiufferporefi 
Some one had given notice of what was about to happen, 
and the Magistrate had sent to stop thid diiel. John Becher, 
^fter kicking his heels about for some time, recrossed the 
boundary and returned to Mozufferpur, very cock a whoop. 
They never made up this quarrel, which really was a meet 
stupid one. 



JOHN STALKART. 

Jbhn Stalkatt, who was nicknamed by his intimate 
friendii '' Mad Jack '' on account of his eccentricities, I first 
knew in 1848, when he was managing Pupri Factory. These 
were the days when everyone was expecting to make his for- 
tune from sugar, but the illusion did not last, for soon the 
soil gave out, and the return per biggha became less and 
less till at last it became evident that sugar on a large scale 
would not pay, and managers and assistants got notice to 
look out for work elsewhere. At Pupri there were in those 
•days no less than two assistants and one engineer, besides 
the manager — John Stalkart and Alfred Trife at Russoolp, 
C. Paterson at Bongong and Ferrier, the engineer, who lived 
in the chota Bungalow at Pupri. Jack was always up to 
some dodge in the way of invention. He first started with 
buffalo carts. These were English carts dragged by a single 
buffalo. This was certainly a great saving, although in the 
very hot weather the buffaloes used to put John to great 
trouble by rushing into every puddle of water enjoying a 
good roll, and refusing to move until very extreme measures 
were used. The damage done to harness and shafts on these 



244 TIBHOOT AND ITS 

occasions were a great cause of grief to Stalkart. He had 
a great belief in the sagacity of buffaloes, and set to work 
to teach one of his most intelligent animals how to stand 
when snipe was flushed, so that he lying on its back, could 
have a shot without the unpleasantness of muddy boots and 
wet feet. He took one of these brutes in hand to train and 
toon taught it to stand when the nose string was pulled 
which was done the minute a snipe flushed. Having brought 
his buffalo to this state of perfection, he arrayed himself 
in light attire and, gun in hand, started off to the snipe 
ground, where he mounted and lay flat with the nose string 
in one hand and his gun in the other. The beast plodded 
on quietly till at last up went a snipe, the string was duly 
tugged, and Jack let fly. The explosion so close to its ears 
was too much for friend biiffalo. With a grunt and a 
flourish of his tail, he sent Jack into the air and tail on end 
careered over the swamp very much alarmed, while Jack, 
after perlormlng a perfect somersault, came down with a 
terrible squash into the sloppy mud, where he lay for some 
minutes with the wind fairly knocked out of him. 

John had a remedy for most things, and a story is told 
of how he stopped sugarcane stealing. He caught a man 
walking off with a big bundle of sugarcane and had him 
brought up for judgment. He asked " Why did you steal 
this sugarcane you scamp ? " 

'* Oh," replies the man, " because I was hungry." " Very 
good, if you were hungry, I do not mind, but of course, you 
intended to eat all you took away so let me see you do it. 
Sit down and eat it up." 

60 down the man sat, and ate and ate till at last he 
put his hands together and said he could eat no more. 

** But you must," said Stalkart ; " you said you were 
hungry." 

The man made a fresh start but could not continue. 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 245 

" Forgive me, Saheb, I cannot eat any more," said the 
guilty one. 

" Very well, if I let you off will you promise never to 
«teal sugarcane again ? " 

•' Never, never, again,'' cried the gorged thief. 

" Very good," said Stalkart, " if ever I catch you steal- 
ing again I will see that you eat every scrap." 

The man cleared out at once and it was said he was a 
reclaimed character from that day. 

Another of Jack's wise doings was the way in which 
he discomfited a madman who had been employed to oppose 
him in taking possession of some lands. Going to those fields 
Stalkart found a wild looking man confronting him. 

" Who are you ? " asked Jack. 

'' Oh," was the reply. '' 1 am a madman, .and I have 
been sent to fight for the land." 

" All right," said John, " Vm a madman too. Here," 
he cries, tossing him an adze, '' you take that and I'll take 
this one and let us fight it out." 

Seizing his weapon Stalkart jumped on to his feet with 
a yell, but this was too much for the opposition madman , 
for he took to his heels and fled for his life, leaving our hero 
master of the position. 

About the end of 1848, money became tight at Pupri 
and many of the sugar concerns were shut up or pay reduced, 
and Stalkart thought he must arrange some way to make 
both ends meet and save a little at the same time. So he 
took to practising with the pellet bow, trying to assist the 
commissariat by shooting minahs and doves. This not prov- 
ing successful, as minahs were not so easily hit, and when 
knocked over were not found over dainty, he tried saving 
the ends of beer bottles and having the stuff distilled for 
vinegar and tried to save in this way. However, he found 



246 TIRgOOT AND ITS 

that th^ gam^ was not worth the caudle, so he had to drop 
it. Old Jack, however, was anything but a screw. He wa^ 
always most hospitable, and anyone going to see him was in- 
variably treated well, but he would always have a shy at 
something no one else would ever think of. Stalkart was a 
splendid horseman. He was the first man who ever rode and 
stuck a wild boar in Tirhoot. This was at Sohagpur jungle 
near Dooria Factory. The riding was very rough, the ground 
being seamed and open. He rode the pig on a very hand- 
some little Arab, and was the only mounted man on the 
field. In those Bays wild pigs were not so common in Tirhoot 
as they are now. 

Jack went to Dooria, and after that to Gooserie to hi& 
brother William. Thence he went to Darjeeling hills near 
Hopetown, where he studied agriculture and manures suited 
for tea. He also invented ploughs that were found very 
useful in Tirhoot. He was great on salt as a manure toi 
tea, and many Darjeeling planters will remember the ingeni- 
ous way in which he stopped the worthy Nepalese coolie from 
stealing this commodity off the lands. 

Stalkart used in his latter days to ride a very vicious 
horse. He was a tall, powerful beast, and as Jack was a 
good heavy weight, and not very active, he had to climb on 
to fiis horse with the assistance of tea boxes and his syoes. 
The animal knew him so well that he never moved till his 
master was on his back. There were not many of Stalkart '& 
age and weight who would have dared to mount this animal, 
but the old pluck was there, and the horse knew he had a 
master hand on him. John Stalkart opened some three tea 
gardens. Ringtong, now the Ringtong Tea Company, a first 
rate garden, was one. Hopetown still belongs to bis estate,^ 
and also one near Kalimpong. It was riding there to visit 
this garden that he met with a bad accident, getting a very 
severe fall from his horse, which injured his back and was 



INHABITANTS OF iHB PAST. 347 

eventually the cause of his death, for be wae uAver in good 
health after. 

John Stalkart married a Jady from the Mauritius. He 
died not very long ago, leaving a widow and children. He 
was paralysed for some time before bis death. He was a 
rare good fellow, and a capital companion. He had many 
fads, but he always had a good reason for what.be set forth,^ 
and was so full of all his theories that it wa^ difi&cult to get 
in a word once he started. Poor Jack was a great favourite 
as a young man, when I knew him first hi^ was full o^ fun 
and kept everyone in roars with his amusing yams. 

Though I got to within easy distance of him in his latter 
days and we were both most anxious to meet, a meeting never 
came off. We should have had a grand " buck," especially 
as I had passed many days of my youtb in the Mauritius, 
from where Mrs. Stalkart also came. But my old bones 
would not admit of my crawling so far up the Darjeeling 
hills, and poor old Jack was too frail to come down to see me. 



TOM GIBBON. 

Tom Gibbon was manager of Hatti Ousti Factory when 
I first met him. He had spent a good number of his younger 
days at sea. He found his way like a good many others up 
to Tirhoot to indigo, and had been lured into sugar — thai 
golden dream that swamped so many good men in 1847-48, 
I was sent on my arrival to the district of Tirhoot to Hatti 
Ousti to manufacture some sugarcane belonging to the estate 
of David Brodie, who had died not long before. He had 
been tempted to try his luck, in sugar and had sown down 
some acres in cane. He died before the factory could be 
built, and old Tom: Gibbon good-naturedly undertook to 
manufacture the cane with his machinery at his factory of 
Hatti for tbe benefit of the estate. Qibboq found that 



248 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

crushing cane and boiling the juice did not mean making 
sugar, for, as he wrote to one of Brodie's executors, he found 
he could make nothing but molassess. So as I was just out 
from Mauritius, where T had been on a sugar estate, I was 
at once sent to see if I could not do better. 

I found the journey from Kuntoul to Hatti Ousti a 
good, long and very tiring one. I had to go through Ryam, 
Pundoul and Benepur Factories, and starting at early morn- 
ing I arrived at Hatti, very tired, about evening. On arriv- 
ing at the bungalow I found Gibbon was at the sugar house, 
which was some distance from the Big house, so I rode on 
and met my host at the sugar house door. He met me in a 
most kind and cordial manner, but as poor old Tom stuttered 
very badly I had some difficulty in making out what he said. 
However, we returned to the house, where a tub and a peg 
soon refreshed me. Gibbon introduced me to his daughter, 
who was very kind in ministering to all my wants, taking 
especial care that when I was at the Boiling house where I 
had to remain till late at night, a tray with what the Yankees 
call '' creature comforts " always made its appearance about 
8 P.M. containing cheroots, brandy, soda and sandwiches. 
Old Tom did not like the idea of me, a boy of seventeen, 
being sent to teach him how to boil sugar, as he had a very 
good idea of his own capability. However, as I stuck to 
the boiling, and Gibbon liked early hours he, after making 
many attempts to take me away from my work, telling me the 
native sugar boiler would do the thing just as well as I, at 
last- gave in, and left me to carry out my work. Of this 
I was very glad as he would interfere. 

I don't know what my success was, eventually, as I was 
recalled suddenly to Kuntoul, one of the blacksmiths in charge 
of the engine there having been smashed up. I had a very 
tiring ride back, and as I was wanted sharp had to put on 
pace. While at Hatti during off hours I had some grand 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 249 

wild duck shooting. I have seen a good deal of this kind 
of sport, but never so good as in those days at Hatti — small 
tanks surrounded by reeds that you could creep close up to 
and blaze away. Gibbon had a most amusing minah. This 
bird imitated him splendidly. He had a roughly made car- 
riage which was drawn by two ponies, and whenever he wanted 
to go to the sugar house he called out for the trap, and the 
minah would immediately call Gh-gh-gh-arrie Laoo. The 
syce at once knew what was wanted, and brought the ghari. 
Sugar ruined poor old Gibbon like many others in those days. 
The amount of worry and trouble many men went through 
getting up heavy machinery which very often never reached 
its destination was a caution. I remember one man coming 
up by river from Calcutta witb a big tubular boiler in two 
pieces, in one part of which he lived and in the other half, 
his servants and a tame bear — rather an unpleasant com- 
panion. The boiler was going up to Nurarh, a factory to the 
north-east of Tirhoot, but I cannot say if it ever reached its 
destination, though Kelly and the other bear did. 

There is a story of how clever jackals at Nurarh are. 
Kelly and L. Cosserat had invited some friends over to that 
place and had ordered some beer from the station to provide 
for the feast. They were away from home themselves, and 
only returned with their guests just in time for lunch. Sit- 
i;ing down to the fepast Kelly boldly called for beer. Th#* 
•bearer appeared with a most melancholy and rather dissipated 
face, and announced that the beer had arrived and been 
left on the verandah during the night and that jackals had 
come and broken all the bottles. This was, as Babu Unokool's 
biographer writes, " a pretty kettle of fish." A court of in- 
quiry was called, and the evidence was going strongly m 
favour of the jackal theory, when one of the guests, more 
inquisitive than the rest, examined the bottles, and to every- 
^one's astonishment found that the bottles, though broken, 



250 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

all had their corks ciirefully drawn-! Then the cat was out 
of the bag. Not expecting the master back the bearer and 
a few choice friends bad gone in for a spree, and arranged 
this little yarn which was very nearly believed. I need not 
say that due Justice was administered to the offenders. 

Before I end this I must tell a good story about old Tom 
Gibbon. He was very fond of talking about what he or hi9- 
father or brothers had done, always going one better on any- 
thing put forward by others. At Bekonpur Factory one 
day there was a select gathering, among them Long Jimmy 
Cosserat, Tom Gibbon, old David Brown (nicknamed, the 
Gooroo, as he was looked upon as a very knowing old chap), 
and one or two others. After dinner, the wine cup having 
passed round pretty freely, Jimmy Cosserat started extolling 
the prowess of his father. Old Tom wished to come in with 
an account of what his father could do, but unfortunately 
the impediment in his speech which had become intensified 
by his excitement prevented his getting out what he wanted 
to say, whil^ Jimmy went ahead. At last Gibbon, thoroughly 
exasperated managed to blurt out *' D-D-Damn your father." 
This aroused Jimmy's ire. " What ! you damn my father, 
sir?" he cried " Ye-Ye-Yes ! ! " replies Tom. "D-D-Damn 
your father, and your mother too, by Jove." 

This was too much and nothing but blood could wipe 
out such an affront, so old Gooroo loaded (or pretended to do- 
so) a pair of pistols, the seconds arranging that as it was 
night the affair should come off in an empty room then under 
repairs. So they were marched off by their respective seconds, 
and each posted up in the opposite corner of the room and 
a pistol handed to each. They could not well leave the 
corners as they were too top heavy, so old Gooroo, extinguish- 
ing the light, shut the door, and left the two antagonists in 
the dark. The remainder of the party then retired to bed. 
Next morning they went to see how things were, and to their 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 251 

alarm found tbe two men stretched on the floor with their 
pistols bes^4e them. The flrst idea was that the joke bad 
been carried too far, but a gentle snore from Tom quickly 
responded to by Jimmy showed that they were still asleep 
and working off the extra liquor they had imbibed. They 
had in their exhaustion each quietly subsided on the floor 
as he stood and gone off to sleep. The old Oooroo thought 
it would be advisable to clear out and get away from the 
combined wrath of Cosserat and Gibbon, which he did before 
they awoke. I never heard if there was ever any sequel ta 
this yarn. 

Tom Gibbon, after filling several berths in Champarun 
passed away, I forget in what year, but he had attained a 
good old age. He was a kind old gentleman, and those 
who still remember him will agree with me that he was an 
amusing and jolly old chap. His daughter, Miss Gibbon, 
married K. MacDonald, nicknamed the Yankee, because he 
hailed from Canada and sometimes " guessed." Tom Gibbon 
used to say he was the first to import minahs into the Mauri- 
tius, but that a Monsr. Martin forestalled him and took 
the credit of being the first importer of that bird to the 
Mauritius where it bears his name of " Martin." Gibbon 
had knocked about the world a good deal and had a goodly 
fund of amusing anecdotes of what he saw and heard during 
his wanderings. 



•^ PADDY' COX. 

James Cox, or " Paddy," as he was called by his intimate 
friends, came to India in the early thirties. He hailed from 
Kildare, where his father was a clergyman, and was con- 
signed to an uncle (known as Paddy Medlicot) in India. 
James Cox's first berth was at Shawpur Mircha under Lewis 
Cook. The ryots at Shawpur were not the quiet, well 



^52 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

'behaved cultivators they are now, and as Lewis Cook was a 
"'bit zubberdust'* there was many a row, and Cox has often 
told me of the many escapes of a broken head he had on 
account of old Cook's quick temper. Paddy did not remain 
long at Shawpur Mircha. He was only personal assistant 
there except for a month or two when he went to Bhutowlea 
T'actory, and here he found the Assamies even more warlike 
than at Shawpur, for they attacked him one day on the vats, 
leaving his sweeper for dead and walking off with a sword, 
a family relic which the sweeper had taken up to protect 
his master with. 

From Bhutowlea Cox was offered an appointment at 
Coalporah, an outwork of Serjiah, on the large pay of Rs. 80 
per month. However, things were cheap in these days, and 
men could manage to live on this small allowance with the 
several perquisites thrown in by the factory. Coalporah had 
the advantage of having a splendid duck jhil almost at the 
factory door, and Cox told me his expenses for powder and 
«hot ran him into debt, for the first and last time while he 
was in the country, for he was always a most careful fellow. 
He was very fond of shooting, and it was a great temptation. 
From Coalporah Paddy went to Kumoul as head assistant 
under John Howell, a jolly old gentleman and who was part 
owner of the place. He was a great hon vivant, and was a 
man of a good substantial weight. He was, however, an 
active man, and fond of riding, but it took something pretty 
strong to carry him. Cox seems to have had a very happy 
time at Kurnoul. After several years John Howell sold out; 
and Paddy became manager. He made one of the best seasons 
the factory had ever made up to that time. Cox was very 
fond of riding, and a good rider. He had two very smart 
ponies named The Captain and Paddy Whack. They were 
fast and good jumpers, and did well at the Mozi^fferpore 
Sky Races of those times. Cox was with John Howell at 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 253h 

the time Rajpur was attacked by the " Bam-ka-talwar '' matk 
as described in my short biography of James Slade. As Mrs^ 
^owell and her children were at Knrnoul at the time every 
arrangement for defence had to be made in case this maniac 
of the sword took it into his head to go to Kurnoul, which, 
however, he did not. They had an unpleasant time of it 
till they heard that the Magistrate had got this gentleman 
into custody. 

Paddy had a good deal of fun in him, and was very muchr 
liked by the ryots. He had a queer way of punishing a ryot 
who was lazy at his work. At the measurement time, if 
the man was a Rajput he would enter him as a Doosad, a 
low caste man, and until he improved^ in his work his name 
remained as a pig driver, and it was wonderful what efforts 
these men would make^to have these names changed to their 
right title. I remember one man when I took charge of 
Kurnoul, very many years after Cox had left, coming to me 
to have his title changed. As I had heard from Paddy all 
about this, I told the man I co"ld not change what Cox 
Saheb had ordered unless his fields were very well prepared,, 
and that I would go and see them two days after. When 
I went I found the lands well prepared, so I ordered his title 
to be changed from Doosad to Rajput and the man was quite 
happy. James Cox was a first class indigo planter, but he 
was lured into taking charge of Te war rail as a sugar concern 
in 1847. The concern consisted of two factories — Tewarrah,. 
or as called by the natives Burrerie, and Munkey, an out- 
work. Munkoulie, another outwork, was kept for indigo 
only. As everywhere else so at Tewarrah sugar soon brought 
the factory to a standstill. The Oriental Bank was some 
way mixed up with Tewarrah, and it sent up one Jack Tyndal 
to look after affairs, and pay up debts. As Cox had very 
little to do, and Tyndal was a capital fellow and a gentle- 
man in every way, they had a very jolly time of it together,.. 



1254 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

up to all kinds of larks, for Paddy was a regular Irohman. 
It was not often that Tyndal attended to business, but when 
in the humour he would have something to say to it for a 
spree. The yarn of how he promised a fat Babu if he would 
toe a line and jump a few inches over another he would pay 
him his back rents is recorded in " Reminiscences of Behar," . 
as also other little lively jokes of his. 

Jack had a jolly time of it up in Tirhoot hunting and 
tiger shooting. At last he was recalled to Calcutta bui did 
not remain long there. He went down to Austr^^lia^ where 
he married. He was fortunate in generally falling on his 
feet. He had several old relatives who generally died just 
in the nick of time, and left him enough to set him com- 
fortably afloat again. Poor Jack died not very long ago. 
He had at last settled down in Ceylon, where he had charge 
of a big gar,den belonging to a company. One of his last joke^ 
was played on an inspecting director who was not much liked. 
Tyndal invited a number of wild youngsters to meet the 
director. They had a rather noisy dinner, which became a 
bit rowdy as the evening got on. This the director did not 
appreciate, and was delighted when bed was at last voted 
for. He was not long in getting into his bed. The light in 
the room was dim, either on purpose, or from its being so 
late. The director got into bed, but with a howl of terror 
he jumped out, for he had come on something cold and 
uncanny which on examination was found to be the car<uss 
of a pig that had been killed and prepared for use, and which 
Jack thought would be a pleasant companion for the director. 
I need not say that his anger was great, and that he left 
the garden before daylight. Whether the big man was afraid 
of being chaffed by his brethren in Committee, or that Jack 
had a strong interest in the Company, I know not, but the 
matter was not noticed. But I must stop and not forget 
that I am writing about Cox and not Tyndal. 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 255 

Paddy, too, wm. what the Bengali &iabu calls jockative. 
I remember two planters coming into Tewarrah who were in 
« great hurry to get on. They were themselves men who 
delighted in playing a joke on others. After making many 
excuses Cox said, *' I can give you a horse, but you will have 
to be careful how you drive him, as he will only go his own 
})ace. If you touch him with a whip he will kick your trap 
to pieces.'^ " All right," said his friends, " we must get on 
«ven if we walk." So old " Shah Soojah " was brought up 
harnessed in the buggy, and Cox's friends started, the horse 
going at a mild trop as the road from the door led towards 
the stable ; but as soon as the beast had passed his home he 
<x>Uap8ed into a walk. Then the one driving gave him a 
gentle tap with the slack, of the reins. This the Shah res- 
ponded to by a whisk of his tail. " He does not seem to 
mind it," said one to the other. " Let's try the whip ; " 
but alas! there was no whip. So tne driver gave him an 
extra hard crack with the deins again. The response from 
the old horse was the same as before. Then the two men began 
to smell a rat. "By Jove! Paddy hae sold us," they ex- 
claimed, and getting out of the trap they dragged up a rahur 
plant by the roots, stripping off its Dranches and set to work 
to belabour the old horse, but there was no improvement in 
the pace, and after laying on till their arms were tired, they 
sat back in their buggy and let the horse have his own way 
— a slow two miles an hour. They vowed vengeance on Paddy 
for the trick he had played them. 

From Tewarrah Cox went to Dholi as manager. This 
appointment had been offered him by Ed. Studd, who was 
then superintending Dr. Charles Mackinnon's (his brother- 
in-law's) affairs. It was during his management here that 
I got an appointment under him at Sukri, an eutwork of 
Dholi, and I must say I spent the most happy days of my 
life with him. There was capital quail shooting at Sukri, 



256 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

and many a splendid day or morning's sport have I had there 
with Cox and Colonel Apperley, a grand sportsman who was 
then in charge of the Poosa Government Stud. He was a 
son of old Nimrod (that well known sportsman) and a right 
good companion as well. Paddy remained for many yeara 
at Dholi, and while there we on several occasions went out 
into the Nepal Terai after tigers and managed to bag a fajr 
number of bears, leopards and tigers with other smaller game. 
It was while out at a tiger party that he suddenly got ill> 
either the sun or heat had affect ea him, and he had to be 
brought back at once to Tirhoot. As he had made sufficient 
to keep him going he made up his mind to go home to Ireland. 
He left Tirhoot in about March, 1861. Dholi under his 
rule flourished, and it was said that during the time Studd 
managed Seryiah and Cox Dholi, the two places cleared an 
average of a lakh of rupees a year each profit. Cox had 
bought shares in several indigo concerns, all of which did 
well. He also did a little speculation in horses, buying the 
undersized fillies from the Poosa Stud and selling them welL 
Cox was a capital companion and a good friend. He wa» 
certainly one of the leading planters of his day. His factory 
work was carried on in the most systematic manner, and 
everything went on like clock-work, while the factory was 
managed with the utmost economy. Cox retired to his old 
county of Kildare at first. He afterwards bought a very 
nice house in Cheltenham. While in Kildare he married 
and shortly after came over to Cheltenham. He sold out 
most of his interest in indigo. He died on the 7th of August, 
1892, in his seventy-second year, leaving a wife and children. 
His nephew, George Toomey, who had come out to him in 
1856, and to whom he was very much attached, took oyer 
charge of Dholi and did well there. He afterwards left and 
went to Kanti, where he had a share and managed for his 
uncle. Poor George Toomey died in England a couple of 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 257 

months before bis uacle. Cox is reported to have left pro- 
perty wortb £80,000. George Toomey also left bia family 
comfortably off. He, Toomey, was a sbrewd, clever man, 
and very mucb liked by his brother planters. He was a 
worthy disciple of his uncle. Paddy Cox is buried in Chelten- 
ham, where so many of the old friends and compapions of 
his youth sleep. There are now two of Cox's nephews in 
the indigo districts of Behar, sons of Dr. Cox, Paddy's 
brother. 



CHARLES GALE. 

Charles Gale was a brother of John Gale, of whom I have 
already written in my paper No. 3. He on first coming out 
to India went to Dacca under Messrs. Wise and Glass, who 
carried on, among other work, a large sugar manufactory. 
From Dacca, after some years, he came up to Tirhoot, and 
through his brother's interest got employment in the Tirhoot 
Association, a wealthy company having their head office in 
London. He was appointed manager of Poopri Factory. By 
the death of William Howell (his brother-in-law) he was pro- 
moted to Dooriah, one of the big managements belonging to 
the Association, — Dooriah and Shahpur managers having aa 
well the superintendence of all the Association's Factories. 
The pay was good for these days, namely, Bs. 500 per month. 
These two managements had the supervision over Poopri, 
Doomra, Amoih, Dynechuppra, and Kurnoul. They had 
the power to appoint an3 discharge managers and assistants 
where berths fell vacant subject to the sanction of the home 
directors. Gale joined Dooriah in the end of 1847. My 
acquaintance with him commenced shortly after. He was 
as nice and jolly a fellow as one would wish to know, a bit 
peppery if put out, but it never lasted. 

I remember once his sister came to pay him a visit from 



558 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

Calcutta. She brought up with her a swell Calcutta khan- 
samali. Gale had got out his best crockery for thie occasion, 
to do things in the very best form. Among this crockery 
there was a grand trifle bowl which Charlie cherished as the 
apple of his eye. This bowl stood on a crystal pedestal and 
Was very handsome. Dinner went on all right, the trifle was 
introduced, and the contents duly served out by the host. 
The bowl rwas ordeired to be removed to make room for the 
desert. The Calcutta khansamah, wishing to show with what 
dash he did things, and as if to show the up-country bump- 
kins how things should be done, seized the pedestal with a 
sweep. Alas! he was not aware the bowl and the pedestal 
were separate. Away flew the splended crystal bowli With 
a howl Gale made a rush for it, and was fortunate enough 
to catch it before it reached the floor. Then with a face as 
red as a turkey cock he seized the dumfounded khansamah 
by the shoulders and kicked him out of the room. His sister 
was amazed, and all sat, not knowing what to say, the old 
gentleman looking very much ashamed of himself. However, 
he shortly got up and left the room. The chink of rupees 
was heard m the distance, and the khansamah was heard to 
declare that he would not mind undergoing the same opera- 
tion daily at the same price. This was a sample of Charles 
Gale's temper. It was like a puff of gunpowder and all over 
in a minute, and then he was always ready to make amends. 
There was no better host, and his Christmas parties were 
the crack cues of the district. The programme at these 
parties was generally as follows : — In the early morning start 
off hunting, and after several rattling good runs after jackals, 
lunch would be found ready under a nice cool mangoe grove. 
This feast would last till about 3 p.m. Then elephants 
with howdahs on their backs and our guns and ammunition 
all ready appeared on the scene, when we started off, shooting 
down the Gunduk daubs. There a goodly bag of partridge. 



INHABITANTS OF THJl PAST. 259 

liare a^d quail and sometimes other game W9s secured. . We 
returned home well tired ; but after a peg and a smoke we 
were ready to dress for dinner. This was always a grand 
feast, for Gale, while giving his guests of the best, nJways 
liked to have as good for himself, so he always had two turkeys 
roasted. First one came on, and from it his guests were helped. 
Wheia that was finished No. 2 appeared, and from this our 
host had a liberal helping. After dinner some started sing- 
ing and smoking, while others went into the billiard-rooni 
and knocked the balls about. On other evenings we osed to 
be treated to fire- works. These jovial parties generally lasted 
four days, and we had a very happy time of it. 

I remember one of these parties, however, nearly ending 
in a little unpleasantness. One of Gale's assistants had taken 
too much, and was a little rough with one of the guests. This 
Charlie rather resented, and he told the youngster if he 
430uld not behave himself he had better go to his bungalow. 
The young man, being a hot-headed Scotchman, at once took 
huff, and banged out of the door. We all thought he had 
gone off to bed ; but no, about five minutes after a very shaky 
note was put into my hands to say that a pony was going 
for me and would I ride down to the little bungalow. Think- 
ing that the youngster had been sobered by his ejection and 
wanted me to act as a peace^maker and put things right, I 
at. once mounted the pony and rode down to the residence 
of my friend and dismounting entered. There was the rowdy 
ope, sitting at a table with sheets of paper partly scribbled 
oyer before him, and by his side a glass of gin and water. 
He had a wicked look in his eyes as he turned to me and 
said, " Look here I have been horribly insulted. Will you 
take this letter to Mr. Gale and tell him that I am ready 
to meet him with pistols, swords or any other weapon: wheur 
ever he likes.' I renaonstrated, and begged him to wait 
till morning when he would have had time to think over the 



260 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

matter, but on my saying this he jumped up and saying " Oh ? 
you are one of the same gang ! '' made a rush for the corner 
where stood a big stick. Seeing this and considering discre- 
tion the better part of valour, I made my exit, the stick 
following me but with erratic aim. I jumped on the pony 
and soon got back to my friends. 

Shortly after this we all retired to bed, and I had just 
got comfortably tucked in when Gale came into any room and 
showed me a letter from his assistant. This must have been 
a final eflFort after my speedy exit from the chota bungalow. 
The epistle called on Charlie to meet him in the early morning 
in the bamboo tope, and as he had no pistols, rifles would 
do, etc. Old Gale was plucky to the backbone, and would 
listen to nothing but fighting. I did my best to convince 
him that poor old Sam (for that was the assistant's Christian 
name) was so screwed that he was not answerable for his acts, 
and that he was not answerable for his acts, and that he 
should take no notice of what he had written. On this the 
old chap flared up. *' What ! what ! Am I to be bullied by 
my own assistant ? " Seeing he was in earnest I agreed to 
act as his second, and he at once wrote and sent off a letter 
to a friend for the loan of a pair of pistols. If these did not 
arrive I suppose there was to be a skirmish a la Yankee in 
which it was quite possible that I might be myself bagged, 
as after the night's fasting they were neither of them very 
steady. However, as I had promised I had to p«:form — 
coutt qu'il cotite — so I went to bed to dream of all kinds of 
queer things. I was just on the point of laying out my friend 
Sam (in my dreams), who had a big hole knocked through 
him, when my bearer awoke me suddenly. Jumping up with 
a cry of " What the dickens is the matter? " My servant in- 
formed me that the Chota Saheb wanted to see me. My 
first idea was that it was now a case of coffee and rifles, as 
the pistols had not turned up, and I really felt as "bad as if 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 261 

I wfti going to be one of the principals in the little business. 
However, gathering myself together, I arose, intending to 
go and turn Charlie out, but passing into the verandah I 
there saw Sam looking very seedy and dissipated. The first 
thing he said to me was " What the devil was I up to last 
evening? I find no end of letters strewn over my table and 
fioor, some to you, and some to Gale. What was it all about, 
for I have no recollection 1 '' I then told him all that had 
happened, and he seemed very much surprised. He asked 
me to go and explain things to Gale, and say how sorry he 
was ; so I started to do so, saying I approved of what he was 
doing. Sam immediately flared up, saying '' If you or he 
think I am afraid, let us have it out ! '' I told him not to 
be a fool, and went into Gale's bed-room and very soon made 
all right, for Charlie Gale, though peppery, never bore ilU 
will. I believe I was the best pleased of all three that the 
row had ended as it did. Poor old Sam died not many years 
after on his way home of abscess on the liver. 

Charles Gale remained as manager of Dooria till the 
Indigo Association was about to break up and sell off their 
factories, when he made up his mind to retire. He went 
home and joined his brother John at Cheltenham. While 
in Tirhool he had suffered from a sore tongue which made 
him rather nervous. The doctor out here assured hira it 
was nothing, but alas! poor fellow, some time after reaching 
England, his tongue began to get worse, and after some time 
to develop cancer, of which terrible disease he eventually 
died. Gale, though he delighted in a rowdy party, was a good 
man at heart. He always went into Mozufferpore on a Satur- 
day if he had to go in on business, so as to be there for 
Sunday and go to church. After he arrived in England he 
became very religious. " He married . at home, and left a 
son who is in the army. Dear old Charlie Gale ! " He was 
one of the kindest hearted men I ever knew, always ready 



262 / TIRHOOT AND* ITS 

for any fun, hospitable to a fault. The few years I served 
under him will always be remembered as the jolliest time of 
my life. He was very strict that work be properly done and 
attended to, and, like a good man, he was most particular 
in seeing to the factory cattle that they were well fed and 
attended to. He was up every morning at four and away 
down to the cattle troughs. Here he had a cup of coflFee 
brought him, which he drank while he superintended the 
feeding of the cattle. A nephew of his had been sent out 
£o learn his work, and Gale insisted on his getting up at thia 
early hour to be present at the cattle feeding also. Now 
Master Arthur Howell (a son of John Howell of Kurnoul),* 
loved sitting up late, and consequently was never in the 
humour to get up at the unearthly hour he was expected to. 
Every night as he went to bed, his bearer was warned to he 
sure to wake him up in good time. This operation was a 
most amusing one to an outsider while a very painful oiie 
to the servant. The latter would approach calling oud 
" Saheb ! Saheb ! ! The Burra Saheb has gone to the cattle.'' 
A loud snore would be the reply. In despair the bearer 
would approach and give his master's arm a shake. As sh&tp 
as lightning out would go the arm, and the servant have to 
retreat to get over the effects of a well put in whack on the 
side of the head. This kind of thing used to go on for fully* 
an hour, when Arthur would take it into his head to wake 
up, and with a smile on his face ask the bearer why he had 
not awoke him in good time ! - 

Charlie Gale was the subject of an article called " Tirhoot 
and its Inhabitants *' which came oiit in the Englishman in 
1851, or thereabouts. These articles were written by my old 
friend Archy Inglis and were considered most amusing papers.. 
The article described Gale sitting down to a feast, his eyes 
sparkling behind his gold spectacles as he tucked his table- 
napkin under his chin before beginning operations. Good^ 



INHABITANTS OP THE PAST. 86^ 

old Charlie! It will be many yearsr before Tirhootaeestkt 
like of jrou again. ■ ' - -; vi 'i ; .? ;• -^ .i ; 



ARCHIBALD INGLIS. 



Archibald Inglis came out to this country from Elgin. 
He was a protege of Dr. Charles Mackinnon^ and started 
life at an outwork of Dhojie Factory. His sojourn here waa 
not of long duration, but while there he lived in a hous^ 
built on the vats, for Thurma was not big enough to indulge 
in a bungalow. This luxury came l^ter on, when the place 
had blossomed into a sugar factory. It had then become 
an outwork of an outwork cfiUed Sukri. In 1851 it was dis- 
mantled, and lay a kind of ruin for years, all the sug^r 
machinery being brought to Sukri, However, as the price 
of indigo came round, Thurma was again started as an indigo 
factory. Inglis had long before this moved to Coalpoorah, 
an outwork of Seryiah, where he became an assistant, under 
Edward Studd. 

It was while here that my friend, who had a most amus- 
ing style of writing, started writing for tl^e Englishman a set 
of letters called '' Tirhoot and its Inhabitants." The author'^ 
ship of these letters was kept very secret, Studd being the 
only one who knew who the author was. As Inglis's letter 
had to pass through Seryiah Factory he (Inglis) thought it 
better to let Studd into the secret. These letters, while 
amusing, were very inoflFensive. Each succeeding week 
brought out a literary caricature of one of the many resident 
of the district. Curiosity was at its height. Guesses were 
made, but all wide of the mark. One man went so far as 
to draw the long bow, and swear he knew who it was, and 
has seen the manusoript of one of the letters, and when asked- 
who il was he said be was bound to secrecy. - Unfortunately 



264 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

he divulged the secret to a friend, who again passed it on to 
another, till it became common property. However, when 
at last Inglis disclosed himself, the man who said he had 
seen the manuscript had to confess he had drawn on his 
imagination. So great was the irritation at the non-discovery 
of the man who had written these papers that bloodshed was 
nearly caused. One man wrote to the Englishman, and said 
it was well known that the writer of " Tirhoot and its In- 
habitants " was the gentleman who whistled *' Norma " for 
broken victuals at the Planters' Club. This letter was signed 
with the writer's well known nom de plume. The musical 
whistler at once saw that this was aimed at him, for it was 
his wont to walk up and down the Planters* Club verandah 
whistling, while the members were at breakfast, till some one 
asked him to come in and partake. Bob Taylor, then at 
Hattowrie Factory, was asked by the whistler to call on the 
writer for an explanation and apology, which was refused. 
So a challenge was sent. Now the whistler was a first rate' 
pistol shot, and could cut the ace of diamonds out at 20 
paces every shot. So the writer of the letter, as the chal- 
lenged, having the choice of weapons, chose broad swords, 
and as he was a very powerful man this was rather a stumper, 
and things looked nasty. However, just then Archy Inglis, 
hearing of all this, came forward and confessed himself as 
the writer. In the delight of the discovery of the author, 
the would-be combatants shook haiids, much to the pleasure 
of the seconds, who did not see much fun in a broadsword 
duel. 

Inglis from Coalpoorah went to Singiah Factory, and 
after a while left and took charge of other factories. He 
went home and married, and returned to manage Hursingpur 
Factory. Archy had a good Scotch twang, and was rather 
a nervous man, and it used to be the delight of anyone driv- 
ing him to shake his nerves by driving very close to any 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 265 

deep rut in the road. Old Inglis would c»ll out " Tak care^ 
man, there a hoi in the rod I " He was very fond of a joke 
himself at some one else's expense. I remember one Christ- 
mas he wrote Charlie Gale that he was sending him a basket 
of game. Shortly after a cooHe- arrived with a very big 
basket. " By Jove," says Gale, " Ci^ital, capital. Just 
what I wanted — a grand lot of wild ducks ! " The ser- 
vants were then called to unpack. This they did with great 
diligence, and handful after handful of straw was pulled out 
of the basket ; at last an uncommonly small quail was pulled 
out. This was all Archy Inglis's basket of game contained. 
Inglis was not much of a sportsman and a very bad shot. 
Htj however, often joined shooting parties more for the con- 
viviality of the thing than anything else. On one occasion, 
having purchased a new gun from Scotland, he went out 
duck shooting, and after many shots at last wounded a bird, 
which fell into the jhil. Following it up, he at last got a 
' steady pot shot at the duck, which he rolled over. Turning 
round to his friend with a smile of exultation and delight 
he remarked, patting the butt of his gun : '' Eh ! man, isn't 
she a sweet little gun 1 " 

Inglis managed many factories one after the other, and 
£nally bought a share in Sudowah Concern in Sarun. He 
then retired home to Scotland. Finding his income from 
Indigo irregular, he sold out, and retired from Indigo. His 
two sons are in Indigo in this district. Poor Inglis was a 
splendid companion, full of fun and good nature, and to 
hear his chuckle as he discovered something funny about 
anyone was good for one's health. I do not know what 
Inglis died of, or where exactly, but it was a sad day for 
his many friends when the news came out to India. A friend 
writes me, anent Inglis : — " When my wife and I went to 
Elgin he and Mrs. Inglis were most kind to us and insisted 
on our staying with them at their beautiful house, South 



266 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

College; and I need not say hoW pleasatnt they made our 

Tisit.'' •• ■'• '•. 

This was dear old Archy Inglis all over. 



THOMAS MARTIN. 

Thomas Martin, or Toby Martin 8.8 he used to be called 
by his immediate friends, hailed from the Emerald Isle. How 
or to whom h^ came out to this country I do not know, but 
I think he started as an indigo planter, either in the North- 
West Pfovinoefi or in Shahabad. The firgt I heard of him 
was as a protege of old Kenneth MacLeod's at Husna, a sugar 
factory to the north of Attur, which .then belonged to or 
was carried on by Messrs. Giilanders, Arbuthnot and Co.ji 
the ostenaible proprietor being a M. Delasaire, a Frenchman 
who had be^n indu<?ed to invest money in sugar. 

Tom was a clever, shrewd planter, and was up to any- 
thing. He made a name for himself by reclaiming Dulsing 
Serai Factory that had gone very much down below par. 
All this is recorded in my short biography of Kenneth Mac- 
Leod, so I will not go over the same ground again. Martin 
after managing Dulsing Serai for some years bought Bagwan- 
pore Factory where he did well, and in 1857 taking advantage 
of the favourable exchange, viz., 2s. 2d. per rupee cleared 
out of the country with a good round sum. He remained in 
Ii eland some years, but returned to India and took up the 
position of Superintendent to Kenneth MacLeod's Chuppi-a 
and Tirhoot Factories, making Khanti in Tirhoot his head- 
quarters. Here he remained till he thought he had put by 
money enough to go home for gobd, when he returned to 
Ireland. Old Toby Martin was a capital fellow and a rare 
jB^od companion and full of fun. He was very fond of 
practical jokes and if one was attempted on him he was alwayl^ 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 26t 

rfeady 16 accept such very good naturedly and give a quid pro 
quo if possible. "» • 

I retn^fiaber once at Dholi Martin was starting on urgent 
business at night in a palanquin. Old Edward Studd, who 
was always up to jokes, was there, and when Martin had 
got into his palki, Studd tried to upset it. Martin called t6 
him to desist but Studd persisted. " All right," cries Martin 
Jumpiiig out of the palki, " if you are up to jokes so am I." 
Seizing the masal (torch) from one of tht palki bearers he 
made for a fine stack ot oats that stood hear the house with 
evident intention of setting fire to it. This was too much 
for Studd, who called ** peccavi," and Toby was allowed to 
get into' his palki and go his way in peace: 

Another yarn told of Toby Martin was that he found 
at one of the factories he managed a rather bumptious young 
zilan^ as assistant under him. Martin was of a' rough and 
ready ftature, and this young man's ways and ideas did not 
suit him. One day something happened that rather put the 
manager out, he used unparliamentary language to his assist* 
ant to which his assistant objected and be called On his man- 
ager for an apology. On his refusing to do so he called him 
out, and out they went. Pistols were loaded and they were 
placed opposite each other. The assistant on the signal fired. 
Martin dropped his pistol on the ground, and took up a cane 
he had brought out with him and gave the youngster a good 
caning saying: "You have had your shot at me and I am 
having mine at you now." 

Between the years 1876 and 1883, Martin lived at a 
place called Priory Lodge, I think in Kildare. It was near 
his old friend and brother planter's house — The Priory. Two 
sisters and a niece lived with and kept house for him. 

Martin was very fond of gardening and had a very original 
old chap as a gardner whom he taught. This gardener-^ 
a true Paddy-^had a great contempt for ariythihig Scotch;^ 



268 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

-and particularly objected to growing kale — which he said took 
a power of grase (grease) to grase (grease) a whisp of it. I 
suppose he referred to the cooking of it. Tom among other 
little luxuries had set up a Turkish bath in his establish- 
ment. This he indulged in once a week and if any friends 
were with him he held a regular levee of " Companions of 
the Bath." Many of his friends put down the cause of his 
^eath to these Turkish baths, where the extremes of heat and 
cold must have undermined his system. He had not made 
many friends in Ireland, but any old Tirhoot friend was 
-always welcomed with open arms and treated to the very 
best. He seldom moved from home, sometimes running up 
to Dublin, or now and then taking a sea trip in company 
^ith his niece. Sometimes he had to visit certain Spas and 
partake of the waters when troubled with gout. 

Toby Martin never married. Gardening was his great 
delight, and he had a grand garden with all kinds of fruit 
-and vegetable in it. His great forte was strawberries. He 
grew them all along the borders of his garden walks. At 
the end of these walks he had built two little houses in each 
of which resided a pet cat. These cats had collars round 
their necks to which were attached light chains, and the 
chains were again fastened to rings which ran on a light 
wire, running the whole length of the walk, so that the cats 
could promenade up and down the full length of these walks 
and so protect the strawberries from the depredation of mice 
and rats. Tom Martin was very fond of dumb animals and 
this was an original way of making us3 of his pet cats. Tom 
Msirtin died sometime about 1883, but I have not the exact 
date. He had one brother who was out in this country, Bob 
Martin. He had enlisted as a young man in that corps d' elite 
-v-the old Bengal Horse Artillery. His brother persuaded 
him to leave it and join him in indigo. He got into bad 
health after leaving the service, went to sea for his health, 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 26^ 

but died soon after his return from the Mauritius where he- 
had gone for a change. Poor old Tom Martin was a good 
planter, a very shrewd man, a first rate companion and always, 
full of fun. Though very strict with the natives they had 
such an opinion of his judgment and justice that they would 
travel many miles to place before him any difference that 
might have arisen, and abide cheerfully by his decision. 
There are not many left in the district now who remember 
Tom Martm. 



WILLIAM C. BADDELEY. 

William C. Baddeley was born, I believe, at Dhooli Fac* 
tory, Tirhoot. He was a son of Colonel Baddeley, who com- 
manded a regiment of Irregular Horse, a very quick-tempered 
man. It is said in Indian History that when ridijig at the 
head of his regiment advancing to the seige of Bhurtpur his 
horse suddenly fell into a dry well. On thia Colonel Baddeley 
kicked up such a tow that the enemy were alarmed and very 
nearly capitidated. 

Baddeley started life at sea, I think first as a midship- 
man. This he gave up. and came to live with his father, but 
the old gentleman was of such an irascible temper that he 
bolted and shipped as a seaman before the mast. Baddeley 
has often told me of his experiences during this period of his 
life. One in particular was that he and another friend had 
left a ship they had been on, as their timo was up. They 
went on shore at New York, and had a gay time of it as 
long as their money lasted. At last getting short, they looked 
about for a ship. Men were scarce, and there was not much 
difficulty in getting work. They went to a grog shop, where^ 
they found a seemingly very nice young man, the capUin 
of a ship who was looking out for men. He treated them 
to what Baddeley called Dog's Nose, a mixture of ginger beer 



270 -rTIRHOOT AND* ITS 

and gin. When he had drenched them well with this he 
took them to a shipping office and they were duly booked. 
Next morning they went on board their ship and she set saiK 
Baddeley and his friend, with aching heads — the effect of the 
mixture, were loafing about the deck. The captain seeing 
them idle called to them to set about their work. Baddeley -s 
friend immediately tried to crack a little joke' with the cap- 
tain as he had been domg the day before. Before the man 
knew where he was the Yankee captain took up an iron belay- 
ing pin and felled him to the deck, calling him a " d — d hog.'' 
Baddeley remarked that he took the hint and at once set to 
wojrjk, nijaking up his mind to bolt on the first opportunity, 
as they had evidently caught a tartar. ' 

After he had sown his wild oats he turned up as a planter 
in Tirhoot, and if I remember rightly started as an assistant 
at Rajkund Factory under Lewis Cook. Here he had a ba^ 
time, as Cook was a hard master. He used to be kept out 
all day, which in the hot weather was very trying. However, 
he managed to steal a march on Cook, for he used to go out, 
take his horse's saddle off and lie down under a tree and 
have a good snooze during the hottest part of the day. From 
Rajkund Baddeley went to an outwork, of Pundoul, and thence 
as manager of Doomra and Dynechuppra, and from thence 
on old Sam Johnstone's death he took over charge of Shahpur 
Mircha, where he remained several years, and then went 
home, intending to go to New Zealand. However, at home 
he married, and being a good manager the Tirhoot Associa- 
tion whom he had worked for asked him to return to Shahpur 
Mircha Factory. So he returned to India. After a few 
years he bought a share in Doulutpur Factory in partnership 
with Kenneth MacLeod. He worked up this factory and in 
time made a good amount of money. When at Doulutpur 
during the Mutiny he with many others had to retire to 
Mbzufferpore. While there he heard that some of the malika 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 5:71 

lit Dovlutpore were trying to take pos&eseion . of -the factory 
as they thought our Raj had passed away. Bai^deleygot a 
warrant from the Magistrate, for martial law was on. He 
and John F. Mackenzie started for Doulutpore, some sixty 
miles off, in the early morning, came on the mutinous malik 
when he least expected them/ walked up to him with a cocked 
pistol and called on him to surrender. The wretched man 
at once gave in, and the big gathering of his admirers sneaked 
away and the malik was bound and placed at the back of 
the dog-cart, and Mackenzie and Baddeley started on their 
return journey to Mozufferpore, where they arrived with their 
prisoner by that day evening. The man was duly tried, and 
got some ten years' imprisonment. 

Some years after this Baddeley went home and settled 
down in Cornwall, where he bought property and built a 
big house. He came back to India after this once or twice. 

In passing through Egypt he bought an Egyptian co» 
tume. This he wore the whole time he was in India to the 
amusement of many. . 

He was a great smoker, but this did not sooth his temper, 
which like his father's before him was very quick. On the 
way out from home some one made a remark about his " dirty 
little black pipe." Hearing this, Baddeley in a temper threw 
his pipe overboard, and swore he would never smoke again, 
and he kept his vow. The agents who looked after his affairs 
in Calcutta did not look forward to his periodical visit with 
any degree of pleasure as he generally led them a bit of a 
dance. Mr. W. C. Baddeley died in, I think, his 84th year, 
leaving several children. Mrs. Baddeley died not very long 
ago. Baddeley with all his quick temper was a very good 
fellow and a capital companion, especially when in a good 
humour. He was one of the most successful planters of his 
day. He understood the native character thoroughlyi and 
from spending a good part of his life at sea and a good deal 



272 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

of it before the mast he had seen a lot of the world and its 
ups and downs. 



EDWARD STUDD. 

Edward Studd came up to Tirhoot under the auspices of 
his brother-in-law, Dr. Charles Mackinnon, who was planters' 
doctor in Tirhoot. Mackinnon was a great speculator and 
had had shares in many indigo concerns, as the mark 
'' CMCK/' still existing, as the mark on a number of indigo 
factory chests, indicates. Charles Mackinnon having, like 
many others, dabbled in sugar, paid the penalty and became 
greatly involved, so he made over his property to Messrs* 
Gisborne and Company, who gave him a small allowance to 
live on at home. Gisborne and Company placed the man- 
agement and superintendence of Dr. Mackinnon's properties 
in E. Studd's hands. Studd took up his residence at Seryiah, 
Jack Smith being at Dholi. However, John Stace Smith 
and Studd fell out over some business matter. They had a 
great row, which nearly ended in powder being burned. On 
Smiths leaving, James Cox took over charge, and he -and 
Studd managed, one at Dholi and the other at Seryiah. 
Their management proved very successful, and before many 
years they had pulled the places out of debt, and Dr. Charles 
Mackinnon was looked upon as a man of wealth. 

Studd eventually purchased eight annas in the two con- 
cerns from Gisborne and Company. This eight annas had 
been made over to that firm as a kind of commission on their 
taking up the business and assisting him in his time of need. 
This was the beginning of Studd's wealth. He had made a 
little money by selling and buying horses, and was able to 
put down the lakh of rupees, the price of the eight annas 
shares. While Cox and Studd managed the two factories 
they did well, and it was said that they cleared on an average 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 273 

two lakhs of rupees yearly. In those days factories were 
managed more cheaply than now. Cox, at Dholi, got rupees 
four hundred a month and no commission, though after a 
time Studd allowed him commission ; and when he first went 
to Dholi he had only one assistant on rupees one hundred, 
afterwards increased to a hundred and fifty. Studd was very 
fond of horses, and was a good strong rider. He had several 
good horses in his stable both for the flat and cross-country. 
He was also a very good judge of a horse. He was one of 
the f«w men in Tirhoot who ever rode down a wolf single- 
handed. 

He notiosd, while riding over his indigo lands, that a 
wolf he sometimes saw and pursued for a short distance always 
ran off taking the same route. So, making up his mind to 
have a try to spear this wolf, he arranged that a fresh horse 
should be posted some distance off, but close to the line of 
country the wolf was accustomed to travel. Taking with 
him a spear he started off, and, sending some coolies into a 
grass near where he had seen the wolf, they soon rattled him 
out, and Studd started after him, pressing him as hard as 
he could but gaining very little on. him. At last, reaching 
the fresh hor«e, he quickly jumped on, and rode the wolf at 
a tearing pace. The wolf at last began to come back to him, 
and Studd very soon sent his spear through him. It was a 
good long run, nothing under twelve miles. I have only 
heard of one better feat than this, and that was when Max- 
well, Smith and Forth rode a wolf from lUmarnugger Factory 
to Hattowri; the former on a Kabul horse called " Jack,'' a 
first class old horse, and the latter on a little country^bred 
mare. The wolf was ridden, on. to the Hattowri F'actory 
Zerauts, where it was knocked on the head, clean done, -by 
some coolies. _ . - , 

When Studd first retired to England, he leased Halertoo 
Hall, but after a time he took Tedworth,. which belonged te 



274 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

that well-known sportsman Assheton Smith. There he fouiid 

ample stable room for his horses, as he went in for hunting 

and had a goodly number. He had also a very nice house in 

town near Hyde Park. His luck seems to have followed him 

home to England, for he bought a property through which 

a part of the Derby course ran. This brought him into | 

conflict with the Turf Club. However, the matter was ' 

amicably settled and Studd came out of it very well ; so much 

to that it is stated that he gave the Turf Club a certain amount ' 

of money to be run for. He was also fortunate with his i 

horse Salamander, which won for him some £30,000 at one 



Studd on quitting India left His brother-in-law, Henry 
Hudson, in charge of Seryiah. Studd lost his first wife out 
here, and went home very soon after her death. He, some 
time after this, while at home, married again. He had 
several children by his ifii^t and second marriages. The boys 
were alll of them active young men and good cricketers. It 
was his grandson who played so well for Harrow, in one of 
the last matches. Bdward Studd was a man of very sober 
habits. He went to bed early and rose at most unearthly 
hours in the morning, and as it was too dark to do anything, 
he generally sought for some one to converse with. I remem- 
ber when I was an assistant with Cox at Dholi, Studd paying 
him a visit, and at about 3 a.m. next morning he turned 
up in the bed-room where Cox and I were peacefully repos- 
ing. He went and sat down on the side of Paddy's bed, 
and started off talking about some piece of business that was 
on just then. I could see by Cox's movements in bed that 
he did not care for being disturbed, and out it came. Studd 
was pressing for an answer to an inquiry, when Cox in a 
very grumpy voice called out, *' Go to — somewhere (it was 
not Jericho)." Studd, seeing no satisfaction could be got 
out of Cox, came to me, and started with " You lazy beggar, 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 275 

not up yet ! " I, being but a humble assistant and in a way 
under him, had to wake up and talk, though. I wished he 
had gone where Cox sent him to, instead of to me. Studd 
was a man very fond of practical jokes. He was a first rate 
billiard player. He had at one time at Seryiah two tiger 
cubs that were the terror of outside servants who came to 
the house. They were not vicious, but playful, and when we 
were playing at billiards, if we happened to have slippers 
on we sometimes got a nasty scratch, as they used to lie under 
the table and suddenly pounce on your poor feet as a kitten 
pounces on a ball of wool. They used to rove about the 
house night and day, and I remember on one occasion a 
bearer boy who was sleeping in the upper storey of the Seryiah 
house woke suddenly and saw one of the cubs standing near 
him. With a howl of fear he sprung up and tumbled over 
the parapet. Luckily there was a slanting roof just under 
en which he fell, and rolling down fell on the ground, only 
bruising himself slightly. These animals after a time began 
to get dangerous, and had to be shot. 

Not long before his death Studd was very much taken 
with Moody and Sankey, and in time became a most enthu- 
siastic follower of these men, subscribing most liberally to 
their mission. He wrote to old Tom Martin putting before 
him how proper it would be for him to come and listen to 

these good men, etc., but old Tom replied that he would 
prefer a tip as to the likely Derby winner from Studd. It 

was in hurrying to one of Moody and Sankey's prayer meet- 
ings, for which he was late, that I understand Studd rup- 
tured a blood vessel. On this occasion he was cured, but 
not very long after he ruptured it again, and this caused 
his death. Studd died in 1876, aged 57. I may say that 
Studd was one of of the most fortunate men Tirhoot has ever 
known. All he touched seemed to prosper. He had a very 
shrewd adviser in his brother-in-law, Henry Hudson. I re- 



276 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

member one of the last times I met Studd in London he was 
full of his praise as a shrewd and clever man of business. 
I should have mentioned that when the old Tirhoot Indigo 
Association of London sold off their factories, Edward Studd 
bought Dooria and Kurnoul Factory from them and gave a 
share of the management to L. MacDonald, a nephew of old 
Kenneth MacLeod. Here his usual luck followed him, for 
the first year's profit paid up the full price he paid for the 
places. At Studd's death L. MacDonald, according to agree- 
ment, purchased Studd' s shares of these concerns. He re- 
tained Dooria and sold Kurnoul. 



CHARLES SWAINE. 

Charles Swaine was in 1848, when I first met him, man- 
ager of Doudpore under Mr. David R. Crawford, who had 
the superintendence of a group of factories then belonging 
to Messrs. Noel and Company. Charles Swaine was a Devon- 
shire man. He came out to Mr. William Farley Lethbridge 
(whose daughter he eventually married). Mr. W. F. Leth- 
bridge was then in Gaya at a place in the Rhotas hills. 
Swaine's first berth in Tirhoot was, I believe, Dinamutt, the 
outwork of Peepra in Champarun. Thence he went to Rag- 
haie Factory, an outwork of Kanti; after that he was pro- 
moted to the sub-management of Doudpore, and finally to 
management of Kanti. In 1861 he had got into very bad 
health and was ordered away for a change by the doctor. 
He went up-country but died at Cawnpore, where he is buried. 
While managing Kanti he was also superintendent of all Dr. 
Begg'e factories at Doudpore, Motipore, Belsund, and Bekon- 
pore before taking over charge of Kanti. Charles Swaine 
left several sons and daughters. His eldest son, George, be- 
came manager and proprietor of Attur Factory and turned 
out a very smart and clever young man. It is not so many 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 277 

years now since he died. Charles Swaine was a man who was 
much respected and loved by all his brother planters. He 
Vas a very jolly chap and seemed to be always in good humour. 



ROBERT EDINGTON RONALD. 

Robert Edington Ronald was another son-in-law of Mr. 
William Farley Lethbridge. He hailed from near Glasgow, 
and was managing Doulutpore when I first met him. He was 
at first under the Landales at Lutteepore in the Bhagalpore 
Division. He not long after I met him left Doulutpore and 
got an appointment as a Deputy Commissioner in the Santhal 
Pergunnahs. He, poor fellow ! lost his life at Deoghur, where 
he was killed by a mutineer. His body was rescued and 
buried by a faithful old bearer. Ronald had been warned 
that the regiment was going to mutiny and was advised to 
get away, but he stuck to the officer in command, his friend, 
and so lost his life. He left, I think, two sons and daughters. 
One son, who was a planter in this district, died a few years 
ago. Of the others I have lost sight. Name of officer muiv 
dered Lieutenant Cooper. He who escaped Lieutenant 
Rannie at Deoghur. 

As it has been my object in writing " Tirhoot and its 
Inhabitants of the Past '* to leave a record of those who have 
passed away in years gone by for the benefit of those now 
present, and as many of those now dead and gone were known 
to me, some by name only and others but slightly, I propose 
giving a short record of both these, giving the little I knew 
of each. 



SAMUEL JOHNSON 
Was in 1847 manager of Shahpur Mircba. I only met 
him once, and that was at a New Year's party at Kanti in 



278 TIRHOOT AND IT^^ 

1848. He died very shortly after, and is buried in the garden 
at Shahpur Factory. 



DAVID BROWN 

Was nicknamed the " Gooroo/' as he was considered a 
^knowing old gentleman. He managed Belsund Factory in 
1847-48 and after that Motipore. I think he retired to 
England and died there, after 1853, as I lost sight of him 
after that. Motipore was purchased by C. Oman, and David 
Brown left then. 



R. CAHIL 

When I first knew him, was managing Motipor«. He 
was the son of Mr. Cahil who was a shareholder both in the 
Tirhoot Indigo Association of London and of Noel and Co., 
who were proprietors of a number of fine factories in Tirhoot 
and Champarun. R. Cahil retired from indigo in about 
1849 or 1850, and went home to England, where he died. 



JOHN ANDERSON 

Began life in India as a planter in Bengal. He was 
nicknamed " Soojee " because he lived principally on this flour. 
He purchased Kumtoul Factory in 1856. He was there for 
many years. He was not a very successful planter, being 
too easy going. After some years Mr. James Forlong got 
him the management of the Durbhanga Raj. He was much 
loved by the young Maharaja and his brother. The late 
Maharaja eventually paid up a big debt due to Messrs. Begg, 
Dunlop and Co., and took over the factory and all landed 
property attached to the concern. The Maharaja also allowed 
Anderson a pension of Rs. 500 per annum. Old Soojee r^ 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 279 

tired to Dundee, where he lived for many years, and died 
well on in years. 



JOHN ANDERSON, No. 1 

Had besn manager and proprietor of Kumtoul many years 
before 1 came to the country. From there he bought and 
went to manage Hattowrie Factory, taking with him a fav- 
ourite peon whom he had made jemadar. His name was 
Sunful Raie. At Hattowrie Anderson made money and went 
home once or twice. The last time he came out he did badly 
and had to give up Hattowrie. He, however, arranged to 
buy Nawadah Factory, and Sunful Raie was to help him with 
the money. However, at the last moment Sunful Raie failed 
his old master. It was a terrible blow for poor old Mr. 
Anderson, for he died soon after, people said, of a broken 
heart. His daughters married officers in the army. One 
was the wife of Captain Aitkin, who so gallantly defended 
the Baily Guard at Lucknow, while his wife was one of those 
locked up in the Residency. The other sister married Cap- 
tain Williams, who also did good service during the Mutiny, 
and afterwards commanded the Moshee Serks Pioneers. I 
think Mr. Anderson had one son, who got a berth in the 
Revenue Survey under Messrs. Chapman and Wyatt in 1848. 
I met him while he was encamped in Durbhanga and after- 
wards up in the North- West. I think he was then in the 
Opium Department. Old Mr. John Anderson is hurried at 
Nawadah Factory. 



WILLIAM HOWELL 

Was manager at Dooria, and died there in the end of 
1847 or the beginning of 1848. 



280 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

JOHN HOWELL 

Was an elder brother of W. Howell. Hs was proprietor 
of Kurnoul, but sold this factory and bought Buchour, called 
Kemna by the natives. The spec, was a bad one as BucEour 
did not pay him. He sold out and went home, and died 
there, leaving three sons, Arthur, John, and William, who 
all came to this country and joined indigo. They all died 
voung. 



ALEXANDER BROWN 

Began life in Champarun I believe. When I knew him 
first he was at Hattowrie. He had got the management of 
the place from Bob Taylor, who owned it, and Nawadah, 
where Tom Slade managed. They both had the promise of 
a four anna share to be paid for out of the profits. Bob 
Taylor died not very long after he had made this arrange- 
ment and the properties had to be sold. So Brown and Slade 
both got a handsome bonus in nonsideration of their giving 
up their claim to the shares in the factories under their man- 
agement. Alexander Brown then with Slade bought Doulut- 
pore Factory. He was not long there, for on his way to 
Peepra Factory, while resting at Mozufferpore, he was taken 
ill, and the doctor declaring he was suffering from Bright 's 
disease told him he could not live long, and sure enough 
he died a day or two after. He was a right good fellow 
and a great favourite with everyone. He died in 1853 or 
thereabouts, and is buried at Mozufferpore. 



ROBERT TAYLOR 
Was proprietor and manager of Hattowrie Factory in 
1848. I never met him. He was not much of a favourite 
though he had some friends. He died somewhere up-country 
of small-pox. 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 281 

HARRY BROWN 

Was a relation of old David Brown. He had been at 
several of the outworks of Motipore and eventually settled 
down as manager of Rajkund. Old Harry had bolted from 
home and enlisted as a gunner in the Shekawatti battalion. 
He was a most amusing old gentleman and always had some 
extraordinary yarn to tell. He was sent up by Dr. Begg to 
look after his ssed business after the Christie family had all 
been killed at Cawnpore by the mutineers. Harry Brown 
was at Cawnpore when the disaster to the Queen's troops 
took place and had to take shelter within the entrenchments. 
Harry Brown contracted bad fever at Rajkund and even- 
tually died at the Planters' Club, but I cannot remember 
the year. 



SHEREMAN 

Was proprietor of Jestwarpur when I came out in 1847 
The place had got very much involved, and in 1848 the fac- 
tory was sold and bought by Messrs. John Mackenzie and 
Beck with. The factory must have been built several years 
ago as Shereman owned it in partnership with Sir James Weir 
Hogg, as the mark on the indigo H. and S. indicates. Shere- 
man left several sons. One was killed in the Cawnpore en- 
trenchments, another died of fevsr and is buried at Jeetwar- 
pore in the garden, another was in the Santhal Commission, 
I think, but I do not know where he died. There is one son 
left, Edward, who lives somewhere up near Joynuggur 
Factory. 

JOHN STALKART 

Generally known as Bekonpore Johnnie, was manager of 
Bekonpore Factory when I knew him. From thence he went 
to Japaha Factory, and after that got charge of a factory 



282 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

in the Bhagalpore sub-division. He was a nice little man, 
a very keen sportsman. After he left Tirhoot i seldom heard 
of him, but I believe he fell into very bad health and died. 
One son by his first wife is still alive and has an indigo fac- 
tory in the North-Western Provinces. 



GEORGE TOOMEY 

Was a nephew of James Cox. He came out in 1856 to 
his uncle, who was then managing Dholi. George came 
out just before the troublous times of the Mutiny. He was 
one of those who, with others, started to retake Mozufferpore 
after the civilians and the rest of the residents had been 
ordered away by Mr. W. Taylor, Commissioner of Patna. 
In 1861, when his uncle left Dholi he took up the manage- 
ment and was most successful there. On his uncle purchas- 
ing Kauti and Motipur in partnership with Kenneth MacLeod 
he first went to manage at Motipore and thence to Kanti. 
]\Iotipore they eventually sold to Mr. Thomas Fraser, and 
George Toomey and his uncle went on with Kanti. Toomey, 
however, gradually bought up all the shares except a four 
annas share held by the Hon'ble T. M. Gibbon. This share 
has now been purchased by Toomey 's widow. George Toomey 
was a most successful planter and a worthy nephew of his 
uncle, who, I may say, was one of the best and most success- 
ful planters Tirhoot has ever seen. George was a capital 
host. He was a good and kind friend to several. He retired 
home to England, where he lived for many yeai-s. His death 
was sudden, and many mourn the loss of good old Georjje 
as a good friend and companion. 



JAMES SMITH 

Began his indigo planting career in, I think, the North- 
West Provinces. He was born in this country, and was dark 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 283 

for a Eurasian. He was, however, educated in Scotland,, 
and had a very strong Scotch accent. He first came to Tate- 
reah under David Crawford (who had to return to India on 
his brother Andrew's death). After David Crawford gave up 
the management of Tatereah (which was his own property),. 
James Smith managed for several years most successfully. 
However, on his uncle George Smith's death he was offered 
the management of Shahpore Mircha, where his uncle was 
managing for the old London Indigo Association. Here h© 
remained as manager till the Association ceased, when he 
and the Munshi of Shahpore Mircha, old Kali Persaud, bought 
th/ factory. This place he managed for many years. He 
also managed a company got together to furnish carts and 
carry grain during the famine of 1873-74. This he man- 
aged so well that when the work was over, a matter of over 
ten lakhs was divided among the shareholders as profit 
There was no hitch in the working of this company. Every- 
thing went off smoothly, whereas in some of the other com- 
panies there was a good deal of heart-burning at settlement 
time. Smith after the famine went home for a time with hia 
wife, whence he returned, and after remaining out for a 
short time longer he sold his share in the factory and went 
back to Scotland, where he died of heart complaint in 1881 
or 1882. James Smith was a very strong business man, 
liberal, and a capital host. He had many friends in the 
district and in Calcutta. 



JOHN MARTIN BECHER 

Was a son of John Becher, who was a nephew of old 
Captain Becher. He was a Eurasian. Jack took his old 
grand-uncle as his pattern. He was the very quintessence 
of politeness. Becher began as a planter at a sugar factory 
outwork of Beconpore that stood near the banks of the Ban- 



284 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

niuttee river. This factory has been long closed. It was 
here Becher met with a nasty accident. He was attending 
to the working of the sugar-mill with lime water to prevent 
acidity, sitting with his foot resting on his piston-rod, whcb 
kept moving to and fro horizontally, and getting interested in a 
book he moved his foot without thinking, and getting it be- 
tween the key and the piston the key caught the sole of his 
foot and tore part away. Later on Becher became manager 
of Kumtoul, and when he left this factory purchased Joy- 
naggxir, Narharh, Nawada, Beerpore and Tewarrah. To carry 
on these he got an outlay of some three lakhs of rupees. 
Then the cash began to fly and precious little of it ever reached 
the factory. The consequence was that Becher came to grief. 
Just then Tom Slade took up the management of these fac- 
tories lor Becher and made a grand season, which enabled 
Becher to pay up what he owed. He would not, however, 
allow Slade to go on managing, as it did not suit Becher 
to be kept short of cash, so he again took up the manage- 
ment of his factories, and in a year's time he was agam m 
difficulties. Becher was a man whom the natives had every 
confidence in, and they would trust him to any amount. 
What they said was that, though Becher did not always pay 
at once, when he did he paid up in full with interest added. 
Becher, or Jack, as he was generally called, was the essence of 
kindness and generosity. Any youngster fresh out from home 
was at once taken by the hand and shown the ropes. If a 
man came from up-country, and did not know where to lay 
his head. Jack took him in hand. The way he used to look 
after his old grand-uncle. Captain Becher, was a picture. 
He had a great admiration for the old gentleman, who was 
sometimes a little hard on him. For instance, Jack tried to 
raise a pair of moustaches, and on appearing before the Cap- 
tain was met with " What do you mean by those d — d things? 
Go and take them off, and don't try to ape the Military." 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 285 

Latterly he bought a factory called Dhurmpore, but this place 
he left very much involved. The place was much in debt 
to his old friend Nawab Syed Mahomed Taki Khan, who on 
Becher's death took over the factory. Jack Becher died at 
the Planters' Club of galloping consumption, and is buried 
at Mozufferpore. 



WILLIAM BALDWIN 

When I first knew him, was an assistant at Kanti under 
David Crawford. He was considered a very good assistant. 
He was a big, powerful fellow, and the natives held him in 
great respect. From Kanti he went as manager to Dowd- 
pore, where he was for some years as an assistant manager. 
From thence he became manager of Jeetwarpore, but no 
sooner did he get into independent charge than he quite 
changed: did little or no work, and took to drink. He died 
in 1860, and was buried at Mozufferpore. 



JAMES CULLEN MUIR 

Was ssnt out from Glasgow to David Crawford as an 
assistant at Kanti. He did very well at first. He was rather 
a hard master with the natives. He was at Tatereah for a 
short time, and then got Chutwarrah, where he managed 
for some time. When there he built Dhurumpore to prevent 
people interloping. When the Tirhoot Indigo Company of 
London sold off their factories, Chatwarrah being one of them, 
Muir had to leave. He was for a short time at Popna. He 
then built an interloping factory called Kopee, in the Shapore 
Ouadie dehaut. He was at one time manager of Baghwan- 
pore Factory, in the Monghyr district, where he was accused 
of having beaten a native and was found guilty and run in. 
Like many others, when misfortune came to him, he took 



28H TIRHOOT AND ITS 

to drink and died, but I cannot remember the year. He is, 
I think, buried at Kopee Factory. In his case a Munshi, 
who had done well under his master, Jimmy Muir, behaved 
differently to Sunful Raie, John Andersons jemadar, for 
Muir's Munshi beggared himself in trying to help his master 



CHRIS. STRACHAN 

Was, I think, sent out by the London Indigo Association . 
When I first met him he was sub-manager of Chetwarrah 
Factory. He was nick-named the Count. He eventually, on 
Baddeley's going home to England, took charge of Shahpore 
Mircha, and on Baddeley's return he purchased Hursingpore, 
where he did very well. He was a very kind-hearted old chap. 
He had picked up a youngster who had been an apprentice 
in one of Green's sTiips, and taking a liking to the boy (his 
name was Evans) he gave him the run of his teeth and some 
small pay. Unfortunately Master Evans one day, while kft 
alone at the factory, finding it dull, started shooting spar- 
rows on the verandah roof. The consequence was that he 
set the place on fire, and Strachan had to pay for a new roof, 
and Evans was asked to go. 

Strachan retired home to England, where he lived a 
wandering life. He left two sons, who are both dead. His 
daughters married, one at home, a solicitor, the other a 
major in the army, and the other a man in the Canal Depart- 
ment. Old Strachan left his children well off as he had 
shares in Dulsingserai, Hursingpore, and a tea garden Dar- 
jeeling way. 



JOHN ANDERSON 

Was sub-manager at Chetwarrah when I first knew him 
1847-48. He left indigo soon after and got a berth as 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 'Jb7 

Deputy Magistrate and Collector, and was in that capacity 
in Mozufferpore. He was a man of good family, but a dis- 
appointed man. He died not many years after getting into 
the Uncovenanted Service, leaving a wife and one or two 
daughters. His brother, who was an officer in the artillery, 
and one who distinguished himself in the Lucknow Residency, 
was a bachelor, and on his brother's death supported his 
wife and daughters, leaving them at his own death well pro- 
vided for. 



JAMES AND JOSEPH HILL 
Were sons of old Mr. Henry Hill, who was a partner of 
old Mr. W. Moran, whose son afterwards founded the late 
firm of W. Moran and Co. They, James and Joseph Hill, 
became proprietors of Turcouleah, Seeraha and Bara. At 
the failure of the Union Bank of Calcutta in 1847, their 
father found himself heavily involved, and his property mort- 
gaged and in the hands of an assignee. They, the two sons, 
went to Calcutta, where Dr. David Begg assisted them with 
money, and they settled up with the assignee, then a gentle- 
man rejoicing in the name of Yankee Richards, if I remember 
rightly. Having cleared off the debt over the concerns, they 
found the matter of an outlay their next difficulty. They 
called in all their maliks, and arranged with them to wait 
till after sale of the season's indigo, and that they would 
be paid their rents, plus a good interest. The same arrange- 
ment was made with all the amlahs and workmen in the 
factory. The Hills had such a good reputation for integrity 
and honour that this arrangement was at once agreed to by 
all. James Hill retired to England some short time after, 
but Joseph Hill, a hard-working planter, managed Seeraha 
and Bara for a time without an assistant to help him, and 
was most successful. Turcouleah had remained closed, but 



288 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

was later on opened by Joseph Hill, and became one of the 
finest concerns in Champaruu. After James Hill's death the 
factories were worked under Joseph Hill's orders. After 
Joseph Hill's death Seeraha and Bara concerns were sold, 
James Hill's sons, Dr. Hill and H. Hill, keeping Turcouleah. 
as their own. They also have a share in that time fine con- 
cen, Motihadri. The indigo cakes and chests bear the mark 
still of M. and H.— -Moran and Hill. 



W. M. STEWART 

Came out to India to his relative Mr. Malloy, who was 
a solicitor in Calcutta in the 40's. He was sent up to Shaha- 
bad, and thence to his cousin, Tom Poe, at Dulsingserai, 
which place he eventually got the management of. In 1861 
he started an interloping factory called Begum Serai. From 
Dulsingserai he purchased a share in Jeetwarpore from Mr. 
J. Beckwith, and a few years after came to manage at this 
factory. He was not a successful manager, and the failure 
of the Agra Bank in 1866 brought him to a standstill as his 
capital was all borrowed. He had to go through the Insol- 
vent Court, in doing which he came in contact with Sir Barnes 
Peacock and Mr. Justice Phayre. He lost everything he 
had. Eventually through his wife's interest he got a berth 
under the Court of Wards over the KuncK^lie Estate. During 
the famine of 1873, he became a partner in a carrying com- 
pany to carry famine grain from the south of Mozufferpore 
to the sub-divisions to the north of Tirhoot. In this he 
cleared a large sum of rupees. He then bought a tea garden 
at Kotegarh near Simla, but this did not prove a good spec. 
Other investments that he made proved equally unfortunate, 
and he had to sell out of his tea garden. He again got work 
to manage a native's estates near Mirzapore, where he died 
from an attack of small-pox. It is said that if he had lived 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 28» 

a few days longer he would have died Sir William M. Stewart. 
His second son (his eldest having died), is now the Baronet. 



GOODENOUGH AND CUKTIS 

These two were living at Barhamporah ; Goodenough in 
charge of the saltpetre works that belonged to Messrs. Mac- 
killop, Stewart and Co., while Curtis was living with Good- 
enough as a friend. Goodenough was not long up in Tirhoot. 
He went down to Calcutta eventually to join the firm of 
Mackillop, Stewart and Co. Curtis eventually purchased 
Ramkollah Factory in Sarun, and after his first wife's death 
retired to England. He married again, and died a few years 
later. He was a big, good natured man, very fond of the 
good things of this world, and a capital host. In Scotland 
I heard that to be able to get over the moors when grouse 
shooting he invented a belt that went round him. This was 
fastened to a long rope attached to a pony, so that when 
hilly places had to be crossed the pony was hooked on and 
Bill Curtis hauled up gun in hand ready to shoot. As this 
exertion caused thirst, and Curtis loved Eis beer, he had a 
small corrugated barrel on wheels made, drawn by another 
small pony. This was filled with beer, and followed him 
about so as to be ready when he wanted it. 



GEORGE PAULING 

Was sent out by the old Tirhoot Indigo Company of 
London. He came originally to Doomreh and thence went to. 
Amoih, and was then for many years under George Mitchell. 
From Amoih he came to Pupri, and while there he bought 
tbe Muzafferpore billiard room. This place he built on and 
made into a residential house, but he eventually sold it to 
Mr. E. Dacosta, who was a Subordinate Judge in those daya 
art Muzafferpore; Dacosta sold the house to the Jaintpore^ 



290 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

Mohunt, and he has given the house in mokurrerie lease to 
the members of the Muzafferpore Station Club. Pauling in 
about 1849 left Pupri and went to New Zealand, where he 
died. 



WILLIAM FARLEY LETHBRIDGE 

Came to India in the thirties. He had served m the 
English Navy and risen to the rank of Captain, I understand. 
He quarrelled with his people at home and left tlie navy to 
come to India to try a shake at the pagoda tree. He made 
a fortune, but lost it all at the failure of the Union Bank 
in 1847. He hailed from Newton Abbot, Devonshire. He 
left four sons, two of whom are dead, Thomas, Robert, and 
Rev. W. Lethbridge, Chaplain, leaving Alfred (now Sis Alfred 
Lethbridge) living, a man who has done good service in India. 
W. F. Lethbridge was a midshipman at the battle of 
Trafalgar. 



GEORGE NEVILLE WYATT 

Was managing Peepra Factory in 1847-48. The factory^ 
then belonged, I think, to Messrs. Noel and Co. In 1852-53 
this factory was sold to Mr. Wyatt, who eventually made 
a fortune out of it and retired. The factory continued to* 
do well It is now managed by his son, who is in England 
on leave. G. N. Wyatt was a great shikari and a good shot. 
There is a story told of him when he was at Bagwanpore^ 
an outwork of Belsund. Some friends came to see him, and 
he had called up his servant to order a sheep to be killed for 
their entertainment. The flock of sheep, his private property, 
passing by at a distance, he said to one of his friends (he 
happened to have his gun in his hand loaded witb ball), " Do 
you see that sheep ahead of the flock?'' He fired, and the 
animal dropped. The little incident did not end there, for 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 291 

the bullet had travelled further and killed a boy who was 
working some distance beyond in some jungle. This was a 
grand opportunity for a native who was at feud with the 
factory. He immediately gave notice to the thana to the 
effect that Wyatt had had the man tied to a tree and had 
shot him. Luckily for Wyatt his friends were able to help 
him to prove the case utterly false. This, of course, happened 
many years ago. Wyatt on one of his jungle trips had picked 
up a tiger cub which he confined in a big cage is his garden. 
It grew to he a very fine tiger and one of the shows of the 
place. This tiger used to be fed on pigs which were thrust 
in beside him, when he killed and ate them, one daily. 
Jlowever, one day a pig was put in, and the tiger not being 
hungry kt him live. Next day a rew pig was put in and 
was at once slain and eaten, the first pig taking a light 
meal off his brother when the tiger was done. The same 
performance went on for several weeks till the pig, favoured 
by the tiger, became familiar and tried to join the tiger 
when he fed. The consequence was that friend piggy got 
a smack on the side of the head that knocked out one eye, 
and sent him rolling to the side of the cage. Piggy lived 
for some time after with the tiger, but always kept his dis- 
tance at feeding time. The pig used to lie down, and the 
tiger, making a pillow of him, would have a comfortable 
siesta. At last poor piggy from eating his own brethren 
got mangy and had to be destroyed. The tiger never made 
friends of any other pig. He too eventually got mange and 
had to be shot. This tiger, though very savage, was in 
mortal terror of a wheel used for measuring to which was 
attached a bell that sounded the number of poles. This, 
driven towards, the cage, put the tiger into a terrible fright, 
and he would grouch into a coriier and tremble all over. 
Wyatt retired many years ago and bought a very nice place 
in Cheltenliam, where he lived for many yefirs, He died 



292 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

not many years back, and is buried near some of his old 
Tirhoot friends who passed away before him. His second 
son is the manager of the Peepra Factory. He moves about 
between England and this country. 



PHILIP CRUMP 

Was manager of Munjoul and Sissowni Indigo Concern 
in 1847. I understand he owned it. I met him on my way 
through into the district in October, 1847. He seemed to 
me to live in breeches, boots, a black velvet hunting cap 
and a dressing gown, for the two days I passed at Munjoul 
this was his style of dress, and yet I never saw him mount 
a horse or even one brought to the door to be mounted. 
He had a queer idea about indigo, that is, disapproved of 
a thick crop, and when he had one he weeded out a good 
part of it. No wonder the factory came to grief. 



CHARLES OMAN 

Came up from Bengal, where he had been an indigo 
planter. He was noted as a good hand in improving colour. 
He went to Seeraha, where he did well both as to amount 
of indigo made and in improving colour. Joseph Hill came 
out and relieved him, paying ham up his pay and commis- 
sion to date when his engagement expired. This came to 
a good round sum, and Oman with cash in hand bought into 
Hotipore, where he did well, sold out of this, and eventually 
purchased Hatowrie. Falling into bad health, he sold out 
of indigo and retired to Cheltenham, where he died. 



WILLIAM HAMILTON URQUHART 

Before ending my communications anent Tirhoot and its 
past inhabitants, I must not forget one who, though not a 
planter, was a man who waa much liked by all, — Mr. W. 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 2^ 

Urquhart, who waa Opium Agent in Tirhoot in 1847-48 (when 
I first came to this district), was a thorough gentleman of 
the old school ; he and his wife were famed for their hos- 
pitality, and no planter who came into Muzafferpore were 
ever left in the cold. In those days the official element and 
the planter did not amalgamate, so Urquhart's open-handed 
hospitality to planters was all the more appreciated. — 
Urquhart was himself the personification of a fine old Scot- 
tish gentleman, tempered with Indian experience. What 
finer type can be found? Urquhart lived in a big house 
that stood in the large compound where now are the teen 
kotiah. The old house was knocked down and the three 
small houses built. Old Captain Becher and the old Guru 
David Brown, were great friends of the Urquhart's and were 
very often to be met there, and I can fancy I hear the old 
Captain's stentorian voice greeting some new arrival " Hullo ! 
Cupid ! Where are you from ? " 

He was born 6th August, 1800, died in London in March, 
1881, and was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery. He came 
out to Calcutta in October, 1821, in the E. I. Co.'sship " Mar- 
quis of Wellington," Captain Blanchard. He came out to a 
Mr. Hutton. From his arrival in India till 1836 he lived 
in Calcutta, Chunar, Bhagulpore, and Colgong. He married 
in Calcutta, and went to Gaya in 1836, where he got the 
appointment of Sub-Deputy Opium Agent under Mr. Archi- 
bald Trotter, who was then Agent of Behar. He remained 
in Gaya four years and then was transferred to Tirhoot in 
December, 1840, where he remained till 1862; he was then 
transferred to Shahabad and in 1867 to Tirhoot again, where 
he remained till he retired from the service in 1870. He 
lived there with his daughter at Arrah, and in 1871 left for 
England to live with his sisters, but his eldest daughter 
going home in 1872, he took a house and lived with her at 
Twickenham till 1873, when she returned to India. He then 



294 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

Jived with a married sister, and died in her house. He had 
been in India fifty years without coming to England or 
having any sort of change. 

He was most strict in all matters of etiquette, and there 
is a story of how he called out the Collector, old Wilkinson, 
because he considered his wife had been insulted as she was 
not taken into dinner at his house by the proper man. Old 
^rs. Urquhart was even more particular in these matters, 
and it was said that she insisted upon Urquhart calling out 
Wilkinson, and so he did, and they turned out in the very 
early morning on the Secunderpore maidan and satisfied 
their honour by blazing into the air. This happened long 
before I came to the district. After many years in Tirhoot, 
where he had seen most of his daughters married, his wife 
died of cholera, and great was the mourning in the district 
over the death of this kind old lady. Shortly after Mr.s. 
Urquhart s death Urquhart was transferred to Arrah. It 
was a black day for Tirhoot that saw our hospitable old friend 
leave. His daughters were all married in this district, and 
his sons became indigo planters. His eldest son died leav- 
ing a son who is now a planter in this district. His second 
son has retired and now lives in Cheltenham, and his eldest 
son, again, is an officer in the Bays, while his second son 
helps his father at home. In days gone by old Urquhart 
perched on a high coach-box with a tall white hat on his 
head was to be seen daily driving his family on the Sscunder- 
*^pore maidan. He always drove ; and his horses were so well 
tended that they were as fat as butter, and were never 
allowed to travel beyond a slow trot. I have often driven 
one of these pampered horses with one of Urquhart's sons, 
whose great delight was to give the old animal a taste of the 
whip and make him travel a bit, remarking: "Fancy what 
the governor would say if hs saw this 1 " Urquhart was a 
great sportsman, and was always one of the Stewards of the 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 295 

Muzafferpore Races. He was a first-rate judge of a horse, 
■and a good rider, and could sing a good song, one of bia 
favourites being " Sing me an English song," which, he sang 
with great pathos. Dear old Urquhart and his wife were 
as nice a couple as Tirhoot had ever seen or may hope to see. 



DR. STOKES. 

In finishing off Tirhoot and its inhabitants of the past I 
almost forgot our learned doctor, and though there are not 
many now present who remember him, my history would 
be incomplete without a short biography of Dr. Stokes. He 
succeeded Dr. David Begg, but whether Dr. Begg secured his 
services or not I do not know. There was no doubt that 
Stokes hailed from within the sound of Bow Bells, as he 
found himself at war with his H's now and then. In those 
days doctors were not bound to stick to the art of curing 
and bone-setting only, but dabbled in other little things that 
brought grist to the mill, and among these the sale of indigo 
seed (as agent) was one. Well, old Stokes, like Dr. Begg 
before him, added to his income in this way. One day our 
doctor waxed cheerful, for there had been a bad hailstorm, 
and he knew seed orders would come tumbling in. As he 
was promenading the T. P. Club verandah, up drove a trap, 
and out jumped Jemmy Cosserat. Stokes at once tackled 
him with the facetious query " 'Ave a little 'ail, Coss«rat?'' 
Cosserat, who was warm and thirsty, replied, *' All right, 
old chap, if you have a bottle of ale open I don't mind a 
glass.'' Eeculapius at once saw the mistake he had made 
and ordered a bottle of Bass to be opened at once! The 
doctor, though not a bad chap, was a bit peppery in temper, 
and there were many little rows at the Club in his days over 
loo and other games of cards. As Secretary to the T. P. 
Club he often got into hot water, as he was very fond of 



>J96 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

giving little dinner parties to a few friends, and if one of 
these parties were on, and a member of the club turned up, 
he had a poor chance of being served. Donald H. Macfarlane 
— now Sir Donald H. Macfarlane — then a planter- in Tirhoot, 
made him very wrath by publishing a jocative little piece in 
the EnyliHhnian. 'Tis said this made Stokes so angry that 
h© got out his pistols, and swore vengeance; but it did not 
come out till some years after who the writer was, so the 
pistols had to be put up again. 

Stokes did very well for himself; he had the whole of 
the practice of Tirhoot and Champarun, with Durbhanga. 
He was fond of horses, and kept a good stable, so that he 
could at an hour's notice drive out a long distance to see 
an urgent case. Our doctor eventually came to grief. He 
had bought a very handsome horse, a racer, as a riding horse 
— I forget the horse's name. He was a blood horse, and 
a bit hoijery. Stokes went out for a ride, the horse started 
at something, reared, and came over on our doctor, break- 
ing his leg near the hip. He was very carefully attended 
by our Civil Surgeon, Dr. Simpson, who after several months 
set him on his legs again, but Stokes could not move about 
with the ease he used to, and at last made up his mind to 
retire. In about 1850 he left for New Zealand, while there 
he purchased a good deal of what proved to be very valuable 
land. He came in for some money that had been in Chancery, 
and eventually died in New Zealand leaving large and valu- 
able property. I don't think Stokes ever married, and no 
one knew if he left any heirs. He had not many personal 
friends in Tirhoot. Old Christopher Strachan was about the 
only one who was on very friendly terms with the doctor, 
and he did not know very much about him. Stokes was 
succeeded by Dr. Cooke, who remained in our district some 
years, but he was one who wished to be everything. He was 
clever, but flighty. He eventually died on board one of the 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 297 

river steamers, where lie got a berth to look after coolies. 
Donald Macfarlane was very kind to him^ and so were all 
the then members of Messrs. Begg, Dunlop and Co. Dr. 
Cook's eon was the tea planter that showed such pluck when- 
one of the Assam or Cachar tea gardens- were raided by the* 
Looshais, I think. After Cook came Booth, who is still 
living in Ireland; he was one of the best doctors we have 
had, very active, fond of shooting and pig-sticking and, there- 
fore, very popular. He married in Tirhoot and soon after 
retired. He made a great hit in curing Nultoo Chowdry's 
son of cholera. Old Nultoo rewarded him handsomely, which' 
allowed Booth to retire earlier then he might otherwise have 
done. Booth was followed by Sandiford, who retired after 
a few years, and is now in England. Our present sawbones 
is a very active young man, and seems to thrive equally in 
a railway carriage, or on horseback, or at his own hospitable 
home 



OLD WAYS AND MANNERS. 

The customs and manners of the past were rather of 
the rough and ready order except where a lady ruled the 
family circle. These were few and far between, and even 
where- they were in those days the refinement to be found 
in Tirhoot homes nowadays did not exist. There was but 
one spinster in the district in 1847-48. and she was not over 
young though much run after. 

In bachelor establishments things were inanaged in a very 
primitive way. For instance, suppose one young bachelor 
made up his mind to go over and pay a neighbour, say Bill 
Jones, a visit, he would write him a chit: "Coming over 
to see you for a spell ; send a dak to the half-way house, 
and 111 be with you to dinner — we are going to give you 
* party!'' Having despatched this his bearer is called up 



.2^S TIRHOOT AND ITS 

^nd told to arrange clothes for a week's outing. The bearer 
at once sends for a hanghy wallah who is to carry two 
pttarahs, which, are filled with all requirements for the visit. 
On the top of one of the petaraha will be- placed a chilumchee 
and on the other its stand, a dhvri and a vessel with a spout 
something like a tea pot, also your razaie, or quilt, for 
blankets were not used in thosa days. 

In charge of these your bearer starts, and on arrival at 
your friend's house he is shown into the room you are to 
occupy. He at once sets to work to prepare for his master's 
arrival. The roorn holds nothing but a charp<yy and a chair 
or two. On this charpoy there might be a mattress. Your 
bearer takes out of the petarahs sheets which he spreads on 
the bsd and over this your razaie. He then adorns the 
pillows with pillow slips, and his master's bed is ready. 
Then proceeding to the verandah outside the bed room he 
prepares an e.rtempore dressing room. Spreading the dhuri 
on the floor he places on it a teapoy (provided by your host). 
Then he sets up your chilumchee on its stand with the tear 
pot-lcoking utensil Beneath standing on the dhuri. Your 
comb, brush and tooth brush, with a small looking glass vith 
a folding back as a stand, are placed on the teapoy. This 
with a piece of soap, with which you had also to provide 
yourself, completed your dressing arrangements. The bearer 
then hangs up in the bath-room a big bathing towel, and 
places at the bath-room door a pair of wooden clogs which 
you were supposed to seize between your- toes so as to keep 
your feet dry. This operation I never mastered. 

Having arrived at your host's house and refreshed your- 
self with a glass of gin and water (soda water was too much 
of a luxury in those days) you retire to your room to wash 
away some of the duet which you have acquired on your 
ride over. You find your clothes laid out on the bed all 
Teady for use, and you proceed to the verandah to have a 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 299 

wash. The bearer stands by the chilumchee with the teapot 
in his hand, there being no water in the chilumchee. Into 
your hands he pours water with which you wash your face. 
In those days water that had been used to wash your face 
once was never taken up a second time, as it was supposed 
to have been defiled so that by using the spouted vessel you 
had always frssh pure water. These were the conditions 
under which you were allowed to make your ablutions. After 
this you proceeded to put on your clothing. Thus adorned 
you proceed to the front verandah, where easy and lounge 
chairs were to be found and there await your host, who at 
last comes and ushers you into dinner. Seated at the festive 
board the- first performance was that of your kittnutyhar, 
who with much importance produces a silver salt cellar and 
pepper pot out of his kumerhund, and places them on either 
i^ide of your plate. These salt cellars, etc., were in great 
variety, of designs, some representing a tower, others owls 
or egg-shaped according to fancy. The next proceeding is 
on the part of your host, who requests the pleasure of taking 
•a glass of bser with you, which compliment you shortly return 
by asking him to do ditto. Should your host be a married 
man it was considered to be a most essential piece of atten- 
tion on your part to start dinner by taking a glass of beer 
with your hostess. I have known a lady take great umbrage 
at this ceremony being deferred till a later period in the feast. 
An honoured guest was always treated to what was considered 
the best; this to the planters' taste was a good saddle of 
mutton. Fowls they had daily. I have heard men from 
Calcutta say they visited half-ardozen * indigo factories and 
the piece de resit^tance was always a saddle of mutton. 
They would have preferred the moor ghee of the period, which 
was a vara avis in Calcutta. In 1847-48 the custom of smok- 
ing a hookah was still in -existence, and I remember Mr. 
Alfred Gouger, who lived in Tank Square, indulging in one 



;500 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

of these luxuries. A very respectable old bearded hookah^ 
bardar used to march in after each meal and unrolling a 
carpe^t place the hookah on it, and in a most majestic way 
pass the gold and amber mouthpiece under the master's arm. 
and retire. While in Calcutta at that time I dined at several 
houses where I found many of the gu-ests smoked their 
houkaha. These pipes were very neatly ornamented, some in 
a most costly way. The smoking of Jiookah^ began as the 
desert came in, and hookah smokers had the pull over those 
who used cigars as it was not considered etiquette to smoke- 
cigars till the ladies had left the dining-room. A thing that 
seemed strange to me was that drinking water was always- 
served out of bottles. I afterwards heard that this was 
because the water had to be cooled by means of saltpetre and 
glauber salts, and that having water in bottles was most handy 
for this purpose. There was no ice in Calcutta in those days. 
Men of those days moved about in buggies, but only those 
who were pretty well off could do this. Assistants in the 
mofussil rode, and it was considered a great honour if your 
manager drove you out in his trap. Syce^ always ran by the 
side of the conveyance, and I have known these men run 
fifteen miles at a stretch, only stopping when a fresh horse 
was put to, which took place every five miles. Clerks in 
Calcutta moved about in palanquins. In many houses, 
especially in Calcutta, old servants, generally hearers iit 
bachelors' houses, were much spoiled. They levied black- 
mail on any guest, especially if he was a new comer. I re- 
member the old sinner who was head servant at Mr. A. 
Gouger's presenting me with a memo stating what I was to 
give to each servant as backshish when I was leaving Calcutta. 
I need not say his name headed the list. I as a griff, and 
a guest, did not like to say anything, so I just paid. 

Christmas is always a great time in the mofussil, and 
that day was always celebrated by a picnic where shooting 



INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 301 

and hunting were the order of the day. I remember hearing 
of a quesr. occurrence at one of those picnics. Our host had 
busied himself in having an extra good plum pudding made, 
and he had talked a good deal about it. It was to be pro- 
duced at the picnic. Dinner over we were all expectation, 
but there was no plum pudding. Our host waxed wrath 
but still it came not. At last he gol up and made for the 
extempore kitchen. The cook seeing his master coming, and 
evidently on the war path, jumped up and bolted, and strange 
to relate the pudding jumped out of the pot and followed 
him. He had forgotten taking a cloth to boil the pudding, 
and so wrapped it up in the end of his dhoti, and when his 
master made for him he cleared, the pudding jumping after 
him. The story goes that neither the cook nor the plum 
pudding was ever seen again. 

Before I end I must tell you the yarn about the adjutant 
and the crow, as I heard it at one of these jolly picnics. 
An officer from Dinapore was telling a party at home of how 
■SL crow in the barrack yard there had made itself objection- 
able to an adjutant by trying to get off with a bone the big 
bird was picking. The adjutant just turned round on the 
crow and swallowed him. Shortly after this story had been 
told the relator went on talking of his regiment and of what 
a plucky chap Captain So and So was, how he had done this 
and that during the Mutiny, finishing off his yarn by saying 
he was our adjutant. A young lady of the party remarked 
in a most innocent tone of voice — " And was it he who swal- 
lowed the crow ! 1 ! " Was this chaff or ignorance ? 



FRED. COLLINGRIDGE 

Was born on 26th April 1815. He came out to India 
in 1829 and went to Shikarpore, one of Messrs. Watson and 
Co.'s Factories. After leaving this appointment he got em- 



302 TIRHOOT AND ITS 

ployiuent, as an interpreter to a Native Infantry Regiment 
at Buxar. This billet he held for a short time. He was 
offered an appointment about the time he left in the Seryeah 
Indigo Concern and Tirhoot, which he joined in about 1833. 
In 1835 he built Coalpoorah an outwork of the Seryeah Con- 
cern, From Coalpoorah he went to Dholi as manager for a 
year about the time Charles Mackinnon bought Dholi Con- 
cern. Thence he went to Dynechuppra and managed Amooh 
Factory from there. In 1842-43 he went home to England 
and married in 1849 returning to India in 1858 when he 
took charge of the Poopri Indigo Concern and stayed there 
for a year. He was then promoted to Dooriah and was in 
charge for about a year when he bought Dowdpore Factory 
with Dr. C. N. Macnamara and J. S. Begg in 1861. 

In 1867 he again went home and returning managed till 
1876, when his son Herbert took charge. In the spring of 
1880 he retired from India and died in September 1905 in 
his 91st year. 

About a year before his death he met with an accident ; 
he fell over a luggage truck at a railway station, which in- 
jured him and brought on blood poisoning from the effects 
of which he died. Up to the winter before his accident, the 
wonderful old gentleman hunted regularly with Garth's 
hounds and rode as straight as any of the hunt. F. Collingridge 
was always a keen horseman and his name will be found 
among those who rode at Haj-eepore where Sonepore races 
were held in the early thirties. He loved a game of polo 
out here to the last and delighted in a game at racquets or 
lawn tennis and when there was a cTance on old Collingridge 
did the light fantastic and was among the last to leave 
the Ball room. 

The natives tell a story of Bim when at Dynechuppra 
he was attacked by some budmashes, who broke his arm. 
He rode into the Factory and got his tailor who was a bit 



INHABITANTS OF IHE PAST. 303 

of a bone settler to bind up the fractured limb and mount- 
ing his horse again with his Hog's spear in hand rode through 
the hndmnAh village, but not a soul dared to face him. 



SIMON NICOLSON 

Was a son of Major Nicolson and grandson of Dr. 
Simon Nicolson, a man well known in Calcutta many years 
ago. Simon came to Tirhoot in 1861 as an assistant to Kontai 
Factory, he was sent out by Dr. D. Begg. He was posted 
to Ragai, an outwork of Kontai, in 1862. He unfortunately^ 
had very bad health and had to go to Naini Tal in 1864 
for a change thence he returned to Tirhoot, but had to go 
home in 1887. After a time in England he returned with his 
brother Charles a retired Lieutenant in the navy. 

His old friend, the late George Toomey, got him appointed 
Secretary to the Tirhoot Planters' Club, where he reigned 
for several years off and on as he had to go away on leave 
on several occasions either home or to the hills. At last he 
had to go to sea to Burma and died during his return voyage 
in 1901 of consumption. Poor old Simon was a kind hearted 
man, but his constant ill-health made him very cranky at 
times. 



W. CAMPBELL 
Was a son of Dr. W. Campbell, of Ederline, Argyle- 
shire. He came out to India in the end of 1857 and joined 
the Jeetwarpore Concern as an assistant. Some years after 
he took charge of Herni and thence bought a share in Parihar 
where he took up tluh- management. About 1866, he left 
Parihar and took charge of Jeetwarpore and remained ther« 
till the early seventies when he bought a share in Kurharry 
and took up the management. Having made a profitable 
season he went home leaving John Morton in charge. 



.304 TIRHOOT AND ITS INHABITANTS OF THE PAST. 

The Factory did not do so well after his return and he 
eventually fell into bad health, lost his sight and after 
lingering some time died in 1895. 



JAMES BEGO 

A brother of Dr. David Begg's came out to India to his 
brother in 1848. I think his brother's first intention was 
to keep him in the office at Bathgate and Co., Calcutta. 
But Jim preferred a country life and was at last sent up to 
Rajkund Factory to Andrew Crawford where he began life 
in Tirhoot. From Rajkund he went as manager to Bekon- 
pore, some years after and thence got charge of Japalia 
hi 1859 (then belonging to MacKillopp Stewart and Co.). In 
1861 he got charge of Kontai. From Kontai James Begg 
retired home. He had purchased a share in Dowdpore, but 
this he sold shortly after as he was alarmed at the produc- 
tion of the alazarine dyes. Badishe had not come into exist- 
ence then. On bis return to India he managed Seeraha 
Factory for a year in about 1873. He retired home after 
and died in about 1896 or 1897. He left two sons one in 
Messrs. Begg Dunlop and Co.'s office, the other manager of 
•a tea garden in Assam, and two daughters who married 
'Calcutta merchants. 










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THE 

SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES. 



An Epitomised History of the B. L. H. 

In penning this short history of the Soubah Behar Mounted 
Rifles T do not pretend to ^ive an officially detailed account 
of the Corps, but a short story that may interest those now alive 
who helped to set the movement afoot as well as those who are 
at present on the active list: some of these are sons and 
fifrandsons of those who garrisoned Fort Pillbox in 1857. 

There are, to the best of my knowledge, only a few men left 
of the garrison, namely, L. Macdonald, J. F. Mackenzie, 
A. McD. MacRae, E. D. Urquhart, M. J. Wilson, H. Hudson, 
F. H. Hollway, and perhaps a few more whose names have 
escaped me. 

I have to thank the present Adjutant, Captain McMullen, for 
his kind help in assisting me with information and records I 
have required where my memory failed me. 

In 1857, when the Native Army broke out into Mutiny, a 
body of some forty men, principally 
^ ^' ^ ' planters and officials belonging to the 

districts of Tirhoot and Darbhanga, assembled in Mozufferpur 
where they garrisoned the house at present occupied by 
our District Judge, but then by our 
Civil Surgeon. Thence the name Fort 
Pillbox. As might have been expected, the men, from want 
of a military man to drill them, were but a very undisci- 
plined and unwieldy body, who had no idea of how to 
work together in case of an attack. They were armed with 
their double-barreslled muzzle-loading iowling pieces, no cartridges, 



806 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

and had to trust to their powder flasks and loose bullets in 
case of an attack. Here is an account of what happened during 
those stirring times. 

As it would not do for us to be scattered over the place, the 
Doctor (Simpson) and Mr. Weston, a Sub-Judge of Mozufferpur, 
offered us their houses and grounds, so we formed two camps and 
messes. 

Mr. Weston's house was situated where what is now the 
Maharaja of Darbhanga's Joran Chuppra Palace, so the two 
houses stood about five hundred yards apart, but t almost in the 
same grounds* 

The houses were occupied by the ladies and children, number* 
ing about eighty. The men slept in tents pitched in small 
camps one on each flank of the houses and one in front as 
an advance guard. Each camp supplied two sentries. 

At a meeting, one of their number, Mr. M. J. Wilson, was 
appointed Commandant, and he named 
ma^dait.^'^'^'^''' ^''"'' his subordinates, placing a man in com- 
mand of each small camp. Besides the 
camp there was a portico guard composed of old gentlemen 
who did duty till 1 1 p.m. 

This " Vielle Guarde " was ordered to prevent any surprise 
attack, as the young men, would, encouraged I am sorry to 
say by the young ladies, go on dancing till past ten in the 
evening, and refused to do sentry go till eleven had struck, so 
the Commandant had to make a compromise and issue an oi*der 
that all lights were to be extinguished at 11 p.m. 

During this time under instructions of the Magistrate the Com- 
mandant ordered out three men, F. H. Hollvay Wm. Pratt 
and W. Baldwin, who, with the Assistant Magistrate, Robinson, 
started for Burooraj Thanna when they arrested the Thanna- 
dhar in the act of writing a letter to thf' 

rafamsted" ^**°* ^^^« inviting them over to loot 

the Treasury. This gentleman was even 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 307 

tually sent to Patna to Mr. W. Tayler, the Commissioner, and 
hung. Another case was where two of our men, W. C. Baddely 
and J. F. Mackenzie, were ordered to arrest a man near 
Dowlutpur Factory. They started in the very early morning, 
and by evening had returned with their prisoners, having 
travelled, going and coming, over one hundred miles. 

During our stay in Fort Pillbox the Commandant organized 
a mounted patrol. These patrolled the town at night and gave 
the more peaceful natives confidence. One night just as our 
mounted patrol came in an alarm was given by our sentries 
at the front, Charles Oman and Archd. MacRae, at the west 
gate and L. Macdonald and J. F. Mac- 
kenzie at the east gate. It was found 
that a long line of men with lights were advancing on us and 
all stood to their guns, just then one of our men in handling 
his fowling piece accidentally pulled the trigger, when in a 
second all the approaching lights were extinguished, our 
mounted patrol, as I say, had just come in, and they, some five 
men, headed by a hotheaded Scotchman, put spurs to their 
horses, cleared the ditch opposite the present Judge's house 
and went for them, but alas ! by the time they reached 
the spot where the enemy had been seen, they found 
nothing but smoking jnasah (torches), and though they 
circled about could fine no one. This was supposed to have 
been a feint by the Nujeebs (a provincial Battalion who acted 
as jail and treasury guard, who had an eye on the ten lakhs 
just then in the treasury) to see if we were prepared. We 
could never find out quite what was really the reason for this 
business. The natives passed it off by saying it was a wedding 
procession. 

Not long after we had occupied these houses we protected 
them in case of a sudden rush by loopholing and sandbags. 
We also stoi'ed on the top of the house rice, dhal, firewood 



808 THE 80UBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLE8 

and water, and were ready to resist a siege of some weeks. 
However, shortly after this a report. 

KeSmon't. Sego "ie.""'' *^*""« ^ "«' ^^'''^ afterwards proved to 
be false, of the fall of Delhi, and we dis- 
persed in groups to different factories. It was about then we 
heard of the mutiny of Holmes' regiment at Segowile and the 
murder of the gallant Colonel and his wife, and the doctor and 
his wife, and that a section of this regiment had taken posses- 
sion of the Mozuff'erpur Post Office. 

Some half dozen of our men who had accompanied the Com- 
mandant were despatched from Jeetwarpore Factory, among, 
them James Cox, Geo. Toomey, B. Anderson, A. MacRae, 
F. Wingrove to take possession and give confidence to the people 
in the town. These men sent on their horses to near Mozufferpur 
and drove to where they were, and rode in to find the enemy 
gone. Not long after this some of Jung Bahadoor's Gurkhas^ 

Gmkbasat Mon-ffcr- ^"""^ "? ^* MozuflPerpur and the 
pur and Yeomanry Yeomanry Cavalry had reached Pusa ; 
volunteers were called for to carry 
despatches to Colonel Richardson who was in command of the 
Yeomanry, and the writer and Mr. L. MacDonald, one of the 
survivors of the garrison now living at home in Scotland, took 
out the [despatches and returned that evening. On entering 
Mozufferpur they were stopped by the Gurkha outlying sentries 
but all being well were allowed to proceed on their way. My 
readers will understand after perusing the above that we had 
good reason to [wish to be properly drilled and armed in case of 
necessity arising at any future period. Therefore those who had 
foi-med the garrison and had appreciated the want of military 
training with others determined to petition Government to be 
allowed to form themselves into a mounted corps. 

In 1861 a meeting was called under the guidance of Mr. C. T. 
Metcalfe, then Magistrate of Mozufferpur, to ask Government 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 809 

to allow the formation of a Mounted 

Soubah 15ebar Mount. Volunteers Corps to be called the Soubah 
•ed Rifles formed. ^ 

Behar Mounted Rifles. In 1862 the 

Government having given their sanction, steps were taken to 
at once enrol those who were willing to join. The first parade 
took place about the end of that year on the piece of ground to 
the east of the Dak Bungalow and west of where the Kacharie 
now stands. It had been arranged that 
iiht »ara< e. ^^^ uniform was to be a grey tunic, 

breeches and boots with a helmet and red plume. No uniform 
had been received from the tailors, so the members present 
wore mufti. We were armed with muzzle-loading carbines, not 
breech loaders. The breech loaders came some years after. 
We also carried swords. 

Mr. C. T. Metcalfe, who had, when a young man, been an 

officer in a Yeomanry Cavalry Regiment 
Metcalfe and A rgles. . . . , ■»-- ^ ^-r * i 

at home, assisted by Mr. C. V. Argles 

who had also served in a cavalry regiment, undertook the 

drilling of this, then, very irregular body of men mounted as 

they were on all sorts of animals from the steady studbred and 

waler to the roaring Kaboolie. Metcalfe was rather rusty in 

his drill, but Argles being last from his military training was 

better up in it. 

In 1863 the regiment was inspected by 8ir Stewart Corbett 
at Sonepore, There is no record of this 

pofrbrSh'^S. CorbeT^ inspection, but I give what happened 
from memory. I cannot remember the 

number of men on parade, but should say about one hundred, 

as there were men from all the Behar districts. 

Colonel James Forlong >yas in command, but as he had not 

Colonel James For- "^^^^ ^^ ^ militaiy training, Metcalfe, 
long, First Comman- before the inspection, took him into an 
» .' empty tent t<3 show him what he 



iilO THE 80UBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

should do on Sir 8. Corbett's arrival on the parade ground and 
how he was to salute, etc. 

When the time came the I'egiment was put through some 
simple manoeuvres. Then came our grand flourish. The regi- 
ment was to advance at a gallop. The squadrons outward about 
wheel and form again where we had started from and then 

advance in line and general salute. I 
Puzzling- Man(L'u vies. , , , ./. .i . , i- . i i 

don t know if this evolution is to be 

found in the drill book of these days, or whether it was a 

movement evolved out of Metcalfe's brain. It seemed to puzzle 

Argles who had never seen such a movement in the 16th 

Lancers. However, the order was given march, trot, gallop, 

then at a certain point squadrons outwards about wheel. After 

that it seemed to me the regiment vanished, for the men in 

their anxiety to do the thing smartly had no hold on their 

horses. Some were carried off to their stables at the camp, 

while many of the Chupra troop disappeared altogether. 

However, after a time what remained of the regiment advanced 

in line and saluted. 

Colonel Forlong was mystified at the grand display. He sat 

his horse a proud man. He had quite forgotten Metcalfe's 

instructions to carry his sword, this lay across his horse's withers. 

Sir S, Corbett and his staff* advanced and, addressing Colonel 

Forlong, made a very nice little speech to the regiment which, 

though not exactly true, was pleasantly flattering. When the 

General had finished Forlong thought it incumbent on him 

to reply and oh ! Metcalfe's face when, with his sword still 

gracefully reclining over his horse's shoulder, he began, 

" General Sir Stewart Corbett ! Hu ! Hum ! ! On the part of 

the officers and men Hu ! Hum ! ! of the Soubah Behar 

Mounted Rifles Hu ! Hum ! ! I bcjg to thank you Hu ! Hum ! ! 

for the few kind words you have spoken Hu ! Hum ! ! " Here 

the old gentleman paused, when Metcalfe, taking advantage of 

this dismissed parade. Thus our first game at playing at 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 311 

soldiers ended. It must be remembered we were but very 

young and uninstructed at the work and not what we are now 

in the year of our Lord 1904. That 

Sir 8. Corbett dines evening Sir S. Corbett dined with the 
with the Regiment, " ,,/->, i i 

Regiment. Here our old Colonel was 

much more in his element for he was a genial host and a per- 
fect gentleman of the old school. We were determined to receive 
the General and his staff strictly a hi Afilitaire, so we had a 
sentry posted at the entrance to the mess tent to carry arms as 
they entered. It was late in the evening before this pleasant 
party broke up and I am sure the General enjoyed himself 
as much as any of the youngsters and old James Forlong 
entertained his guests with numbers of his Bengal yarns 
interlarded with many IIu ! Hums ! ! 

In 1865 the district was visited by the Lieutenant-Governor, 
Sir Cecil Beadon, who came up to open 

Visit of Sir C. Beadon a^ Agricultural Show. This was held 
in 1865. , ^ . ^ 

to the east of the present racecourse. On 

that occasion the Soubah Behar Mounted Rifles escorted the 
Lieutenant-Governor and I must say made a very pictur- 
esque show, their red plumes dancing to the breeze. In this 
year Colonel Robarts brought down a squadron of his regiment 
Kobarts' Cavalry. ^^^"^ Segowlie to drill with us. The 

Colonel was a great favourite with us 
all and as a compliment to him we put his men to the right 
of the line. But, alas ! Robarts' Horse were better mounted 
than drilled, for the mixed regiment in advancing by squadrons 
right in front were ordered to wheel into line. Robarts' 
squadron wheeled on the wrong pivot and found themselves 
formed up to the left of the line and as Sergeant Godby, 
then our Sergeant-Instructor, remarked " These niggers are 
all wrong." Robarts was furious, he l^ing a spectator on foot. 
He rushed to the front of his men and called them unparliamen- 
tary names. He was very angry. On our way to our camp he 



312 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

drew up on the Secunderpur bund facing outwards and saluted 
Robarts' Horse as they passed on their way to their quarters. 
This put the old Colonel into great good humour again. He 
was a kindhearted, genial man, a great sportsman, and kept a 
pack of hounds and several race horses. 

On this day we buried ray old friend W. Garstin. He was 

found dead on the road the evening 
wStin"'* ^""""^ ""^ before. He had been at a ball given at 

the house where our present Collector 
lives and driving home seems to have fallen dead out of his 
trap. Poor Garstin was a gallant chap. During the Mutiny 
he volunteered to go out with the troops at Dinapur to relieve 
Arrah. This was the occasion when Eraser Macdonald gained 
the V.C. The relieving party were caught in ambush and had 
to retire. Garstin was wounded in the spine, which was grazed, 
and it was found at the post mortem that the base of his skull 
was affected and this caused his sudden death. Garstin was a 
nephew of Colonel Garstin who built the Golghur at Patna. 
The Soubah Behar Mounted Rifles escorted the hearse to the 
burial ground in recognition of his gallant services during those 
troublous times. 

Sir Cecil Beadon during his visit announced his intention of 

giving a cup to be shot for. The cup 
sents the'cup."'"'^''" ^''^' ^^^ ^ ^^^X l^andsome one, having on the 

top an effigy of Colonel James Forlong, 
mounted in the full uniform of that day. The terms were that 
the cup must be won two years consecutively by the same 
trooper. The first year it was won by M. Lloyd, the second 

year by Augustus Elliott, the next 

by W. Llewhellin. The next two years 
M. Lloyd came in winner and the cup became his. This 
cup has been presented to the Regiment by Mr. Trevor Lloyd, 
Mr. M. Lloyd's brother. It is a very handsome piece of plate 
^nd is used to ornament the dinner table on festive occasions 



AND \AHN8 OF TTRHOlTr OF OLD. ;^13 

Since then many cups, purses, etc., have been presented for 
competition by successive Lieutenant-Governors, the different 
Maharajas of these districts and others, but I have no record 
of who competed or won these. 

The regiment was next inspected by Major Kaunts of the 
2nd Queen's Bays, but there is nc record 

Kinntr^'''" ^''^ ^^'^^''' '^^ ^^^ ^^^y ^^^ ^®^"^ ^^^ parade. In 
fact it was not for several years after 
that proper records were kept. About the time of Major 
Kaunts' inspection the regiment was just what might be called 
emerging out of its infancy. It had not so far had the benefit 
^)f an Adjutant, though Sergeant-Instructor Godby had just 
started bringing us out of our babyhood. In about 1886 the 
regiment was inspected by Lord Roberts. I can find no record 
of this or the number of men on parade, 

iinn'''l886.^'''^' ''''^'^'" ^"^ ^ remember how this grand old 
soldier enjoyed himself taking the men 

out for sham fights. He seemed in his element, and as active 

as the youngest. His staff were all very nice fellows and very 

musical. 

Our first Commandant, as I have already said, wa-s Colonel 

James Forlong who died on his way 

Colonel F. Colling- ^^^^ ^ England and was laid to rest in 
ridge. ® 

the Red Sea. After him came Colonel 

F. Collingridge, but there is no record of when he first became 

Oolonel. He retired several years ago, and is at present living 

at home. Then came W. J5. Hudson in 

VV. B. Hudson, 1884 .oai tt j a t-^ n • i^r 

J 884. He was made A.D C. m May 

1891 and K.C.I.E. in January 1893. This decoration was 

considered a great compliment to the regiment. Colonel John 

Hodding succeeded in 1890. The regi- 
1890^"^^ •^* Hcxlding, ^^^^ f^j, ^ i^jjg ^.^^ Yia^d no militaiy 

man as Adjutant. First Cornet M. J. 
Wilson acted as Adjutant, then Lieutenant A Urquharts, but 



«14 THE 80UHAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

iieithor of these gentlemen knew much moFe than what they 
ccmld \mrn out of the drill book and were therefore not of much> 

1180. 

Our ftfHt Adjutant appointed by Government was Captain 

E. Money, then Heranc, followed by 

Higginson, Vousden, V.C , and O'Maley 

HUtl Adyo. Then H. Stewart, a member of the Corps, acted 

after him. Next came Carandini, Edwards, Carruthers and 

tht»n our present Adjutant, Captain MacMuUen. There is no- 

reconl of when Money joined, but he was with the regiment 

when our present King, then the Prince of Wales, visited 

Hiinkipiir. Up t<» Carandini's time there is no record. He 

joiutnl in 1888. Baldwin, D.S.O., Disney and FitzHenry acted^ 

but there is no i*ecord of when Major Maxwell was also Adjutant. 

1 eaiuu>t find any trace of when Captain Edwards joined in 1891, 

Carruthers in 1897 juid MacMullen in 1902. There have been 

many Sergeant-Instructors — Sergeant 
Soivivant -Instructors, ^ ,, i.i. u i. n j 

Cuxiby was the first — all good mert 

under whom the ivgiment has l)ecome what it is. 

(leneral KinUK*h inspected us in 1892, when there were only 

ninetv-two men on parade : there are 
.\uuvial IiwiHvtioiis. 

no rectnxis of 1893 and 1894 In 1895 

Colonel Crawley insptH.»teil, when one hundred and fiftj'-four 

men wtnv pix^^jient Colonel Elliott was inspecting officer in 

I89ti and one hundivd and seN*enty-six men appeared oo 

|>amde. The Commander-in-Chief, Sir George White, and 

Cenei'al WAterlield iuspecteti the Corps in 1897, when one 

hundixnl and fi>rty-$oven men answered to their names. General 

Watortield again inspei*teii one hundred and fifty-seven men iii 

1898. I \ 1899 General Cliflonl >»-as inspecting officer, when one 

hundrtxl «i:Hl seventy-nine um^k turned out. General Mitchell 

ins}HVit\: i'.i 19iH> and one hundred awl seventy-nine mustered. 

He ap^in ins^HYtcil one huinlred and seventy-eiirht in 1901. 



AND YARN8 OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 315 

Colonel Clayton inspected in 1902 one hundred and seventy-one 
men, and in 1903 General Abbott one hundred and fifty-one. 
In 1904, our last inspection, there were one hundred and 
forty-one men inspected by General Spens. 

Towards the end of 1896 the uniform 
was changed to khaki and a helmet 
without plume. 

In 1886 an offer of one hundred men was made to Government 
for service in the Soudan to assist in the relief of General 
Gordon, but this was not accepted. In 1890 men who were not 
young enough to stand the knocking about with the Behar Light 
Horse on Government calling for reservists enrolled themselves 
as such. 

In 1803 Colonel Hodding (then Major) was called on by the 
Magistrate of Sewan to go to the assist- 
holptlice atlet:;:"" '^^-^ of the Police who were attacked 
by a mob who were bent on rescuing 
cattle that were being driven to Dinapur. Major Hodding on 
receiving this call immediately sent word to those volunteers 
who resided near him, some six troopers in all ; these were after- 
wards joined by six more, and the Police were relieved, the 
cattle rescued and escorted a part of the way to their destina- 
tion. For this act Major Hodding and his troopers received 
the thanks of the officiating Lieutenant-Governor and the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

A camp-of -exercise before inspection was started in 1895, and 
these camps have been continued yearly 
1895?"'^'''^'^''^''''''^' ever since. The following will give an 
idea of the kind of work done. An 
enemy is reported advancing from Gorakhpur via Chupra to- 
wards Mozufierpur and has pushed on the cavalry of its 
advanced guard. The southern force to seize the boats and 
other means of crossing the Gunduk River and hold them 



316 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

between Sohasi and Rewa until reinforced by the main body of 
the advance guard, etc. On the occasion the regiment had a 
very pleasing outing and covered a great deal of ground. In 
this year Mr. L. Macdonald, of Skaebost, Isle of Skye, one of 
the few I mention as being alive who 

L Macdonald p r o- j^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^£ ^^le Fort Pillbox garri- 

sents 100 saddles. ® 

son, presented the Behar Light Horse 
with one hundred saddles. This was a handsome gift and 
showed his appreciation of the usefulness of this regiment after 
his experiences of 1857. 

It was in 1883 that the Corps visited Calcutta for Proclama- 
tion Day. The Calcutta papers of this 
^^Z^::^Am. t-« ^P-l^ - high terms of their effi- 
ciency on the occasion. It was about 
this time the old denomination was changed for that of Behar 
Light Horse. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, now our King- 
Emperor Edward VII, visited Bankipur in 1876, where he was 
entertained by Sir R. Temple . On this 

Corps escorts Prince occasion the Behar Light Horse had the 
of Wales at Bankipur. ^ 

honor of escorting His Royal Highness 

from the railway station to Sir R. Temple's camp. After a 
levee^ at which all those who had done good work during the 
famine of 1873-74 were presented, His Royal Highness was 
escorted back to the railway station. The Prince was rather 
puzzled as to who the B.L.H. were, and asked if they were 
Yeomanry, and when told they were all gentlemen, — indigo 
planters, who had some of them come over one hundred miles to 
escort His Royal Highness, he expressed himself much pleased 
at their loyalty. 

In January, 1900, Lumsden's Horse for service in South 

Africa was formed. Colonel J. Hodding 

Lumsdeifs Horse, 1900. ^^^^^^ ^^^ command, but was refused 

** with very great reluctance as Colonel D. M. Lumsden of the 



AND YARNS OF TIKHOOT OF OLD. M7 

Assam Valley Light Horse had l)eeii entrusted with the 
formation and organisation of the proposed corps " But 
Colonel Hodding was asked tt) give his support and aid to 
Colonel Lumsden. On this, volunteers were called for Lumsden's 
Horse, and fifty-three men were duly enrolled. The B.L.H. 
became the left half of the '* A " Co., and were commanded 
by their own otiicers. They left Mozufferpur on the 6th June 
1900, and were given a hearty send-oiF after a successful enter- 
tainment at the Station Club the evening before. They spent 
a fortnight in camp at Calcutta. Lumsden's Horse sailed in 
two transports for the front, *' A " Co., going in the rjvdula. 
They were about a month at sea and landed on '24:th March. 
They w^ere detained a week at Maitland Camp and were then 
pushed on by train to Bloemfontein, where they were attached 
to Colonel Ross' regiment of mounted infantry, and were in 
the front rank of the division moving on the right of 
the rail. They took a share in hard work and heav}- fighting. 
Their actual baptism of fire occurred at 
^•^•^^•^^°J°"^^ Karee Siding, when they sufTered con- 

siderable loss. They gained a high 
reputation for steadiness and courage. Here Troopers Daubeny 
and Lumsden were killed, and Firth and Macgillvray captured ; 
Sergeant-Major C. M. Marsham, who commanded after 
Lieutenant Crane fell, was himself in turn severely wounded 
twice, but was carried out of fire. Sergeant Macnamara, on 
whom . now devolved the command though himself wounded, 
completed the retirement. Two men told off* to hold horses, 
L. Williams and R. MacDonald, were also captured in endea- 
vourhig to rescue wounded men ; out of twenty-five men there 
were no less than ten casualties. For a full account of this 
little set-to see "' The Great Boer War " by A. Conan Doyle, 
page 401. Captain J. B. Beresford wrote Colonel Hodding 
al)out the men from Behar — " They were the most cheerful 
and willing fello^ws I have ever had to serve with.'* 



318 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

In 1899-1900 the B.L.H., won for the third year the Inter- 
Volunteer Cliallenge Cup for Tent-pegging. 

In 1901 Sir John Woodbum presented medals to those who 
had won them in South Africa, when Captain Rutherford was 
decorated with the D.S.O., and Sergeant Percy Jones the P.C.M. 

In 1901-2, Hooley as the best man-at-arms won the Cup 
presented by Mr. Newcomen of Cawnpore. 

Colonel Hodding and Sergeant Percy Jones were selected 

to go home to England to represent the 
B.L.H. repi'esented at ^^. j. j. i.i. /^ 
the Coronation. regiment at the Coronation, and some 

twenty-four rank-and-file under command 

of Captain J. Rutherford were sent to Delhi to be present at 

the Great Durbar of 1908. Here Colonel Hodding was deco- 

Tated with the CLE. 

In 1896 Mr. F. Shaw got up a subscription among the pro 

,. . , , prietors of indigo factories at home to 

Maxim {^un purchased. '^ ^ 

purchase a Maxim gun. Mr. L. Mac- 
Donald, H. Hudson and many others subscribed and Lieute- 
nant G. Disney undertook the purchase and selection of the 
same, and in 1897, when General Sir George White, Comman- 
der-in-Chief, inspected the regiment, the Maxim was also 
inspected by him. That year Lieutenant Disney took out a 
detachment to a camp at Waini for practice. Captain Carini- 
thers in his R.O. says: **The amount and excellence of work 
done in the few days at their disposal and the excellent con- 
dition of the horses on their return after the long and trying 
marches reflect great credit on all concerned." 

The regiment is daily increasing in efficiency, and though 
from hard times the members of the corps find it as much as 
they can do to keep themselves going, they still meet the extra 
expense entailed by camps and parades as cheerfully as ever. 

I have written all that my memory and the records I have 
been furnished with will supply. If my epitomised history 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. '4Vd 

-does not follow dates seriatim I must ask my readers to consider 
I have jotted down these lines as they come to my memory. 

As I say above these do not pretend to be an official record, 
but a short story that may interest members of the Coi*ps 
present and past and show them the reason why the regiment 
of mounted volunteers was raised. 

Under the auspices of our present Lieutenant-Governor, Sir 
Andrew Fraser, who knows the value of such a body of men 
as the Behar Light Horse, and with better times which we all 
hope for, let us trust that the Regiment will continue to 
increase in numbers and flourish, and that we will always be 
■** Ready, aye Ready." 

Nestor, 



YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 



How TuLSi Ojah had his revenge ON BuDMASH Ojah. 

Well back in 1880 there lived in North Tirhoot a young 
native lady named Sunder, the sister of one Tulsi Ojah. Whether 
she was beautiful as her name would indicate or not no one 
could say, as she was what an old gentleman in this district 
used to call a *' Purda Machine" (his knowledge of Hindustani was 
limited) ! Beautiful or not she had the repute of having many 
charms in the shape of rupees and jewellery. So one Budmash 
Ojah made up his mind to place his heart at the feet of the fair 
one with an eye to the needful at the same time. Arrange- 
ments were duly come to between Tulsi Ojah and Budmash 
Ojah and all preliminaries settled for the marriage. 

From spite or jealousy a young native lady, a resident of the 
same village, gave out that Sunder was not the beauty she was 
reported to be, in fact her beauty consisted in her ugliness. 
This ill-natured report came to the ears of Budmash Ojah and 
he sent for the village barber, the great authority on matrimo- 
nial subjects, and asked him what he knew as to the reputed 
beautiful Sunder. Unfortunately for that young lady the* 
barber's family and hers had had a difference and the hajam 
saw an opportunity of paying off old scores, so he reported that 
Sunder was anything but beautiful, she had two goitres as big as 
pumpkins on her throat and was a little thick in her intellect. 
In fact, as he said, she was more like a she buffalo than a beautiful 
woman, and as to the cash charms, the barber had his doubts 
of that also. Budmash Ojah was terrified at this and made up 
his mind to break off all communications with the Tulsi family. 
There was, of course, great wrath in the family of Tulsi Ojahi 
when Budmash's determination was made known to themt 



322 THE 80UBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

especially when he heard that his sister was likened to a she 
buffalo. The lady Sunder beat her breast and fasted and swore 
vengeance against Bud mash and sixty generations after him. 
Tulsi Ojah said little but thought a good deal and bided his 
time for revenge. 

Things in the village seemed to have settled down. Sunder 
to pass her time away and rid herself of melancholy, took to 
spinning thread, which she sold, and thus earned a little pocket 
money. It so happened that one Hussiar Jolah came to her 
and purchased some of her thread and in course of business 
sold this cotton to Budmash for his family use. 

As the quantity purchased was not all ready it was arranged 
that it should be delivered by instalments. The wily Tulsi now 
saw his chance of serving out Budmash, and this was how he 
managed it. He sent for Hussiar Jolah and told him his 
grievance and, having promised a little tip, arranged as follows. 
Hussiar was to take the last instalment of thread to Budmash's 
house and then disappear. His wife was to feign great distress 
and seek her husband everywhere, throwing out hints of foul 
play on the part of Budmash Ojah. 

The first thing to be done was to call in the policeman, for it 
.was in the days when Darogajee ruled the land. That honest 
gentleman having been made acquainted with proceedings one of 
Hussiar's family went to him and put her troubles before him. 
Her dear brother Hussiar had taken a supply of cotton to 
Budmash Ojah's house on a certain date and had never been 
heard of since. " Have pity Darogajee, have pity Company 
Bahadoor ! ! and bring me back my brother." Darogajee at once 
^)rdered his steed to be saddled and a few chaprassis to accom- 
pany him (there were no constables in those days) and off he 
tset to tbe unsuspicious house of Budmash to search the premises. 
This they did from top to bottom but no signs of the missing 
one. The Daroga put on a look of baffled astonishment and 
was on the point of bringing his investigation to an end when a 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 62^ 

smothered voice was heard proceeding from a small hat where 
boomh or chaff was kept. Darogajee cocked his ears and made 
for the place and there found the lost one tied to a post looking 
tlie picture of misery and distress. His bonds having been cut, 
and after going through signs of great bodily pain and distress, 
put forth the following tale of woe. He had come to Budmash's 
house with cotton that had been bought through hiiu, delivered 
it and demanded payment. On this Bud mash and others set 
upon him, seized him and threw him down and then tied him 
to the post in the little hut, hiding him behind heaps of boomh. 
He did not know why this had been done, he was a poor man, 
the Daroga and Company Bahadoor were his father and mother, 
and if Budmash and Company were not punished how was he 
to live, he would have to run away from this country 1 
The Daroga, who was in the swim and had been well fee'd by 
Tulsi Ojah, put on his sternest look and ordered the wretched 
Budmash to be at once seized and bound with raw cowhide ropes 
and to be taken oif to the Thanna. The cries and shrieks of 
the liudmash family could be heard for miles as the unfortunate 
one was dragged away by the chaprassis. What became of the 
matter eventually I never heard, most likely the gay Budmash 
spent a few years in jail. 

Tulsi was, however, heard to remark tt) a friend with a 
twinkle in his eye, ** This will ' teach ' friend Budmash not to 
call a ' respectable * lady a * buffalo '." 

The Stoi^y of Dookit and 8ooKrr Buwiah. 
In about the year 1835 there lived in the town of M — in this 
district two Bunniahs, Dookit, the elder, and Sookit, the 
younger. They worked in partnership and seemetl very much 
attached to each other. However, one fine day, while settling 
their monthly accounts of profit and loss, Dookit and Sookit fell 
out oyer a cash balance of Rs. 2-4-9 and Dookit, losing his 
temper, called his younger brother names and threatened to box 



824 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

liis ears. Sookit being, when tackled, of an irate disposition, at 
once went to the Magistrate and complained that his brother 
Dookit had used language to him likely to cause a breach of the 
peace. In these days Law was not so much considered as speed}^ 
Justice, a thing much wanted in the present day, when petty 
thefts are so common. The Magistrate at once sent for Dookit 
and asked him what he meant by using unparliamentry language 
to his brother and so doing an act likely to cause a breach of the 
peace. Dookit was a man of independent spirit, so he raised his 
voice, speaking in a way that the Hazoor considered cheeky. 
The Magistrate therefore acted summarily and ordered Dookit 
to pay a fine of Rs. 50. The culprit, however, was not to be 
browbeaten thus and at once blurted out " Trotter (for this was 
the Magistrate's name) lay Ion O Dookit day Ion," which means 
Trotter has got it and Dookit has given it, or in short parlance,. 
" Don't you wish you may get it *? " On this the Magistrate 
arose in his wrath and ordered his chaprassi to administer 
twelve blows with a shoe on the tenderest part of Dookit's body 
if the fine was not at once paid. Sookit, on hearing this 
order, was at once moved to tears, his dear brother to be 
beaten with a shoe and disgraced ! " Bap re Bap ! Father oh 
Father ! ! What a disgrace to the family 1 " Dookit like a 
man held his ground and refused to pay and operations 
were about to be commenced when Sookit, with tears streaming 
down his face, plumped down the fifty rupees and the two 
brothers, after having disbursed certain tips to the nazir and 
chaprassi, marched home sadder if not wiser men, the crowd 
in Court exclaiming " Wah ! Wah ! " what splendid justice, 
while poor Sookit grieved over his fifty rupees and did not 
seem to be of the same opinion as the multitude. 

The Biter Bit. 

In years gone bye there lived in neighbouring villages two 
men. One, Zubberdust Sing, was the head cultivation servant 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 325 

or Jemadar of a flourishing indigo factory. The other, Neel 
Prosaud, the head native writer or moonshee at another equally 
prosperous concern. Somehow their interest clashed and there 
was great jealousy and rivalry between the Rajpoot and the 
Khaist. 

Neel Prosaud was determined to try and take Zubberdust 
Sing down a peg and kept his eye on him till the opportunity 
arose. Zubberdust Sing's daughter being about to be married 
he got leave to visit his home and started to have a few weeks 
with his family. Meanwhile Neel Prosaud — or, shall we call 
him Moonsheejee ? — arranged his plans to get his friend into 
trouble. As soon as he heard that the jemadar had left for his 
home he sent for a trusted servant and sent him off* with some 
brass pots and pans and told him to go quietly to the house 
the jemadar occupied at the Factory and bury these in the floor 
of his residence and to be careful no one saw this done. 
Zubberdust Sing meanwhile living happily with his wife and 
children, never dreamed of what was being done to entrap him. 
At last time was up and he had to return to his work, some 
forty miles away, so bidding his family adieu, he mounted and 
was at his Factory home by next morning. What was his 
astonishment and dismay to find the thana daroga was on the 
spot and that he was accused of having stolen several brass pots 
and pans and that he had buried them under the flooring of his 
house to conceal the theft. Poor Zubberdust was seized with 
dismay. He at once knew who was at the bottom of his 
trouble, the complainant being a man from near his (Zubber- 
dust's) village. What was he to do? Suddenly a thought 
struck him. An old master who he had served for many years 
was on his way home to England and was at a Factory 
near by and h© would go to him for advice. Mounting 
his horse off he galloped, just in time to catch him. He 
at once told him his troubles. *' That budzat Neel Prosaud 
has done for me. How am I to disprove this matter, the 



326 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLE8 

pots and pans have been found buried in my house and 

Jute Sing, the plaintiff, swears they are his own stolen front 

his house. How am I to get out of this trouble ? Do help me 

all you can." His old master, who was a shrewed Irishman, 

replied : " Why you old stupid, don't you remember buying 

these pots and pans from Goolam Sonar just before you went 

home on leave and how you for safety buried them under the 

floor of your house ? Many of the Factory servants must surely 

remember tliis circumstance." The light suddenly came inta 

jemadarjee's eyes. He smiled a smile, made a low bow, and 

rode off. It was a victory for him. He got back to hi& 

Factory, proved he had bought the brass utensils and buried 

them for safety. The village sonar deposed that he had sold 

them to him and the Factory chowkidar gave evidence that he 

had helped Zubberdust Sing to bury them before he went away 

on leave. The whole thing ended in a triumph for Zubberdust. 

He got a set of brass pots and pans for nothing. The plaintiff 

got jail for a false case and Neel Prosaud, who had to pay 

all the expenses of this little game, including the Darogajee. 

thought it would be better to leave Zubburdust Sing alone for 

the future. They are both dead now, but lived for many years 

after the occurrence and it was a picture to see them meet — the^ 

Khaist the picture of virtue and the Rajpoot with a knowing | 

smile of defiance on his face as they salaamed politely to each I 

other. 

How ONE TOOK POSSESSION OF A FACTORY IN BENGAL IN 1830 

OR THEREABOUTS. %j 

This yarn I heard from an old Bengal Planter very many 
years ago. I 

An Indigo Concern in Bengal had got into bad hands and 
therefore into debt. The agents in Calcutta were the large 
ereditors, so they sued and foreclosed, and after putting up the 
Concern for sale, bought it in. So far so good, but the thin^ 



AND YARNS OP TIRHOOT OP OLD. 327 

was to get possession. The Bengal Planter was looked upon 
by Calcutta merchants as one of a band of wild Rob Roys. 
However, the head of the purchasing firm dashed off a rollicking 
letter to an Indigo Planter who lived near the new purchase. 
" Dear So and So, — I have just bought the Bobbery Concern, 
please just go and take possession for me. Hope to be up 
shortly and have some shooting," etc. The Planter read the 
letter and remarked that old Greens of Carrots & Co. thinks 
taking possession of an Indigo Concern as easy as eating 
one's breakfast. However, as the firm had done him a good 
turn he wrote back "All right, will do what I can" He 
then wrote to his two assistants to come in and bring as 
many good " lathials " as they could get together and meet 
bim at the place where roads met on the way to Bobbery 
Factory. 

"Here's a lark," says Bob Jackson to Bill Smith. "The 
Boss is going to take possession for Carrots & Co. Tf Pretty 
J ohn only gets wind of this and a few tots of whisky into him 
there will be a jolly flare up and, perhaps, murder." " It will 
be a lark,' replied Bill Smith. They both ordered out their 
forces and started on the march. The two assistants armed 
with hog spears. They were not long before they met their 
Manager who stated plans of attack. It was to be a frontal 
one as a kind of feint to see if the attacked were on the alert. 
The Manager in command of the centre and each wing in that 
of an Assistant. All advancing carefully they were soon made 
aware that they were watched, for bang, bong went a right and 
left and two bullets flew over heads. " By jove," says the 
^oss, " I did not bargain for this. However, we can't well 
back out of it now." So calling up an old fighting native he 
held a council of war and it was arranged that. the main body 
were to advance slowly while he — ^^the fighting native— edged 
off to the flank to reconnoitre. After a short time the native 
eame back and said " As far as I can see there is only one man 



828 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

firing through the jhilmill door and he I beHeve to be well on 
in liquor. If you be ready to make a rush when I call we will 
get possesion at once." The native again disappeared, well to 
the right flank and sneaked along till he got to the wall of the 
house. There, crouching down, lie crawled along close to the 
wall and waited. The jhilmill window gently opened and out 
came the muzzle of a double-barrelled gun. The native with 
a shout to advance came down on the gun with his lathi or 
bludgeon, which knocked it out of the hands of the firer, and 
quick as lightning the native followed up. The man who was 
firing was very drunk, and on the blow falling on his gun he 
jumped back and fell, meanwhile the main body had made a rush 
to find Little John (who represented the attacked) on the floor. 
He began talking in a maudlin kind of way of one planter turning 
against another ; what a shame it was, and while he was doing 
this he was fumbling with his pocket, — all of a sudden the native 
gave him a smack over the fingers with his stick, which made 
liim drop a pistol, which he was trying to get cocked to fire at 
one of the assailants This was looked upon as treachery on 
the part of the defence So Master Little John was trussed up 
like a dead bullock (the poor man was nearly dead drunk) and 
carried off to another factory. 

By that day's post a letter was sent to Calcutta : *' To 
Greens, Messrs. Carrots <fe Co, Taken possession. Send up 
Manager Yours faithfully " 

The above was how Planters in Bengal took possession in the 
last century. 

A story is told of the same fighting native. One of a big 
firm of merchants came from Calcutta to have a little shooting. 
Ducks and snipe were the principal game to be had. His host, 
the Manager of the Factory, was busy, or did not care for 
shooting, so he called up his servant and told him to take hit 
friend round and show him where game was plentiful. Th« 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 829 

Calcutta man was no shot, though very keen. The first right 
and left into a flock of ducks proved unsuccessful. The native 
to encourage said ** Very near, very near indeed," but a^tev a 
succession of misses the native* having expended all his soft 
words of encouragement, exclaimed in Bengali as the ducks 
flew away "They have gone home to die." The sportsman 
merchant after this sarcastic speech thought he would go home 
too, and he did. 

How THE Griff saw a Total Eclipse and tried to Shoot 
THE Black Cat. 

The arrival of a GrifF from Home was looked forward to with 
gi*eat excitement by a certain few of the elder hands in this 
district, and if he was at all raw or one of the " know alls " or 
*^ sub junta type," he generally had a bad time of it. 

There came to this district over forty years ago a young man 
ivho had evidently never been far from the Sound of the 
Bowbells. We will call him Mr. Green, he was consigned to a 
man who took the greatest delight in what is called " selling," 
and on the very day of Greenes arrival a sell was all ready to 
be dished up. At dinner the subject of conversation was turned 
on to total eclipses, etc., and after a time all retited to bed. 
Not very long after Green had started a good sound sleep, 
his Manager appeared ready dressed, booted and spurred. 
He awoke the new arrival. " Do you always sleep so late as 
this, its past eleven in the morning and breakfast is on the 
table, but the total eclipse of the sun is on," Gieen got up 
feeling very exhausted, managed to swallow some breakfast 
and started the work he was put to. He wrote to friends in 
Calcutta to ask if they had noticed the total eclipse and was 
rather put out when he heard in reply that he had been made 
a fool of. Here is another trick played Green during his 
griflinage. He was walking in the garden with the Manager 
when a black cat ran across the path. Green at once seized a 



330 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLES 

a bit of brick to throw at the animal. " Stop ! for goodness 
sake stop ! ^* cried the Manager ** if you hurt that cat I do 
ncjt know what terrible thing might not happen to the Factory, 
for it is not a real cat but the ghost of Mr. Morgan who died 
here in some suspicious way many years ago ! Unless the cat 
can be killed outright, when a large reward will be given, any 
one who attempts to interfere or injure the animal always 
comes to grief or the Factory suffers." " What h'awful rot," 
replied the cockney ; ** I will shoot the brute any day." " If 
you do and care to take the consequences of failing I will be 
under great obligations to you," replied his Boss Shortly after 
til is they were just sitting down to dinner when one of the 
s^iTvants rushed in, looking very excited and crying out "The 
black cat is in one of the bathrooms." On this the Boss 
jumped up with a face of alarm and ►aid " I told you Green 
how it would be our only chance is to shoot it and who is to 
do it 1 " Green, though rather alarmed could not well go back 
on his words, at once said " I will," A gun was produced ready 
loaded and all advanced to the bathroom on tip toe. The 
Venetians opened quietly and there, sure enough, was the black 
cat sitting on the bathroom floor. "Now's your chance," 
whispered the Manager, and Green, with faltering hands, intro- 
duced the barrels of the gun between the jhilmills and, taking 
steady aim, fired. With an unearthly yell the black cat flew 
into the air and disappeared out of the bathroom door, which 
flew open at the some moment. " You've done it now," said 
the Boss in great alarm. Lights were called for and the placQ 
examined and where the cat had been the place was riddled 
with shot, but no dead cat. The Manager and Assistant 
retired to their dinner and had barely commenced when weird 
cries of Kalla hillee were heard all about the compound. " Now: 
you see the consequence," says the Manager ; the black cat 
is at his tricks biting everyone and that is certain death." 
Still Green had doubts and after a time went to hedj, Th^ 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 331 

whole night through cries of Kalla hillee in the same weird 
tones filled the air. Green rose in the morning, ordered his 
pony to go out for a ride and see if he could not find out what 
was up. To his despair the pony he had ridden every morning 
as if joining in the conspiracy refused to budge. " Get off at 
once," cried the Manager ; "he has been bewitched by the black 
cat and will do for you." So our Griff got off, very down in the 
mouth. Shortly after this he was loafing about the factory 
when he saw some men carrying a corpse to the Ganges and he 
thought he would inquire as to the cause of the man's death 
and in very unintelligent Hindustani inquired if the man had 
been bitten by the black cat. The reply was Ji han, a reply 
generally given by ignorant natives when a question is not 
understood, but the reply made Green's heart sink within him. 
He wrote to his friends in Calcutta to have him transferred to 
another factory. But with what result I do not remember. 
I need not say that Friend Green in time became one of the 
most finished practical jokers in Tirhoot and had his revenge 
on other Greenhorns that came after him from the Old Country 
for education in Indigo. 

These kinds of tricks have been dropped in the present day, 
with bad prices of Indigo men are not so light hearted as they 
used to be. I may explain how this sell was carried out. A 
black cat was caught and tied to the bathroom door and a man 
instructed to pull it suddenly open as the gun exploded, which 
he did, and the poor cat, who was tied by the neck to the door, 
flew out half strangled. As this took place men were instructed 
to give a yell in imitation of a cat in anger and distress. The 
door had been punctured with a fork to represent where the 
shot had struck, but the gun had been loaded with powder only. 
The amount of trouble taken to complete this joke was hardly 
worth it. This happened in the days of Long Ago when grown- 
up men were more childish in their amusements tjian they are 
nowadays. 



332 THE SOUBAH BEHAR MOUNTED RIFLE8 

The Fighting Fouzdhar Rout. How Hk Managed to Live. 
His Rise and Fall. 
There lived in days of yore to the north of this district a 
veiy pugnacious old gentleman called Fouzdhar Rout. He was 
a little square built old man. He had some five sons. They 
were tall, well built young men. They and their near 
relations were the terror of the zemindars of this district. 
These men were in a constant state of feud with the surround- 
ing villages and particularly with an Indigo Factory a few miles 
from their village. The Magistrate had his eye on these men, 
but they had no fear of jail. In fact, on one occasion the 
Magistrate had lost his way and found himself near this village 
rode up to a well, when one of the Rout family was drawing 
water and inquired the way to the Indigo Factory. No reply 
was given. ^* Don't you hear me, " cried the official very angry ; 
** reply at once, you pig." For reply Mr. Rout swung his lotah 
(brass pot) round his head and knocked the Hazoor of his horse 
— rather a rough way of answering a question. Of course after 
this one of the Rout Family had to spend several months in 
jail, but this was nothing new to them, they always left a set of 
brass pots and pans at the jail awaiting their return. The 
greatest punishment that could be meted out to old Fouzdhar 
Rout when he was under punishment was to be made to pull 
the magisterial punkah. Fouzdhar Rout loved not his neigh 
hour of the Indigo Concern. I remember meeting him on my 
way back from breakfasting with the Manager. I had to pass 
through the old Rout Village. Fouzdhar and I had somehow 
become pals. The old gentleman seeing me riding past 
advanced towards me with a net full of mangoes in his hand . 
** Where have you been, Saheb ?" he asked. '* I have been to 
see Mr. Snooks at the Factory." '*Oh, did he give you any- 
thing to eat, because if you are hungry I have brought you 
these mangoes," This was said in the most cynical and sar- 
castic tone. Mr. Snooks had the name of being an awful screw. 



^ 



AND YARNS OF TIRHOOT OF OLD. 338 

The way old Fouzdhar made a livelihood was, first of all, he 
made a point never to pay his rents. He was all on to follow 
the example of the Irishman who, when asked to pay rents, 
called to his son to bring out the blunderbus. Se condly, if a 
free fight was on between any villages he a nd his sons hired 
themselves out to both sides for the fray. Their proceedings 
on these occasions were peculiar They fight on and the two 
armies arrayed against each other. Then a general rush when 
Fouzdhar or one of his sons tapped one of their own side, — 
but not one of the family, — on the head, dropped him bleeding 
and senseless on the ground. The next move was to bolt like 
men. The darogajee appeared on the scene and many witnesses 
testified as to how the opposite party had attacked a peaceful 
few and nearly killed the poor man who lay stretched out on the 
ground, etc., etc. This was always the ending of any fight where 
Fouzdhar and his sons were employed, they were a terror, on 
both sides. The daroga of olden days found these fights too 
paying to put a stop to them, but eventually the Magistrate 
took steps to stop these disgraceful proceedings, and it was said 
that the minute he (the Magistrate) heard the name Fouzdhar 
he, without further inquiries, ordered the man to be run in, and 
a story is told of how an innocent Fouzdhar, who was accused 
of something very mild being ordered jail cried out : ** Iluzoor, I 
am not that Fouzdhar, I am quite another man." " Then 
the sooner you change your name the better," replied the Beak. 
The village where Fouzdhar Rout lived changed hands almost 
yearly ; proprietors could get no rent. At last by some mistake 
a shrewd old native bought the village ; no rent came in, and he 
had to pay Government revenue. This he did not like. How- 
ever, one day a happy thought came into his head. He would 
present the village and its revenue to the Government School. 
This was done and the gift accepted, and eventually a khilat 
was presented to the donor as a mark of appreciation of the 
Government. This was a bad day for Fouzdhar and his family^ 



334 THE SOUBAH BEHAH MOUNTED RIFLES. 

for the Government of Bengal ordered a Deputy Collector to 
attencl to the collection and settlement, etc. Fouzdhar Rout 
and his family were turned out from their house, lands atid the 
village. But alas ! for the neighbouring zemindar for they 
went and squatted there. However, the loss of house, home 
and repute was too much for Fouzdhar Rout, he became a 
broken down old man and a few years after died, his sons one 
by one following. There are not many now in this district who 
ever heard of Fouzdhar Rout and his fighting sons. The village 
he lived in still bears its old name, but the inhabitants are 
perfect lambs, w^ho pay their rents regularly. Sic transit y etc.